Academic journal article Music Theory Online. The music of Anton Bruckner, however, presents a special challenge to analysts in that he constantly revised his works-so much so that his scores arguably epitomize the notion of the artwork as an entity in flux.
Dermot Gault's The New Bruckner is a valuable addition to the analyst's library since it sheds new light on the Brucknerian process of composition and revision. After an overview of the book, I will turn to matters of particular relevance to Bruckner analysts raised by Gault's volume.
Among the most entrenched misconceptions is the notion that Bruckner's insecurities as a composer prompted him to constantly revise his works and naively follow the advice of friends and disciples regarding his revisions. Gault sets out to debunk these and other misconceptions in The New Bruckner. To be sure, scholars have been unveiling a more accurate image of the composer and his oeuvre for some time already, and Gault himself builds upon work from his dissertation, Anton Bruckner's Concept of the Symphony as Exemplified by his Revision of his Symphonies 3, 4 and 8 Queen's University of Belfast, The New Bruckner, however, is the first large-scale study to bring together and synthesize the available information about Bruckner's process of revision.
And, perhaps more importantly, Gault's book offers valuable analytical insights and fresh perspectives on the subject. But the rationale for this apparent redundancy soon becomes evident: because Bruckner's revisions represent steps in a gradual compositional process, the author addresses each version of each work in chronological order. Given the basic premises of the study, the importance of this strategy can hardly be overstated.
In contrast to the Symphonies nos. While a full analysis of the complex structures in this movement is impossible at this point, I would like to point out some peculiarities, as, for example, the sudden appearance of the sextuplet at letter N, or at P, where the recapitulation at the same time presents new thematic material. Bruckner then continues to bring the dynamic development to an extreme head at Q before the recapitulation of the second episode sets in at R, following one of the many structuring rests. If one were so inclined, one could claim that from W onwards, there is a development of a pre- or first coda before the actual and, for such an enormous movement, very short coda that is very typical of Bruckner begins at letter X after a general rest and brings the movement to a close.
The second movement, a funeral march in C minor, begins with a pizzicato passage in the higher strings while the first theme is presented by the cellos in legato from bar 3 onwards. It is obviously based on the horn theme of the first movement. Four bars before letter A, the horn is added in ppp, although it has only rhythmical functions at this point. As in the first versions of his previous symphonies, Bruckner adds a relatively fast tempo instruction to his second movement: Andante quasi Allegretto.
The final version dated then only says Andante, with metronome instructions of 66 for a crotchet. Another typical element for the first versions is that there is an Adagio part suddenly added on after the exposition at letter C that returns to the basic tempo after a general rest at D, where the second theme is introduced, played by the violas.
The new Bruckner : compositional development and the dynamics of revision /
Bruckner later repeats such a tempo bridge at letter H. The version again includes a large number of exactly prescribed changes of tempo. The second movement also adheres to the basic sonata form. It could be structured in a more precise A1-A2-B-C pattern, although one also seems to discern a rondo form.
It is precisely this original third movement that is often used in the argumentation against the ur-versions. On the one hand, this can easily be explained by the popularity the later version gained, but also by our laziness in listening habits.
Upon a first listening, this movement seems ragged, restless, seems strangely unbalanced and difficult to come to terms with. Once one starts to study the movement more closely, it is impossible not to be fascinated by it. In principle, the scherzo is designed according to the classical form of ABA.
The movement starts out with a horn call that is answered by an onrush from the orchestra which, however, quickly subsides again. The horn call resounds once more, again answered by the onrush from the part of the orchestra, this time much more extensive and making use of material referring back to the first movement see the second violins at letter R.
This A part of the scherzo has its own little coda from letter D of the third movement. The B part starting at E once again is heralded by the horn call. The first answer is even more abbreviated in comparison with the exposition while the second horn call is answered by the orchestra using new material that will later be re-used in the trio. This B part ends at bar 23 1, and is followed by a repetition of the A part. The irregular orchestra replies to the six horn calls which seem somewhat unbalanced upon first listening actually reveal themselves after closer listening as the source of fascination in this scherzo.
In the trio, we find another extreme examples of that typical Bruckner rhythm of The composer leads light pizzicato figures in the lower string section against open fourths and fifths in duplets, thus creating a complete counter line.
The new Bruckner : compositional development and the dynamics of revision / | IAML
The second theme of the trio is not really a theme, as the pizzicato figure is merely reversed and led against the legato line. The listener seems to encounter a new theme although no really new material is used. We would like to specifically mention one development a few bars before letter B in the trio where the melodic development in the violins is reduced to a semitone and finds a pianissimo reply at the minor third from the flutes and clarinets in bars 79 to 80, giving the movement its energetic low point.
The coda starts at letter C of the trio. For the first time, Bruckner lets the cellos and double-basses play the theme, with the horn subtly coming in at pp and ppp, a move that prepares the transition to the repetition of the scherzo.
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The position is pushed forward to new extremes, and the effect is magnified when, 14 bars before the end of the movement, the key rather suddenly reveals itself to be E major. The final movement underwent the most dramatic changes in the course of time, second only to the scherzo. All three versions use the same thematic material as their base: six themes which, however, are developed in very different ways in the different versions. Available in shop from just two hours, subject to availability. Your order is now being processed and we have sent a confirmation email to you at.
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