The Physics of Metrology


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A brief history of metrology: past, present, and future

Metrology solutions incorporate systems design concerns that cover the spectrum from development, realization, integration, manufacturing, installation, to support. To advance our metrology competence is another aspect of the work. This way we stay on top of what's required to assure the timely delivery of state of the art solutions for ASML's product roadmap.

Context of the position. ASML is a successful Dutch high-tech enterprise that produces complex lithography systems used by chip manufacturers in the production of integrated circuits. ASML is at the cutting edge of this technology and delivers systems to all the world's leading chip manufacturers. ASML's employees are among the most creative talents in the fields of physics, mathematics, chemistry, mechanical engineering and software. Every day they collaborate in close-knit multidisciplinary teams in which members listen to and learn from one another and exchange ideas. It is the ideal environment for professional development and personal growth.

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Understanding of new discoveries is sometimes difficult; daily ways of thought and habits can be hard to change. This resistance explains the upkeep of SI-compatible units angle degrees, litre, electron-volt, etc. This state of things will persist. In the same time, we currently accept the light year as a distance. This probably explains the rare cases of countries still resisting to the use of the metric system.

Even in these cases, the local standards institutions, such as IEEE, do so as to provide appropriate guidance documents [ 12 ]. This performance relies on the following factors: the range accessible to measurement; and. About accuracy, a present state of the art for the different physical quantities may be established as follows. Table 3 gives indicative values of currently attainable relative uncertainties indicative means outside the research domain on one side, and for current measurement ranges on the other.

Among these, time is the most precise. Performance of electrical quantities comes after, and is quite good; thermal quantities are somehow under, and lastly luminous quantities have rather limited accuracy, due to the fact that physiological aspects necessarily enter into the measurement process. Nonetheless, the need for accuracy is not the same for fundamental research, for industry, and for trade. Considering industry in general, it may be observed that provisions are progressively taken to anticipate and implement the new SI definitions [ 13 , 14 ].

Concerning, more precisely, electrical industries, it can be regularly observed, during accreditation assessments of test laboratories, that the designers of a product have used as little as possible of costly materials, such as copper. Hence, product characteristics sometimes very close to the limits permitted by international standards.

Conformity decisions, taken in such situations, may be difficult. Accurate measuring equipment can help in some way to raise the difficulty, but in any case if the measurement uncertainty is not taken into account, the decision remains doubtful. The Fluke A calibrator represents a good example of a modern equipment, providing extended capabilities and a good safety margin for calibration laboratories Fig. The domains covered by fundamental and applied physics extend every day.

So must do metrology [ 15 ]. Beyond its traditional goal to help specification and understanding of objective reality, metrology today also investigates the domain of human perception i. This is to be applied for instance to: psychometric measurement or perceived feeling colour, taste, odour, and touch ;. Also the European Commission has funded some research within the N.

Metrology at start has been developed to support human economic activities trade and exchanges. The level of metrological performance attained today largely exceeds the actual needs in this field; further progress is now more requested to facilitate scientific progress. A still higher accuracy level is necessary today for specific domains of science such as spatial, astrophysics, medical care, etc.

It is also encouraging to observe that metrology is one of the rare domains where an efficient and sincere cooperation takes place between the nations of the world Fig. Almost all nations acknowledge the metric system with the remaining exception of the USA ; and more than laboratories worldwide have signed the document quoted above, called CIPM-MRA agreement. Cite this article as : Jean-Pierre Fanton, A brief history of metrology: past, present, and future, Int.

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The Physics of Metrology by Alexius J. Hebra - PDF Drive

Table 1 The most important milestones of recent metrology history. Table 2 Impact of new definitions of the SI base units. Table 3 Best accuracies today attainable for main parameters.


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Source: Fluke. Source: Laura Rossi, Inrim. Pavese, C. Abderafi, Int. Mills et al.

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    The Physics of Metrology : All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks

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