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Josuttis The best introduction to the subject. Kernighan, Dennis M. Ritchie Answers to exercises. C Traps and Pitfalls Andrew Koenig Written for intermediate and advanced C programmers, contains a detailed discussion of common C programming problems. Standard C: A Reference P.
Both authors were officers of the committee that drafted the ANSI standard. This book is ideal for new C programmers who have programmed in other languages. Roger Heinen, M. Donald MacLaren An old book, but a classic one on pragmatic efforts to write an optimizing compiler. Aho, Monica S. Lam, Ravi Sethi, Jeffrey D. Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing images. Image files are composed of either pixel or vector geometric data. So image formats are divided into three groups: raster formats, vector formats and metafile formats include both vector and bitmap components.
Raster formats store images as bitmap that is a data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color. A bitmap is technically characterized by the width and height of the image in pixels and by the number of bits per pixel. The greater the number of rows and columns is, the greater the image resolution is, and the larger the file is.
Also, each pixel of an image increases in size when its color depth increases — an 8-bit pixel 1 byte stores colors, a bit pixel 3 bytes stores 16 million colors, the latter is known as truecolor. Image compression uses algorithms to decrease the size of a file. There are two types of image file compression algorithms: lossless and lossy. Lossless compression algorithms reduce file size without losing image quality, though they are not compressed into a file with the same small size as a lossy compression file.
When image quality is valued above file size, lossless algorithms are typically chosen.
Lossy compression algorithms take advantage of the inherent limitations of the human eye and discard invisible information. Most of the commonly used raster image file and metafile formats are supported by AVS Photo Editor :. In a dithered image, colors not available in the palette are approximated by a diffusion of colored pixels from within the available palette. The human eye perceives the diffusion as a mixture of the colors within it.
The purpose is to save with minimum loss of information the data that are obtained from the sensor, and the conditions surrounding the capturing of the image the metadata. These files are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to be used with a bitmap graphics editor or printed.
If the image has a single active channel, the tables are converted to grayscale and the result is applied to the active channel. The first table is treated as a master. The remaining tables are applied to the image channels in turn second table is applied to first channel, third table is applied to second channel, etc.
Photoshop handles single active channels in a special fashion. When saving a map applied to a single channel, only one table is written to the file. Similarly, when reading a file for application to a single active channel, the master table is the one that will be used on that channel. This allows easy application of a single file to both composite and grayscale images. The inks are specified in the order cyan, magenta, yellow, magenta-yellow red , cyan-yellow green , cyan-magenta blue , cyan-magenta-yellow, followed by the white and black points.
Each set is written in the order xyY where:. Separation setup: see See Separation file format. Black generation spline curve detailed in See Black generation curve data structure. See also the Curves data format in See Curves file format. Each curve point is a pair of short integers where the first number is the output value vertical coordinate on the Black Generation dialog graph and the second is the input value. All coordinates have range 0 to A NULL curve no change to image data is represented by the following five-number, ten-byte sequence in a file:.
Color book files Photoshop 7. Use the Custom button on the Adobe color picker to access them. Book ID. Unicode string: title. Unicode string: prefix. Unicode string: postfix. Unicode string: description. Unicode string: name. Color Table files are accessed using the Colors palette load only. There is no version number written in the file. The file is or bytes long and contains RGB colors. The first color in the table is index zero. There are three bytes per color in the order red, green, blue. If the file is bytes long there are 4 additional bytes remaining.
Two bytes for the number of colors to use. Two bytes for the color index with the transparency color to use. If loaded into the Colors palette, the colors will be installed in the color swatch list as RGB colors. Color swatch files are loaded and saved in Photoshop's Color Swatches palette. These are typically stored in the Color Swatches sub-directory in the Presets directory. Each color is 10 bytes, as described in See Color structure.
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Unicode string: color name. The color space the color belongs to see See Color space IDs. Four short unsigned integers with the actual color data. If the color does not require four values, the extra values are undefined and should be written as zeros. See See Color space IDs. The first three values in the color data are red , green , and blue.
The first three values in the color data are hue , saturation , and brightness. The four values in the color data are cyan , magenta , yellow , and black. They are full unsigned bit values. The first three values in the color data are lightness , a chrominance , and b chrominance. Lightness is a bit value from Chrominance components are each bit values from Gray values are represented by chrominance components of 0. Photoshop allows the specification of custom colors, such as those colors that are defined in a set of custom inks provided by a printing ink manufacturer.
These colors can be stored in the Colors palette and streamed to and from load files. The details of a custom color's color data fields are not public and should be treated as a black box. See Custom color spaces gives the color space IDs currently defined by Photoshop for some custom color spaces. Contour settings files Photoshop 6. Unicode string: contour name.
Curves settings files are loaded in Photoshop's Curves dialog and Black Generation curve dialog from within Separation Setup Preferences. Curves files can also be loaded into any of Photoshop's transfer function dialogs, such as the Duotone Curve dialog from within Duotone Options, and Print transfer dialog. Curves are saved as. ATF and.
ACV files. When loaded into a transfer function dialog, only the first curve in a Curves file is used. Curve points. Each curve point is a pair of short integers where the first number is the output value vertical coordinate on the Curves dialog graph and the second is the input value.
See also See Null curves below. The first curve is a master curve that applies to all the composite channels RGB when in composite image mode. The remaining curves apply to the active channels in order: curve two applies to channel one, curve three applies to channel two, etc. The exception to the normal order, and the reason there are up to 19 curves, is when the mode is Indexed color.
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In this case:. The next three curves are created for the Red, Green, and Blue portions of the image's color table, and they are applied to the first channel. The remaining curves apply to any remaining alpha channel that is active: for instance, if channel two is active, curve five applies to it; if channel three is active, curve six applies to it, etc. When saving the curves applied to a single channel, the settings are stored into the master curve, at the beginning of the file. Similarly, when reading a curves file for application to a single active channel, the master curve is the one that will be used on that channel.
This allows easy application of a single file to both RGB and grayscale images. Kernel settings files are loaded and saved in Photoshop's Custom Filter dialog. The first 25 values are the custom weights from The values progress through horizontal offsets first, as follows:. Nine sets of three short integers specifying the xyY CIE values for the inks and their combinations. Duotone settings files are loaded and saved in the Duotone Options dialog.. Number of plates in duotone spec short integer. Four ink colors, regardless of the number of plates. The contents of the colors beyond the last plate specified by Count are undefined.
Each color is 10 bytes and described in See Duotone color structure. It is identical to the format in a Colors load file. Four ink names, regardless of the number of plates. Each name is streamed as a Pascal-style string with a length byte followed by the string name. Names may not be more than 63 characters.
Each name is padded to occupy 64 bytes, including the length byte. Four ink curves, regardless of the number of plates. Described in See Ink curves structure. Eleven overprint colorscolors, regardless of the number of plates. The number of defined overprints depends on Count. The contents of the colors beyond the last defined overprint are undefined.
If the color does not require four values to specify, the extra values are undefined and should be written as zeros. Transfer curve: Array of 13 short integers from All but the first and last value may be -1, representing no point on the curve. Any curves beyond the last plate should be equal to the NULL curve. A NULL transfer curve looks like this: 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, Short integer for compatibility.
Ignored by Photoshop 3. Four screen descriptions. See See Halftone screen parameter structure. For every screen that has a custom spot function, the PostScript function text is written here, one after the other, with no header information, in the same order as the screen settings.
The size of each custom spot is the absolute value of its negative shape code. Ink's screen frequency, in lines per inch. Binary fixed point value ;16 bits representing the integer and fractional parts from 1. Units for the screen frequency. Only affects display, not screen frequency. Angle for screen. Binary fixed point value with 16 bits representing the integer and fractional parts from Code representing the shape of the halftone dots.
Negative numbers represent custom shapes; the absolute value is the size in bytes of the custom spot function described in See Halftone screens file format. Hue is The user interface represents hue as These numbers appear in the user interface from For Lab, the first four of the six values are applied to image pixels in the four Lab color quadrants, yellow, green, blue, and magenta.
The values appear in the user interface from to Levels settings files are loaded and saved in the Levels dialog. Short integer from Applied to all image data. The first set of levels is the master set that applies to all of the composite channels RGB when in composite image mode. The remaining sets apply to the active channels individually; set two applies to channel one, the set three to channel two, etc. The next three sets are created for the Red, Green, and Blue portions of the image's color table, and they are applied to the first channel.
The remaining sets apply to any remaining alpha channels that are active: for instance, if channel two is active, set five applies to it; if channel three is active, set six applies to it, etc. When saving the levels applied to a single channel, the settings are stored into the master set, at the beginning of the file.
Similarly, when reading a levels file for application to a single active channel, the master levels are the ones that will be used on that channel. Count of total level record structures. Subtract the legacy number of level record structures, 29, to determine how many are remaining in the file for reading. Additianol level records according to count. See Level record structure. This format has been superseded by ICC profiles. Monitor settings files are accessed in Photoshop's Color Settings dialog, via the Edit menu load only.
White point. Two short integers as CIE chromaticity coordinates: x,y. Three sets of two integers giving x,y coordinates of the red, green, and blue phosphors. In the order red x , red y ; green x , green y ; blue x , blue y. Replace Color settings files are loaded and saved in the Color Range dialog available via the Select menu.
Short integer indicating what space the color components are in. No other values are supported. Component ranges. Six unsigned byte values representing the range of colors within which a pixel's color must fall to be considered selected for color replacement, or color range selecting. Described in See Component range structure. When used with Replace Color: Three short integers from Described in See Replace color transform settings. When used with Color Range: Writes zeros into the three short integers and ignores.
Selective Color settings files are loaded and saved in Photoshop's Selective Color dialog. Correction method.. Ten eight-byte plate correction records, described in See Plate correction structure. The first record is ignored by Photoshop and is reserved for future use. It should be set to all zeroes. The rest of the records apply to specific areas of colors or lightness values in the image, in the following order: reds, yellows, greens, cyans, blues, magentas, whites, neutrals, blacks. Separation Table files are accessed in the Separation Tables dialog load only.
Otherwise, the file has the format listed in See Separation table file format. The CMYK colors are written in interleaved order, one byte each ink. See See Generating Lab source colors below. The Lab colors are written in interleaved order, one byte per component. Gamut table, if present. See See Testing for bits in the gamut table below. A result of 1 indicates that the color is in gamut and 0 indicates that it is out of gamut. Transfer Function files can also be loaded into any of Photoshop's curves dialogs, such as the Curves color adjustment dialog.
Four transfer functions , described in See Transfer function structure.
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The file always contains four functions. When writing the printer transfer functions for grayscale images, for instance, Photoshop writes four copies of the single transfer function specified in the user interface.
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Array of 13 short integers from Audience This document is provided for 3rd parties to read and write the Photoshop native file format. Windows All data is stored in big endian byte order. Mac OS For cross-platform compatibility, all information needed by Photoshop is stored in the data fork. For interoperability with other Macintosh applications, however, some information is duplicated in resources stored in the resource fork of the file: For compatibility with image cataloging applications, the 'pnot' resource id 0 contains references to thumbnail, keywords, and caption information stored in other resources.
Photoshop File Format The Photoshop file format is divided into five major parts, as shown in the Photoshop file structure. Photoshop file structure. File Header Section The file header contains the basic properties of the image. Supported range is 1 to 30, Supported values are 1, 8, 16 and Color Mode Data Section The color mode data section is structured as follows: Color mode data section Length Description 4 The length of the following color data.
Variable The color data. Image Resources Section The third section of the file contains image resources. Image resources section Length Description 4 Length of image resource section. The length may be zero. Variable Image resources Image Resource Blocks. Variable Name: Pascal string, padded to make the size even a null name consists of two bytes of 0 4 Actual size of resource data that follows Variable The resource data, described in the sections on the individual resource types. Obsolete 0x03EB Obsolete--Photoshop 2.
One byte. Unicode string 0x Photoshop 6. Unicode string 0xC Photoshop 6. The following sections describe some of the resource formats in more detail. Grid and guides resource format Photoshop stores grid and guides information for an image in an image resource block. Guide resource block Length Description 4 Location of guide in document coordinates. Thumbnail resource format Adobe Photoshop version 5.
Thumbnail resource header Length Description 4 Format. Also supports kRawRGB 0. Used for consistency check. Color samplers resource format Adobe Photoshop version 5. Color Samplers resource block Length Description 4 Version of color samplers, 1 for version 3. Version 3 only. Path points All points used in defining a path are stored in eight bytes as a pair of bit components, vertical component first.
Path records The data in a path resource consists of one or more byte records. Path data record types Selector Description 0 Closed subpath length record 1 Closed subpath Bezier knot, linked 2 Closed subpath Bezier knot, unlinked 3 Open subpath length record 4 Open subpath Bezier knot, linked 5 Open subpath Bezier knot, unlinked 6 Path fill rule record 7 Clipboard record 8 Initial fill rule record The first byte path record contains a selector value of 6, path fill rule record. In Bezier knot records, the 24 bytes following the selector field contain three path points described above for: the control point for the Bezier segment preceding the knot, the anchor point for the knot, and the control point for the Bezier segment leaving the knot.
Slices resource format Adobe Photoshop 6. See Slices resource block in the next table. See comment above. The structure of the resource is as follows: Vocabulary: Relation - a set of related planes. Root Plane - the first plane in a relation. Basics: A planes area is represented as a clipped area of vanish rays. Point VP location - must be consistent across all planes in the relation unless it is an endpoint. Point true if the VP location is an endpoint ID that this ray points at.
Layer and Mask Information Section The fourth section of a Photoshop file contains information about layers and masks. When parsing this section pay close attention to the length of sections. Layer and mask information section Length Description 4 Length of the layer and mask information section. Variable Layer info see See Layer info for details.
Variable Global layer mask info see See Global layer mask info for details. Variable Photoshop 4. Layer info Length Description 4 Length of the layers info section, rounded up to a multiple of 2. Variable Information about each layer. Variable Channel image data. Variable Layer blending ranges: See See Layer blending ranges data. Variable Layer name: Pascal string, padded to a multiple of 4 bytes. Only present if bit 4 of Flags set above.
Otherwise the following is present 1 Real Flags. Same as Flags information above. Layer blending ranges data Length Name 4 Length of layer blending ranges data 4 Composite gray blend source. Variable Image data. Global layer mask info Length Description 4 Length of global layer mask info section. Variable Filler: zeros. Additional Layer Information There are several types of layer information that have been added in Photoshop 4. They have the following structure: Additional layer information Length Description 4 Signature: '8BIM' or '8B64' 4 Key: a 4-character code See individual sections 4 Length data below, rounded up to an even byte count.
Variable Data See individual sections The following sections describe the different types of data available, their keys and their format. Adjustment layer Photoshop 4. Effects Layer Photoshop 5. The data has the following format: Effects Layer info Length Description 2 Version: 0 2 Effects count: may be 6 for the 6 effects in Photoshop 5 and 6 or 7 for Photoshop 7. Effects layer, common state info Length Description 4 Size of next three items: 7 4 Version: 0 1 Visible: always true 2 Unused: always 0.
Effects layer, drop shadow and inner shadow info Length Description 4 Size of the remaining items: 41 or 51 depending on version 4 Version: 0 Photoshop 5. Effects layer, outer glow info Length Description 4 Size of the remaining items: 32 for Photoshop 5. Effects layer, inner glow info Length Description 4 Size of the remaining items: 33 for Photoshop 5.
Effects layer, bevel info Length Description 4 Size of the remaining items 58 for version 0, 78 for version 20 4 Version: 0 for Photoshop 5. Depth in pixels 4 Blur value in pixels. Effects layer, solid fill added in Photoshop 7. Key is 'tySh'. The next 5 fields are repeated for each item in line count. Object-based effects layer info Photoshop 6. Data is as follows: Patterns Length Description The following is repeated for each pattern.
Variable Actual data based on parameters and compression Annotations Photoshop 6. Either text or sound 4 Length of the next field Variable Actual data for this annotation. Data is as follows: Blend clipping elements Length Description 1 Blend clipped elements: boolean 3 Padding Blend interior elements Photoshop 6.
Data is as follows: Protected setting Length Description 4 Protection flags: bits 0 - 2 are used for Photoshop 6. Sheet color setting Photoshop 6. Channel blending restrictions setting Photoshop 6. Variable Paths. Key is 'TySh'. Foreign effect ID Photoshop 6. Layer name source setting Photoshop 6. Data is as follows: Layer version Length Description 4 A bit number representing the version of Photoshop needed to read and interpret the layer without data loss.
Transparency shapes layer Photoshop 7. Data is as follows: Transparency shapes layer Length Description 1 1: the transparency of the layer is used in determining the shape of the effects. Data is as follows: Layer mask as global mask Length Description 1 1: the layer mask is used in a final crossfade masking the layer and effects rather than being used to shape the layer and its effects. Data is as follows: Vector mask as global mask Length Description 1 Same as in See Layer mask as global mask , but applying the vector mask.
Unique ID. Variable Unicode string of the original file name 4 File Type 4 File Creator 8 Length of the data to follow 1 File open descriptor Variable Descriptor of open parameters. Only present when above is true. If the type is 'liFE' then a linked file Descriptor is next.
Variable Descriptor of linked file parameters. Variable Raw bytes of the file.
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