The Plant Family Brassicaceae
Rhizofiltration because of their similarity to essential metals. Metals toxicity and tolerance in plants Vatamaniuk et al. The effects of heavy metals on plants are related to Some plants, called metallophytes, demonstrate physiological processes Sharma and Agarwal, These plants may have two influence of stressors, with growth rate inhibition important economic possibilities: phytomining-heavy often being the most obvious plant reaction Fodor, metal extraction; phytoremediation that is metal ; Hagemeyer, This is especially true of the accumulation from soil in plants.
Leaf chlorosis, are still unknown, but some genes, especially for disturbed water balance and reduced stomatal opening metal homeostasis, and stress genes were identified to are characteristic effects of toxic Ni concentrations be responsible Weber et al. To treat Clemens, , but they are also caused by many environmental problems, phytoremediation heavy metals and even occur more generally as a technologies can be used. The main advantage is that stress response. In the model for the action of heavy metals in plants. Moreover, components present at the locus of entry into the plant there is also the possibility for the recovery and reuse rhizosphere that subsequently have consequences for of valuable metals.
This is followed by an impact on the formation of reactive oxygen species ROS in the cell 1. Advantages and limitations of wall and an influence on the plasmalemma membrane phytoremediation system in stage I. At stage II, the metal ion reacts with all possible interaction partners within the cytoplasm, Phytoremediation, has been reported to be an including proteins, other macromolecules and effective, in situ, non-intrusive, low-cost, aesthetically metabolites. Stage III is mainly related to the factors pleasing, ecologically benign, socially accepted that influence homeostatic events, including water technology to remediate polluted soils Alkorta and uptake, transport and transpiration.
At this stage, Garbisu, ; Garbisu et al. As an example, and diversity of soil microorganisms to maintain the chlorophyll and, usually to a smaller degree, healthy ecosystems, which is consequently considered carotenoid contents decrease, which have obvious to be a more attractive alternative than methods that consequences for photosynthesis and plant growth are currently in use for dealing with heavy metal Barcelo and Poschenrieder, The death of the contamination Cunningham and Berti, ; Salt et plant cell occurs at stage V.
This model has the al. Phytoremediation takes advantage of the advantage that visible effects are linked to metabolic unique, selective and naturally occurring uptake events that are influenced by the metal ion of interest. Several is cadmium.
The most widespread and most accumulate large amounts of heavy metals hyper- profitable technique is phytoextraction, used mainly accumulation. These plants also have to satisfy other for removing heavy metals and radioactive elements criteria as: from the soil Pulford and Watson, Moreover, the 2- The bioaccumulation coefficient the ratio of the management of the plant matter obtained after concentration of a toxic substance in the tissues of an phytoremediation was troublesome Pulford and organism to its concentration in the living Watson, ; Nouairi et al.
There are many ways of improving greater than 1 McGrath and Zhao, To enhance 3- Metal concentrations in the shoots should be the accumulative potential of plants chelates can be higher than in the roots Jabeen et al. By contrast, plants ; Gardea-Torresdey et al. Table 1 shows the advantages and limitation of these metals, even from soils that are only moderately the technology.
The success of Table 1: Advantages and limitations of phytoremediation technology No. Advantages Limitations 1 Applicable to both inorganic and Not accessing elements below the root depth. Management of plant matter after phytoremediation. Plants Introduction of inappropriate or invasive plant species should be are a cheap and renewable resource, avoided non-native species may affect biodiversity. Brassicaceae mustard The family Brassicaceae Cruciferae known as a family consists of usually hermaphroditic herbs, mustard family. Brassicaceae together with additional sometimes shrubs, with simple lobbed or divided, 15 families classified under order-Brassicales.
Other spiral, exstipulate leaves.
Flowers are arranged in significant families are Capparaceae, which is inflorescence represented usually by a raceme. The fruit is a silique or Blaylock et al. Till date, Ebbs and Kochian, ; Haag-Kerwer et al. Certain crops like B. Shehbaz et al. Several species and types of ; Ge et al. Brassicas are significant oilseed crops, vegetables, Brassicaceae has a worldwide distribution. There forage crops, and are used in the production of are many species of economical value, for example condiments, such as mustard.
Brassica species are vegetable plants, plants used for obtaining of dyes, oil, widely used in the cuisine of many cultures and etc. There are also many plants having ornamental recognized as a valuable source of dietary fiber. The best known member of this family is Brassica vegetables contain little fat, and are sources Arabidopsis thaliana, plant noted as a model for of vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
They also contain a molecular biology. Brassicaceae contains high number large number of novel phytochemicals, some of which of species that are able of hyper-accumulation of protect against carcinogenesis Steinmetz and Potter, heavy metals, especially nickel Thlaspi and Alyssum , Hence, Brassicas are believed to be useful in cadmium and zinc Thlaspi caerulescens, Thlaspi the prevention of cancer. The oilseed Brassicas are are members of this family Rascio and Navari-Izzo, found within Brassica juncea, Brassica carinata, ; Marques et al.
Brassica campestris and Brassica napus collectively, and are commonly called The members of the family Brassicaceae are oilseed rape. When Brassica oils are low in aliphatic prominent for their ability in accumulating the heavy glucosinolates and erucic acid, the varieties are metals in an extremely high degree Broadley et al. Due to this fact, significant attention has been pleasant-sounding name. Canola, which is most often paid to the members of the Brassicaceae, which are B.
There are capacity to accumulate high quantities of heavy now also canola-quality B. It varieties. Canola oil is widely used in cooking since it was found that plants with higher growth rates from is very low in saturated fat, making it appealing to the family Brassicaceae in their ability to tolerate and health conscious consumers. Brassica nigra is mainly accumulate the metals, including Brassica juncea L. Kumar diversified group of crops grown worldwide that et al.
Despite the fact, that all of the examined belong mainly to the species Brassica oleracea, as crops from the Brassicaceae do accumulate the metals, well as B. This group includes B.
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However, all of the species of the family turnip. Brassicaceae show equal ability to accumulate and While most research in Brassica crops has been transport the heavy metals towards their stems Boye, performed on oilseed and vegetable biotypes, rapid- It was shown that B. These rapid cycling accumulating Liu et al. Other Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Se and has a very high desirable qualities are their high female fertility, rapid potential for phytoremediation of heavy metals seed maturation, and absence of seed dormancy.
Weedy B. Phyto extraction is the use of is considered one of the two most important weeds in plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated the world the other is wild rice that is closely related soils. The concept of using plants to clean up to and sexually compatible with prominent row crops contaminated environments is not new. About Holm et al. Therefore, there is considerable years ago, plants were proposed for use in the interest in better understanding its genetics and treatment of waste water. The idea of using interested in weed genomics to better understand the plants to extract metals from contaminated soil was molecular basis of weediness as a syndrome Basu et reintroduced and developed by Utsunamyia al.
Since plant cultivation and harvesting are Brassicas. Transformation in Brassica has been relatively inexpensive processes as compared to reviewed in detailed by researchers Earle et al. While information is soil manipulation. Phyto-extraction may provide an available on genetic transformation in Brassica, there attractive alternative for the clean up of heavy metal is no review on the other aspects of recent progress in contaminated soils.
The goal of heavy metal phyto- cellular and molecular biology of the genus. In this extraction is to reduce metal levels in the soil up to the review, we present pertinent research with an eye acceptable levels with in a reasonable time frame towards improving Brassica biotechnology. This Raskin et al. The process of phytoextraction microspore culture and doubled haploids, somatic cell generally requires the translocation of heavy metals to fusion, molecular markers for genetic fidelity of in the easily harvestable shoots.
A few plant species are vitro-grown plants, marker-assisted selection, and able to survive and reproduce on soils heavily transformation. The all the other aspects of transformation have been first group called pseudo metallophytes, which grow recently covered as indicated above. Role of Brassicaceae in phytoremediation grow only on metal- contaminated and naturally metal rich soil Baker, Depending on plant species, The continuous application of large amounts of metal tolerance may result from two basic strategies: fertilizers and other soil amendments to agricultural metal exclusion and metal accumulation Baker, ; land has raised concern regarding the possible Baker and Walker, The exclusion strategy, accumulation of elevated levels of their trace element comprising avoidance of metal uptake and restriction constituents and potential harm to the environment of metal transport to the shoots De Vos et al.
The Raven and Leoppert, Furthermore, increasing accumulation strategy caused high uptake of metal amounts of urban and industrial wastes Haines and and storage in vacuoles to prevent metal toxicity. The Pocock, ; Parry et al. Hyper-accumulators are significant quantities of heavy metals are being defined as higher plant species whose shoots contain disposed on the agricultural lands Raven and mg Cd Kg-1,mg Ni, Pb and Cu Kg-1 or Leoppert, Severe heavy metal contamination in 10,mg Zn and Mn Kg-1 dry weight when grown soil may cause a variety of problems, including the in metal-rich soils Baker and Brooks, ; Baker et reduction of yield and metal toxicity of plant, animals al.
Crops with both a high metal uptake and humans. The decontamination of these soils by capacity and a high biomass production are needed to engineering methods is high costing project Baker et extract metals from soils with in a reasonable time al. Over the couple of frame Ebbs and Kochian, According to decades there has been an increasing interest in Brooks et al. However, hyper-accumulators toxic substances. Quite a large biomass and the lack of are often described as slow growing and low biomass difficulties after harvesting are advantages described plants Dushenkov et al. In the case of Chinese ; Ebbs et al.
During testing capacity of phyoextraction of Zn, et al. The Pb concentrations of all weight basis of heavy metals Nanda-Kumar et al. The low bioaccumulation natural metal hyper-accumulators representing about of lead is due to its extreme insolubility and not 0. Unfortunately, most of these generally being available for plant uptake in the plants are characterized by slow growth and limited normal range of soil pH Gisbert et al.
The biomass production. Because of these limitations such high potential of plants from the family Brassicaceae plants cannot be used to remove certain heavy metals exhibit for bioaccumulation of heavy metals along from soil. In recent years, interest in McGrath and Zhao, Based on the review of natural methods of plant protection against various literature it can be stated that the most frequently cited pests has grown.
Metal tolerance in the Brassicaceae Brassica napus L. The greater interest in Brassicaceae derives from the fact that The 93 documented species of metal-hyper- research on these species started earlier, together with accumulating Brassicaceae provide substantial the interesting concentrations they provide, especially opportunity to study the physiological and genetic for Brassica juncea L.
Vamerali et al. Among the plants of the Brassica species, the accumulation as well as the ecological implications of Brassica juneca deserve special attention because its these mechanisms. Some of the most well-studied relevance to the process of phytoexctration of heavy genera of hyperaccumulators in this family include metals from soil was confirmed in many experiments. The dry wt. Because, N. This is due to the fact, that model taxa in the Brassicaceae-grows easily in the B.
However, mechanisms for metal uptake, transport, and Brassica juneca L. However, its small shortly after the plant becomes mature, which causes biomass limits its potential as a candidate for problems of disposal of obtained biomass. When these phytoremediation Bhargava et al. For this reason, both A. Despite the efforts of are commonly used to study the genetic basis for historians and researchers, the precise origin of this metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation Bevan and crop remains an enigma. Perhaps the most likely place Walsh, ; Cho et al.
Although not a Sauer, Indian mustard is capable of ; Warwick, Plants perform very well in Se tolerance and hyperaccumulation have been nutrient solution culture, progressing from the four- investigated in the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya leaf stage to fully grown plants up to 50 g shoot fresh pinnata by comparing it with its Se-tolerant congener, mass in as little as 21 days personal observations.
Additionally, the ecological leaf production Bhaskar and Vora, , biomass functions and implications of Se hyperaccumulation in accumulation is greater than under long-day Stanleya and other plants El Mehdawi and Pilon- conditions that is 9 to 10 hrs light optimal Neelam et Smits, and the potential for Se al. Long-day conditions promote early phytoremediation have also been investigated flowering Bhaskar and Vora, but are not Banuelos, These plants have indeterminate growth and continue to branch from the 2.
Metal tolerance in the Brassica nodes and to accumulate biomass after flower and siliquae seed pod development. The recommended Many hyper-accumulators belong to the Brassica fertility rate for maximum growth of B. Once it was suspected that known hyper- un-contaminated conditions is 75 to kg N ha-1 and accumulators were not suited for phytoextraction, 30 to 50 kg P2O5 per hectare Gurjar and Chauhan, researchers looked to other high biomass ; Thakral et al.
Kumar soil are supplied with kg N, kg P2O5, and 66 et al.
However, Cd concentration in the their ability to tolerate and accumulate metals, tissue was greatest when no N was supplied. Although all Brassicas accumulated Brassica juncea is an allotetraploid, a plant with a metal, B. In modern shoots. Kumar et al. Improving oil and meal hope of finding some that had more phytoextraction quality by eliminating nutritionally undesirable erucic potential than others Table 2.
Experiments that utilize these Desm. Only recently seeds from commercially available sources. Precision has there been an interest in selecting Indian mustard is also greater, because future researchers can obtain lines based on their ability to tolerate and accumulate the same accessions for their experiments. The heavy metals. Several accessions of B. The benefit of using B. Lasat et al.
Banuelos et al. Huang et al. Ebbs and Kochian, ; Kumar et al. Ebbs and Kochian, ; Herrero et al. Brassica rapa L. Ebbs and Kochian, 2. Role of chelators for accumulation of metals in represent potential risk because of their possible entry Brassica the food chain Table 3. The second approach is based on construction of There are different strategies for enhancement of transgenic plants. This method is based on an accumulation properties of members of the introducing of foreign genes, which are connected Brassicaceae.
The first approach consists in with uptake, transport and accumulation of heavy supplementation of soil by additives, compounds that metals. A yeast cadmium factor 1 YCF1 , a member are able to increase uptake of heavy metals. There are of the ATP-binding cassette ABC transporters, is many compounds, which were tested of possible localized at the vacuolar membrane in Saccharomyces chelators of heavy metals.
However, their usage has cerevisiae. YCF1 gene introduced to the transgenic many disadvantages including potential toxicity with Brassica juncea plants showed 1. On Bhuiyan et al. Hence, metabolic reactions Metal uptake by plants is regulated by the within the phloem have the potential to make the electrochemical potential gradient for each metal ion phloem sap more responsive to changes in the internal that exists across the plasma membrane of root cells plant environment than the xylem sap Welch, Welch, The effects of metals on the rate of The mode of phytoremediation, the effect of the movement and composition of the xylem and phloem metals on the plants, the ability of the plant to extract sap may impact on plant response to metal toxicity.
To evaluate nutrients within the plant. Within a plant the two the potential of plants for phytoextraction, the major transport mechanisms for metals are via the translocation factor TF is used. This ratio is an xylem and phloem. The bioconcentration factor created by the transpiration stream Kochian, ; BCF and translocation factor TF are represented Welch, Transport of metals within the phloem is thought to The Industrial revolution and anthropogenic activities occur via the positive hydrostatic pressure gradient are accountable for generating large amounts of non- developed from the loading of sucrose into the phloem biodegradable compounds.
These hazardous from mature actively photosynthesizing leaves and compounds cause public annoyance. These can be unloading of sucrose into the sink tissues such as separated into organic and inorganic compounds, in rapidly growing tissues, apical root zones and the case of inorganic compounds, heavy metals, such reproductive organs MacRobbie, ; Hocking, as lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, chromium and ; Welch, As in the xylem, the pH, redox radioactive elements, such as uranium are more usual.
In most of cases, the only way to restore the Phytochelatin modified electrode surface as a environment is removing the pollutants. Hence, sensitive heavy-metal ion biosensor. Sensors, previous methods used to remediate the environment — Robinia volatilization, verification, excavation, soil washing, pseudoacacia as a posssible biomonitor of soil incineration, chemical extraction, solidification, heavy metal pollution in Kayseri. Turk J. Although, these methods are effective in Botany, Phytoremediation of invasive, and are not suitable for large-area organic contaminants.
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Bioresour Technol, ; application. Important genus such as Alyssum, Arabidopsis, Brassica and Thlaspi from Brassicaceae which, besides acting as an attractive genetic model, well-represent the metal hyperaccumulation among approximately 0.
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