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The Renaissance: The 'Rebirth' of Science & Culture
Westfall Cambridge: CUP, Pera and W. Shea, eds. Pfizenmaier, "Was Isaac Newton an Arian? Popkin, ed. Brill, H Popkin and G. Weiner, eds. Principe and W. Newman, "Some problems with the historiography of alchemy", in Newman and Grafton, Secrets of Nature , The printing press was developed in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg in It allowed Bibles, secular books, printed music and more to be made in larger amounts and reach more people.
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Wilde said one of the most significant changes that occurred during the Renaissance was the "evolution of Renaissance humanism as a method of thinking … This new outlook underpinned so much of the world then and now. Wilde described Renaissance humanism as "attempts by man to master nature rather than develop religious piety.
Renaissance readers understood these classical texts as focusing on human decisions, actions and creations, rather than unquestioningly following the rules set forth by the Catholic Church as "God's plan. Renaissance humanism was an "ethical theory and practice that emphasized reason, scientific inquiry and human fulfillment in the natural world," said Abernethy.
Both classical and Renaissance art focused on human beauty and nature. People, even when in religious works, were depicted living life and showing emotion. Perspective and light and shadow techniques improved and paintings looked more three-dimensional and realistic. Patrons made it possible for successful Renaissance artists to work and develop new techniques. The Catholic Church commissioned most artwork during the Middle Ages, and while it continued to do so during the Renaissance, wealthy individuals also became important patrons, according to Cox.
The most famous patrons were the Medici family in Florence, who supported the arts for much of the 15 th and 16 th centuries. Florence was the initial epicenter of Renaissance art but by the end of the 15 th century, Rome had overtaken it. Pope Leo X a Medici ambitiously filled the city with religious buildings and art. This period, from the s to the s, is known as the High Renaissance. As with art, musical innovations in the Renaissance were partly made possible because patronage expanded beyond the Catholic Church. According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art , new technologies resulted in the invention of several new instruments, including the harpsichord and violin family.
The printing press meant that sheet music could be more widely disseminated.
Renaissance Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Renaissance music was characterized by its humanist traits. Composers read classical treatises on music and aimed to create music that would touch listeners emotionally. They began to incorporate lyrics more dramatically into compositions and considered music and poetry to be closely related, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Renaissance literature, too, was characterized by humanist themes and a return to classical ideals of tragedy and comedy, according to the Brooklyn College English Department. Shakespeare's works, especially "Hamlet," are good examples of this. Themes like human agency, life's non-religious meanings and the true nature of man are embraced, and Hamlet is an educated Renaissance man. The most prevalent societal change during the Renaissance was the fall of feudalism and the rise of a capitalist market economy, said Abernethy.
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