From there a colonnaded street, already built by Septimius Severus, ran to the old city gate. About 1. No maritime defenses were put up since at the time there was no threat from the sea. Constantine envisaged a sharp increase in the population and made arrangements for grain supply from Egypt amounting to 80, rations—perhaps a target rather than the figure requisite at the time.
Indeed, the population did climb steeply in the 4th—5th C. It is difficult to determine when it reached its peak or to estimate a maximal population figure opinions have ranged between , and 1,, Clearly, so large a center of consumption could be maintained only thanks to a complex and potentially vulnerable system of provisioning dependent on Egypt.
The oft-repeated statement that Constantine willed his new residence to have from the start a purely Christian character is not substantiated by the evidence. The old pagan temples on the Acropolis and elsewhere were not disturbed and the Capitolium, which may be attributed to Constantine, had a clearly pagan character. Constantine probably built no more than three churches: St. Akakios near the Golden Horn and St. The Gothic invasion and the defeat of the emperor Valens at Adrianople served to underline the vulnerability of Constantinople and necessitated new defensive measures, esp.
It was probably to this end, and not because of a multiplication of exposed suburbs, that by the land walls were extended 1.
The wide belt of land that was added to the city appears to have been sparsely populated and much of it was taken up by cemeteries. Three enormous open-air cisterns were there—with a total capacity of approximately 1,, sq. Mokios ascribed to Anastasios I. Fairly effective for a time, it was abandoned in the 7th C. The emperors of the Theodosian line made a sustained effort to embellish Constantinople and provide it with further public works such as granaries and the great Theodosian harbor on the Propontis.
Simultaneously members of their family and government officials invested heavily in real estate, building for themselves mansions of princely magnificence. Multistory tenement houses clearly existed, for their height was limited by law to ft. VIII Constantinople was becoming overcrowded. The second half of the 5th C. Prokopios Buildings , bk. Sergios and Bakchos , and St.
Another large church built in the Justinianic period was St. Building activity at Constantinople continued until ca. In grain supply from Egypt was permanently discontinued. In Constantinople suffered its first siege, the cutting of its major source of water restored only in , and the devastation of both its European and Asiatic suburbs. In —78 Arab fleets blockaded it. In Anastasios II, foreseeing another Arab attack, expelled all inhabitants who were unable to lay up provisions for three years: only a shrunken population could have survived the Arab siege of — In a terrible earthquake threw down a considerable portion of the walls; the catastrophic plague of followed.
Practically no building, other than defensive, is recorded for the period ca. By the end of the period of Iconoclasm, Constantinople must have had a population of a few tens of thousands living amid the ruins of past glories. Only one public granary appears to have survived, and one harbor out of four continued to function for nonmilitary purposes.
The great public baths and theaters were abandoned. Limited construction was resumed under Irene; Theophilos repaired the sea walls; Basil I undertook a sustained effort of rebuilding mostly churches that had fallen into ruin 31 are named. Doubtless Constantinople started to recover in the 9th C.
The Book of the Eparch , while silent about many crafts, mentions the importation of commodities both from the provinces and foreign countries silk, linen, unguents, honey, wax, soap. The textile industry was active, but exports severely discouraged. Shops along the main street were beginning to charge high rents N. Probably the opening up of the Black Sea by the Kievan princes, for all the dangers it brought witness the attacks on Constantinople in , , and , benefited trade.
Even so, little was built in the 10th C. The 11th—12th C. Artisanal occupations became profitable, tradesmen exerted a growing influence on political affairs, and new crafts were developed e. Of greater importance was the installation of foreign trading colonies. In terms of construction a feature of the 11th—12th C.
Paul enlarged by Alexios I , the last so big that a tour of it required a whole day. The great fire of and the Latin occupation —61 destroyed the prosperity of the Komnenian city, which was subjected to systematic spoliation. The initial recovery under the Palaiologoi is mostly reflected in further imperial and aristocratic monasteries, some of which survive St.
By the middle of the 14th C. When it was stormed by the Turks in , Constantinople probably had a population of 50, The Oxford dictionary of Byzantium.
Category: Byzantine history and literature
New York: Oxford University Press, Byzantine Constantinople. Naz Baydar. Email Me. You may ask your questions via Askalibrarian to our Reference Team. Quick Links Libray Hours. How to Institutional Repository. Psellus helped shape Byzantine policy in the mid 11th century and was prominent in one of the major political factions, so he is definitely biased.
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It deals extensively with recruitment, numbers of soldiers available, the social framework the armed forces of the Empire operated within, etc, but also contains quite a bit about tactical organisation and tactics. This book is a series of descriptions of individual battles fought by the Byzantine army from Justinian to the Crusades. But some of the descriptions are very good and some of the battles are, as far as I know, not really described at all anywhere else.
It also contains very useful maps and photographs of the terrain of the battlefields and surrounding areas as they appear today. Not a military history, but rather a history of the political framework the army operated in. It does contain a bit of information about the forces available to the Empire in the Balkans and also detailed information on various less well known conflicts in the region. It emphasises the recruitment and organisational side of the army, rather than tactical practice, but there are very useful sections on that subject as well.
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Treadgold has a rather different view of the Byzantine army than Haldon does, though. The Byzantine Revival — Warren Treadgold Stanford University Press, ISBN An academic political history of the recovery of the Byzantine Empire from a state of near collapse to a much more secure position where it can even begin to think about expansion. Very good description of a neglected period with some useful information on the Thematic army. Later than the period of the lists I've compiled so far, but still very useful. Highly recommended for anyone interested in the post-4th Crusade Byzantine army.
The army was no longer a really major power but kept on fighting for years.
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However, it is starting to show its age and does not contain much in the way of detailed military information and devotes a lot of space to the various religious issues of the time. Warfare does occur quite frequently, but the main emphasis is on politics and the character of the Emperor and the people around him. The Days of the Warlords Paul A.
Blaum University Press of America, ISBN An interesting political study of a few years at the end of the 10th century when civil wars and rebellions caused some serious upheavals. Battles, rebellions, foreign wars and treachery are frequent. In fact, no one can trust anyone at all. Very interesting, even if the insights into politics and human nature are a bit depressing. Also good, even if not quite up to the stylistic standards of John Julius Norwich. It is more modern, however. The Varangian Road to Byzantium A. It is quite learned and based on Icelandic, Greek and Arabic sources. But it is outdated in some respects, originally written in the s and translated into English and updated a bit in the s.
Zdenko ZLATAR GOLDEN BYZANTIUM IMPERIAL POWER IN KOMNENIAN CONSTANTINOPLE ()
I does not concentrate on military matters, but do show topography, cities, major roads, etc. Especially useful since a lot of features have changed names since the Byzantine period. This is a good read and very informative on political issues, but short on military information. It does contain much useful input on Byzantine foreign policy. Very interesting, it contains more information on military matters than one would expect. It is a very academic book and primarily political, religious and historiagraphical, though.
This is not an academic book, but aimed at the general reader, so does not include extensive notes. A It covers political maneuvering, campaigns and battles reasonably well, but does not contain much informaion on the Byzantine, Persian or Islamic armies. But it is a good read and a painless introduction to the era of Heraclius, the last war against the Persians and the coming of Islam.
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A very interesting read. It is in contrast to Regan's book a very academic piece of work. Together with Kaegi's book on Heraclius, this is the best and most thorough examination of the period. Covers political and military maneuvers in as much detail as it is possible to do given the sources. Not the most accessible of books, but very good indeed. Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium Walter E. This is a very good book and covers the period of his reign in detail.
It does focus on Heraclius and not on his army not surprising in a biography but still contains quite a bit of military information. Of special interest is the emphasisi on the close relationship between diplomacy and intrigue and military operations in the field.
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