The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711

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It was made for a potentate to strike awe in the beholder. The Goths were not the first nor the most civilized inhabitants of Transylvania, but were aggressive and as much wedded to their own language and customs as the Romans to theirs. How much the Goths of Spain knew of their own past remains unknown. Their deeds were retailed by word of mouth in epic poems. Herodotus, writing c. Greek architects required the services of native labour, and introduced their crafts and arts, which were imitated by others who were not slaves to classical tradition but used their own eyes.

Greek and other merchants traded in luxuries, in clothes and in food, often needed since the barbarians were improvident husbandmen. Among the Romans, Ovid was exiled to Tomi, where he wrote a flood of doleful poems: he claims that he was obliged to learn Sarmatian and Gothic, which may be doubted. After the formation and abandonment of Roman Dacia, the Goths come into clearer focus. The Scythians disappeared or were absorbed, but their name was bestowed on the Roman province that straddled the lower Danube: in later parlance a Scythian may mean a Roman, a Greek or a Gothic intruder.

Sack of Rome by visigoths in 410

Constantine I subdued the nearer Goths, building a bridge, probably of wood, over the Danube. He engaged some Goths as federates, in which case their ruler received a subsidy in return for military service, the barbarians forming their own units and keeping their own customs. Those who enlisted in the Roman army renounced their own kings, took pay and arms and followed Roman orders. The Goths did not have coin of their own and were not merchants. The subsidies, whether in gold or in kind, passed back to Greek and other merchants. If payment was withheld, the barbarians might rebel or pass over to the Roman bank.

They might also be disciplined by limiting trade to two specified crossingplaces. Romans and merchants had the advantage of possessing barges or ships, employed for the movement of troops: most barbarians had only rafts or boats. They were sufficiently numerous to participate — on the losing side — in the struggle for the succession which followed. At the same period some Goths adopted Christianity in its form devised by Arius, who died in This variant was professed by the Emperor Valens. Ulfila was of mixed race; his father was a man of some standing with adherents.

He was consecrated by Eusebius of Nicomedia , later of Constantinople Arianism had been condemned at Nicaea in , but was condoned at Sirmium in , where Bishop Ulfila was present, and also at Antioch and Alexandria, the greatest commercial cities of the Eastern empire. He himself perhaps never returned to Gothia. It was, or became, usual to employ priests of confidence in negotiations between Romans and barbarians.

A letter describing his passion made him widely known. Ulfila came of a family of notables and may have approached the wife of a ruler. The Goths were governed by leaders known to the Romans as optimates or magnates, and to themselves as megisthanes, the Gothic oblique case of a corruption of Latin Magister militum , a general. There was no question of participation by their inferiors unless by shouting.

If the king or commander failed, he was at once replaced and killed. It was no place for a woman or for a youth unable to enforce his decisions. Their religion had probably been of protective idols charged with guarding their villages and crops. The case of Saba implies that their own priests were appointed by the optimates, who perhaps saw Christian priests as a threat to their authority.

From about the challenge to the Ostrogoths came from the Huns, mounted bands who descended on the villages, took what they wanted and burned them before riding off with their loot. This may not have been entirely new, but the Goths, who had absorbed other peasant peoples, could not dominate the bands of nomads. One of their kings,Hermanric,on being worsted, took his own life. Many Ostrogoths fled to the Visigoths, communicating their alarm. Ammianus says that there came a rumour that a barbarous multitude of unknown people had driven them from their homes by sudden force and was roving in confusion about the Danube.

At first, such reports were ignored since in those parts wars were often not heard of by those dwelling at some distance until they were over. But when the rumours were confirmed by delegates with prayers for the refugees to be received, the news caused more joy than fear: flatterers congratulated the emperor Valens on the windfall of recruits that would join his army and make it invincible: officials were sent with transport to ensure that no future destroyer of the Roman state or carrier of the fatal plague was left behind. Eunapius says more simply that the Huns overran the Scythians and Goths, who were in danger of being exterminated.

He then appears to confuse the term Gothic with Germanic, saying that there were many Gothic nations but the most important were the Goths, Vandals, Visigoths and Gepids. They were distinguishable only in name: all had pale bodies and light hair and were tall and handsome, and had the same religion, all were Arians and had one language called Gothic. In view of their long association with the Romans, it is surprising that no particularly Gothic words occur in Roman texts.

The single exception is in an anonymous poem called De conviviis barbaris. It says: Inter eils Gothicum scopia matzia ia drincan non sudet audet quisquam dignos educere versos. His brother Valens to whom he had given the Eastern Part had not proved a successful commander: Valentinian I made his capital at Treveris, Trier, in the Rhineland. Some of his commanders were Franks, who considered themselves truer Romans and resented his brutality.

When they adopted Christianity it was not in the Arian form, which struck no roots in the Gauls. The two Pannonian emperors were at best indifferent. Valentinian had legalized his succession by marrying Justina, the widow of Maxentius, who had been considered emperor for three years before being branded a usurper and removed.

She bore him his heir Gratian whom, in , he made Augustus in the presence of his army at Amiens without reference to the Roman senate. Gratian was then eight, and though educated in the Roman fashion by the poet Ausonius of Bordeaux did not please all the Gaulish commanders. Having calmed the Alamanni with a campaign beyond the Rhine, Valentinian prepared another expedition against the Quads, whose king, Gabinius, had been invited to a feast by the Roman commander and treacherously assassinated.

Bands of Quads and others then crossed the frontier and roved in the Pannonias.

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Valentinian marched in haste from Trier and met their delegates at Szony. On hearing them explain that the raiders were adventurers for whom they should not be held responsible, the emperor burst into a fit of ire so violent that he suffered a fatal stroke in the midst of his harangue. The reason for this is uncertain. The elder son Gratian was the successor in the West, and the Gaulish commanders may have had no wish to consult Valens, who was far away and had not proved capable: Zosimus says that he could not cope with public affairs and the administration of justice was taken out of his hands.

The Western leaders neither wanted to risk a break with the dynasty nor to perpetuate uncontrolled Pannonians. Gratian was now a promising young leader: perhaps his main defect was that he continued to favour Pannonians and, even worse, the mounted guard of heathen Alans, strangers in the western world. Early in Gratian led a large force from Trier against the Alamanni. His uncle Valens was faced with a major crisis. He had severely punished the Goths in Roman service who had opposed the Pannonian succession. On his first campaign, he had offered a reward for every Gothic head brought in, but had then granted land within the empire to the refugees who clamoured on the Gothic bank to be admitted.

They may have included some Huns or Alans, but were mainly Greutings or Ostrogoths bringing their families and possessions. When they began to maraud, the Visigoth Fritigern refused to march against them, at least without payment in advance for the campaign. The situation was then only a little clearer than it seems now. Others, led by King Athanaric, were disposed to resist, but, as his followers deserted or were depleted, he retired. Valens was at Antioch, a rich trading-city often called upon to finance campaigns against the Persians, traditional rivals of the Greeks.

He might have received a second approach, but his troops were already engaged. He left his baggage at Adrianople and marched out on the morning of April 9 , reaching the barbarian camp after mid-day. It was a ring of wagons, or laager. A sudden charge by Alan cavalry took his infantry by surprise. It did not recover, and he was killed, with 35 tribunes and other officers and a large part of his army.

Mounted messengers carried the news to Gratian on the upper Danube. The young co-emperor might have urged caution, but he had only light troops, which might not have sufficed, even if his uncle had waited for him. Triumphant bands scattered over Thrace. They could not reach Constantinople, which was defended by African horse. It was decided to call on the younger Theodosius, lately a respected governor of Moesia and enjoying his otium in Spain, where he had married Aelia Flacilla, the heiress to a land-owning family in Gallaecia, who presented him with his first son, Arcadius, in the same year.

He arrived at Sirmium in January , and Gratian provided him with two Frankish generals, Arbogastes and Bauto, and gave him on loan half of the border provinces of Pannonia and Illyricum. He arrived at the port of Thessalonica on June 17, and made it his headquarters from which he set about the task of restoring order.

It was a formidable undertaking, and to replenish the Eastern army he enlisted large numbers of Visigoths with promises of reward and promotion. This was nothing new but its large scale; hitherto all who dwelled on Roman soil became Romans and had been required to abjure their kingship and customs: if they became Christians, so much the better.

Theodosius was recognized as emperor and made consul for He entered Constantinople on November 28 , where he resumed negotiations with the Goths. Armed barbarians continued undisciplined and demanded food in the markets without paying: it was necessary to call troops from Egypt to impose order.

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More barbarians continued to cross the Danube. They were followed by King Athanaric, who opened negotiations but died outside Constantinople two weeks later. He was given an honourable funeral, and his opportune demise removed for the moment the difficulty of settling a barbarian king on imperial soil. Talks were resumed with Fritigern and others. The agreements were oral and fortified by oaths and pledges: details have not been preserved. If Theodosius was successful, it was at the cost of his tax-payers. Although he was emperor, he was not a member of the imperial family and junior to the youth Gratian, who had problems of a different sort in the Spains, where there was no Arianism, but a rift between Christian catholics, and a division between Christians and pagans.

His teaching appealed to many in the poorer region of Gallaecia. In the Eastern Part, voluntary poverty, celibacy and monastic communion would not have been questioned: the Desert Fathers had hundreds of hermitages and monasteries, but in the Roman Spains his evangelism alarmed the metropolitan bishop of Lusitania and others, who denounced him for heresy and magic. In October , a dozen bishops met at Saragossa, famous for its many martyrs, and condemned him. He appealed to Rome, but Bishop Damasus would not override a metropolitan and a council and denied him a hearing.

He and his admirers in Aquitania appealed to the Emperor Gratian, a sufficiently orthodox young man. But while Gratian was absent on campaign with his guard of Alans, Trier was seized by a usurper, a Spaniard named Magnus Maximus governing the Britains, where he was proclaimed and crossed the Channel to seize Trier. Gratian returned to find the city barred to him. He retired to Lyon, the capital of the large region known as Lugdunensis, where he was assassinated in October Magnus Maximus had perhaps counted on the favour of Theodosius, his fellow-Spaniard and as orthodox as himself, but Theodosius was far away and busy with other matters, and did not interfere until the murder of Gratian.

Thus it was Magnus Maximus who confirmed the death-sentence on Priscillian: he was executed with two clergy and three laymen. In as the boy reached adolescence, Magnus Maximus lost patience, was made consul for in Rome and prepared to enter Italy from the north. Justina fled to Thessalonica and besought Theodosius to defend her son.

Theodosius had been left a widower by the death of his Gallaecian wife; their second son named Honorius, was born in September Justina took the opportunity to marry him to her daughter Galla. In the East, Theodosius was in charge, but his barbarian recruits were too numerous to be rewarded equally.

His Eastern subjects distrusted Goths the more because of the burden imposed by paying them. The horde was commanded by the Goth Odotheus, not otherwise known. When Promotus, magister for Thrace, received a request or demand from a horde to cross, he arranged a trap so that when they tried to cross by night, the Roman ships were placed together and sank them and slaughtered many illegal immigrants. This was probably in October Promotus was given a training command and put under the orders of Stilicho. The surviving intruders were placed in Thrace and pardoned.

They then overran the province. In his negotiations, Theodosius came to rely on Stilicho, the son of a Vandal and a Roman lady, endowed with persuasive manners, a knowledge of the Germanic tongue and barbarian brashness. In he was entrusted with a mission to the Persian court. The old Sapor II was disinclined to risk further wars. On his death, his heir Sapor III sent an embassy to announce his reign.

At about the same time, Theodosius gave him in marriage Serena, his adopted daughter and child of his Spanish brother Honorius. Their son Eucherius was born in He did not aspire to be a Gothic king so much as general of the Roman army, recognized as the best of his time, and acted with all the independence that suited his ambition. His presence seems not to be noted before , when many of those who came with Odotheus were treated as defeated foes rather than federates. Opposition by the merchants to the burden of taxation was the probable cause of the Revolt of the Statues at Antioch in which the effigies of the emperors were torn down.

In Theodosius was again consul, and appointed Rufinus Master of the Offices and senior civilian prefect in the East. He was not on the best of terms with Promotus, the senior of the four or five magistri militum, who aspired to see the young Arcadius married to his daughter. Promotus died in battle in , and his command passed to Stilicho. Rufinus, made consul for , cherished similar ambitions, but became chief minister to Arcadius, who in the event married Aelia Eudoxia, daughter of the late Frankish general Bauto.

On the death of the dowager Justina, Arbogastes arrogated to himself the command of all the Western armies. When Valentinian attempted to show his authority by dismissing him, he ignored the order and sought a more suitable master, Eugenius. In the struggle that followed, Valentinian was killed at Lyon in May Arbogastes and Eugenius sent missions to Theodosius to explain the circumstances and seek recognition: they received no reply.

Theodosius then listened to the appeals of his wife Galla on behalf of her brother. He was now the sole heir to the Pannonian legacy, and when Galla had given birth to his youngest child named Galla Placidia, and died, he prepared to strike back. His elder son was already his successor in the East, and he made his younger son Honorius, Augustus in November at the age of nine, and entrusted him to the care of Stilicho and Serena.

Having disposed of the several commands, he left for Italy in the spring of Before leaving, he summoned the Goths to Constantinople for a feast. One faction led by the Scythian Fravitta was in favour of accepting his terms, while others led by Eriulf disagreed. When Fravitta killed Eriulf with his own hand, the imperial guard intervened to prevent the quarrel from spreading.

Stilicho was left in charge of the armies with instructions to bring Honorius to the West once Rome was secure. The usurpers were defeated on the River Frigidus, now Hubl or Wippach, on September , when Arbogastes killed himself and Eugenius was executed. Theodosius did not return to the East, but sent back his victorious Goths. Alaric was not chosen to lead the contingent that participated in the Italian campaign. Alaric found support from the Goths in Thrace and Macedonia. Some had been settled in Phrygia in Asia Minor and were depressed to the level of miners, peasants and tax-payers, and had some motive for discontent.

When Alaric again rebelled, he could not reach Constantinople, but made for Athens and occupied the port of Piraeus by which the city was supplied. Although the barbarians entered unwalled places for food and loot, at other cities they found it more expedient to demand what they wanted and leave them to recover. Alaric attempted to enter the Peloponnese, but withdrew to occupy places in Epirus on the Adriatic, where he was distant from Arcadius and Rufinus,but might either prevent a landing from Italy or pass there if the time were right. His purpose was to obtain pay for his men and recognition for himself.

Theodosius died in January His best-known action after his return to the West is his edict that Christianity should be the sole lawful religion of all his subjects. It was issued at the behest of Bishop Ambrose of Milan , himself a former prefect and civil administrator. Gratian had gone so far as to renounce the title of Pontifex Maximus, but his attempt to abolish the veneration of Victory by the senate soon failed.

Many old families were imbued with classical mythology as the central part of their education and regarded Christianity as a religion for the poor and ignorant. Zosimus, himself not a Christian, says that Theodosius addressed the senators, exhorting them to abandon the old gods, using the argument that the state could no longer afford the traditional rituals because of the needs of the army.

His panegyrics are sickeningly fulsome, but so contemporary as to form useful documents. They were composed to be recited before a pagan-educated court. In the first poem, Theodosius appears as a retired Mars reclining under a tree and crowned with flowers. Stilicho is not named.

When the emperor died, Claudian became the publicity manager for Serena and Stilicho. He hints at a secret interview in which Theodosius confided both Parts to Stilicho, though Ambrose says that no change was made in his dispositions. The Roman senate certainly regarded itself as senior to that of Byzantium, which rarely claimed parity with it. It suited Rufinus to have him at a distance, though he was not prepared to trust Gainas, whose ample reward was payable in the East for successes won in the West.

He arranged the marriage of Arcadius to Eudoxia in April , she then being an orphan. In November , Rufinus was assassinated by Gainas, not without the complicity of Stilicho. However, Arcadius then appointed his chamberlain Eusebius to be his chief minister. The soul of great-hearted Stilicho alone took arms against the monster of corruption. Rufinus had stirred up the Getae and the hideous Huns: he started wars which Stilicho won.

Stilicho claims both hemispheres and would brook no equal, etc, etc. But if Stilicho hoped that the death of Rufinus would settle things, he soon found that Eusebius was no improvement, and had the advantage of being appointed by the emperor Arcadius, who was now married. Olympiodorus says that Stilicho recommended that Alaric be made a Roman general to occupy Illyricum, still divided, with Jovinus as pretorian prefect there.

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  5. He adds that Alaric quitted Dalmatia and Pannonia and led his men to Epirus, where he waited a long time and returned to Italy having achieved nothing. Despite his absurd rhetoric, Claudian is unlikely to have distorted facts for recital before Honorius and Stilicho and an increasingly sceptical court. In denouncing Rufinus he makes the minister admit in terror to Arcadius that Stilicho governed both Parts. A diversion was caused in Africa. If Stilicho could not now openly defy Arcadius, there was still the fact that the East occupied Pannonia and part of Illyricum lent to the East by Gratian, and that Africa, on which Rome depended for food, belonged to the East.

    He undermined Gildo by inciting his brother to rebel. This succeeded in July , when the brother was invited to Rome and quietly disappeared. Eutropius could not count on Alaric and did not come out in support of Gildo. The result satisfied the senate, and Claudian left his poem De Bello Gildonico unfinished. Claudian sang the third and fourth consulships of Honorius in and , and also the marriage of Honorius to Maria, the elder daughter of Stilicho and Serena, at Milan in February The attempts to endow Stilicho with a military career are related to the fact that he came of an obscure Vandal father and needed to be justified to senatorial snobbery.

    The success over Gildo enabled him to seal his relationship with the imperial family and was certainly approved by Serena, mother-in-law of her son by adoption: her own son Eucherius thus entered the line of succession. In his Epithalamium for the wedding, Claudian makes the boybridegroom of fourteen the impassioned wooer and prays that her little sister, Thermantia, may make as good a match she did when Maria died and the boy Eucherius surpass even his father Stilicho. In Arcadius made his chamberlain consul and Stilicho refused to recognize the apotheosis of the monster. He now relied on Gainas, who was so well rewarded that Tribigild rebelled, backed by the poor Goths settled in Phrygia.

    Gainas was made magister to put down the rebels and demanded the sole command, with the cession of notables as hostages to secure himself. They were at last granted, but only after Eutropius had been killed in the autumn of , in time for Honorius to make Stilicho consul for The demand of Gainas for hostages was met but they were killed in July. Fravitta did not escape accusations of treachery for allowing Gainas to escape alive. I t was finally a Hun who killed Gainas and brought his head to Arcadius, who in April appointed Cesarius as his minister and awarded the military command to Fravitta.

    Here Olympiodorus breaks off and Zosimus is silent, leaving Alaric awaiting orders from Stilicho. In these years Alaric could not look to the East for recognition: he had once been pardoned by Stilicho, from whom alone he might expect to be paid. From Emona, later Laibach and now Ljubljana, in the disputed part of Illyricum, he might receive recruits from the north or from the east. In he was still unrewarded and entered Italy by way of Aquileia. He did battle with the Romans at Pollentia and Verona. Claudian probably composed his penultimate poem on the Gothic war in Amidst unimaginable privations, he heartened the fields of Vindelicia and Noricum and called in the legions from Britain and Italy and many Germans.

    Alaric, concealing his fear, addresses the long-haired, skin-clad elders, who warn him not to press his luck. He replies that the Goths have overrun many lands, now hold Illyricum and have only Rome left to take. He reaches Pollentia, not far from Aquileia, where Stilicho harangues his forces. He gives battle. When the Alan leader dies a glorious death in a wild charge, Stilicho throws in the Roman legions and faces Alaric with total ruin. The glory of Pollentia shall live forever. The graveyard of the Goths, it would teach presumptuous peoples never to scorn Rome.

    There is no description of any victory in the frozen north after the hazardous winter journey. Alaric was able to use the route opened by the Roman usurpers Magnus Maximus and Arbogastes, and the engagement took place on Italian soil. The last panegyric, for the sixth consulate of Honorius, was recited in Rome in the presence of the plump young emperor, who did not leave the shelter of the marshes of Ravenna between December and February The bubble was soon to burst, for in it was learnt that another Gothic leader, the Ostrogothic king Radagaesus, was assembling a vast horde of various races for an invasion of Italy.

    It took place in the spring of , when Stilicho gathered some thirty units from all quarters. His own band was defeated at Fiesole near Florence, where he was captured and executed in August Alaric had remained at Emona or at Viranum, now Klagenfurt in Austria. Any hope of reuniting the two Parts was abandoned, at least while Arcadius lived. His position had been strengthened since April 10 , when Eudoxia presented him with an heir, the future Theodosius II.

    They had kings of their own and were infantry, but were at least familiar with the mounted Alans, who served the Pannonian emperors. Their neighbours were now the Quads, a branch of the Sueves which had migrated under their own king towards western Pannonia, now Hungary, where they had brought the reign of Valentinian I to an apoplectic end.

    From this point, the Vandals begin their thrust westward, precipitated by the strain of the meagre resources of the region and lack of cultivation resulting from the invasion of Radagaesus. The poet Claudian ceases to be heard. Serena herself, perhaps as much as anyone, was inclined towards her imperial family and its future. The fact that Stilicho had withdrawn the Roman legions from the western Rhineland was no secret. With the approach of winter the Vandals moved westward, guided by Alans who knew the way through the territories of the Alamanni to the middle Rhine, where corn from the Britains was stored in fortified granaries near the frontier.

    There was heavy fighting and both Vandals and Alans lost leaders, some Alans deserting, before they crossed into the Gauls taking some Sueves with them. This is placed conventionally on the last day of , the River Rhine being frozen. They could not all have crossed in a day. There were bridges at Mainz and Cologne as well as barges and ships.

    The capital city was London, once the seat of the elder Theodosius, and the corn from the welltilled fields on the east side was exported to the mouth of the Rhine, held by well-disposed Salian Franks. There were usurpers, Marcus and Gratian, the second a civilian. He was no Napoleon risen from the ranks, but a mature officer with a son named Constans who had been a monk and a younger son, Julian. He had no difficulty in mustering an army, probably of at least four legions including some Franks serving in the Britains, or in organizing the crossing to Boulogne and in seizing Trier early in , when the two Vandal kings and the surviving Alans made for the south-west, having learned of the riches of Aquitania, even if they had not read the poems of Ausonius.

    There he was welcomed by Apollinaris, the leading Gallo-Roman landowner and senator, whom he made his pretorian prefect. Arles was destined to play some part in the history of the Goths. In Roman eyes Provence, the first extension beyond Italy, was scarcely part of the Gauls. Arles, favoured by Constantine I, was an important city at the gateway to the more Romanized Gallia togata, where Roman dress prevailed. To its west was Aquitania, divided into Aquitania I, with its capital at Bourges, and II, with its capital at Toulouse and its main trading centre and university at Bordeaux, near the mouth of the Garonne.

    The north was Belgica, or Germania, long-haired or crinita, also sub-divided. The Alans with their horses, moved faster and further than the Vandals, though their wagons carrying their dependants lagged behind. The rapid success of the British Christian divided opinion in Ravenna: the officials and generals from Trier and Arles fled to Ticinum, Pavia, on the Po, in something of a panic. He was assuredly a usurper, but no one else could now control the vast western prefecture. They were at once replaced by Gerontius, a Briton, and Edobich, a Frank, who obliged Sarus and his band of men to return across the Alps, losing his baggage on the way to bagaudae, rebellious peasants.

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    No heir could be born for some years, so that the prospects of their son Eucherius improved, giving cause for gossip that they intended to make him emperor. However, the prospect altered on May 1 , when Arcadius died and was succeeded by Theodosius II, aged seven, and placed in the charge of Eudoxia and the patrician Anthemius. Serena and Stilicho thought of intervening, but could do so only with the presence of Honorius. Anthemius sent Olympius, a Scythian Greek, to represent him at the court of Ravenna. For this purpose, it was thought expedient to have Honorius harangue the troops quartered at Pavia.

    The discredited officials from Gaul were there, together with the defeated Sarus. Stilicho remained at Bologna. Suddenly there was a revolt among the troops, who ran amok and killed the leading fugitives from the Gauls and many others. It was at first rumoured that Honorius was a captive, and Stilicho prepared to rescue him, but when it was learned that the emperor was alive and in the hands of generals who had shammed sickness in hospital, Stilicho sought refuge in a church in Ravenna.

    He was extracted under promise of his life and promptly executed by Heraclian on August Although Olympius emerged from Ravenna with the guard of Huns, he was unable to cut the Gothic line of communication between Alaric and the Ostrogothic king Ataulf. He reported a victory which was soon seen to be Claudianesque. As winter approached, Honorius was declared consul for the eighth time and Theodosius II for the third, for Zosimus gives this as the time when Constantine III sent a mission of priests or eunuchs to Ravenna to ask for recognition as co-emperor. This was granted.

    A unique inscription in Greek from Trier commemorates the daughter of a comes Addau who died during the dual hypatia of Honorius and Constantine in July Nothing more is known of her father, a Greek. Trier had only lately been sacked by the western barbarians, but the church in its aristocratic suburb was available, at least for funerals. Alaric had pushed his way to Rome and camped outside the city.

    His demands were for recognition, arrears of pay and victuals. The number and dates of his missions to Ravenna and of those of the beleaguered city are not clear. He was able to obtain recruits from Ataulf in the north, and his numbers were swollen by deserters and runaway slaves, whom he readily received. If they were recaptured, their lives were forfeit. They also required supplies.

    At Ravenna, Olympius was Master of the Offices and busied himself by dismissing those appointed by Stilicho. Jovius, the former prefect of Illyricum, was made chief minister in the belief that he would best know how to handle Alaric. He was given the title of patrician, to match the rank of Anthemius in the East. There seemed ample reason to recognize Constantine III as co-emperor. It became a centre for his army, doubtless to the relief of Apollinaris and the people of Arles, where he had the seat of his government.

    To the Spains he sent his son Constans as his Caesar to appoint officials in Tarraconensis, facilitated by Apollinaris and the close r elations between the landowners of southern Gaul and those beyond the Pyrenees. Constantine sent his general Gerontius with British or Frankish troops to oppose them. He had already disposed men to block the Alpine passes after the attempted invasion by Sarus. It appears that the British had little difficulty in coping with the improvised army and arrested and killed two of the Theodosians with their wives.

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    7. Two others escaped to Italy and Constantinople to tell their story. It is not clear when the western barbarians crossed the Pyrenees into the Spains, apparently taking the westernmost route through the land of the Vascones. They are said to have spent two years on the rampage in the Gauls, having overrun Aquitania II, this would give a date in The Aquitanians and Apollinaris were certainly glad to be rid of them. Constantine was still at the height of his power in Arles when he despatched a second mission to Ravenna. His representative was now his north Gaulish minister Jovinus, who optimistically offered to bring all the resources of the western prefecture, the Britains,Gauls and Spains, over to Honorius.

      Jovinus returned to make good his offer. He had befriended Allobich, the commander. If the Theodosians had already been executed, Jovinus took care to know nothing about it. Constantine himself then prepared a mission which he himself would lead. They fell out and Allobich killed Eusebius.

      The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711 The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711
      The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711 The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711
      The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711 The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711
      The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711 The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711
      The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711 The Twilight of the Goths: The Kingdom of Toledo, C. 560-711

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