He also stated any tampering with the Acts of Union would be political madness. A similar unusual example is the Kingdom of the Netherlands. As of 10 October , the Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four countries: . Each is expressly designated as a land in Dutch law by the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Israel was founded as a Jewish state in Its " Basic Laws " describe it as both a Jewish and a democratic state.
According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , Israel also has very small communities of Armenians , Circassians , Assyrians , Samaritans. However, these communities are very small, and usually number only in the hundreds or thousands. Pakistan , even being an ethnically diverse country and officially a federation, is regarded as a nation state  due to its ideological basis on which it was given independence from British India as a separate nation rather than as part of a unified India.
Different ethnic groups in Pakistan are strongly bonded by their common Muslim identity, common cultural and social values, common historical heritage, a national lingua franca Urdu and joint political, strategic and economic interests. The most obvious deviation from the ideal of "one nation, one state" is the presence of minorities, especially ethnic minorities , which are clearly not members of the majority nation. An ethnic nationalist definition of a nation is necessarily exclusive: ethnic nations typically do not have open membership.
In most cases, there is a clear idea that surrounding nations are different, and that includes members of those nations who live on the "wrong side" of the border. Historical examples of groups who have been specifically singled out as outsiders are the Roma and Jews in Europe. Negative responses to minorities within the nation state have ranged from cultural assimilation enforced by the state, to expulsion , persecution, violence, and extermination. The assimilation policies are usually enforced by the state, but violence against minorities is not always state initiated: it can occur in the form of mob violence such as lynching or pogroms.
Nation states are responsible for some of the worst historical examples of violence against minorities not considered part of the nation. However, many nation states accept specific minorities as being part of the nation, and the term national minority is often used in this sense. The Sorbs in Germany are an example: for centuries they have lived in German-speaking states, surrounded by a much larger ethnic German population, and they have no other historical territory.
They are now generally considered to be part of the German nation and are accepted as such by the Federal Republic of Germany, which constitutionally guarantees their cultural rights. Of the thousands of ethnic and cultural minorities in nation states across the world, only a few have this level of acceptance and protection. Multiculturalism is an official policy in many states, establishing the ideal of peaceful existence among multiple ethnic, cultural, and linguistic groups.
Many nations have laws protecting minority rights. When national boundaries that do not match ethnic boundaries are drawn, such as in the Balkans and Central Asia , ethnic tension, massacres and even genocide , sometimes has occurred historically see Bosnian genocide and South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes.
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Ideally, the border of a nation state extends far enough to include all the members of the nation, and all of the national homeland. Again, in practice some of them always live on the 'wrong side' of the border. Part of the national homeland may be there too, and it may be governed by the 'wrong' nation.
The response to the non-inclusion of territory and population may take the form of irredentism : demands to annex unredeemed territory and incorporate it into the nation state. Irredentist claims are usually based on the fact that an identifiable part of the national group lives across the border. However, they can include claims to territory where no members of that nation live at present, because they lived there in the past, the national language is spoken in that region, the national culture has influenced it, geographical unity with the existing territory, or a wide variety of other reasons.
Past grievances are usually involved and can cause revanchism. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish irredentism from pan-nationalism , since both claim that all members of an ethnic and cultural nation belong in one specific state. Pan-nationalism is less likely to specify the nation ethnically. For instance, variants of Pan-Germanism have different ideas about what constituted Greater Germany , including the confusing term Grossdeutschland , which, in fact, implied the inclusion of huge Slavic minorities from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Typically, irredentist demands are at first made by members of non-state nationalist movements. When they are adopted by a state, they typically result in tensions, and actual attempts at annexation are always considered a casus belli , a cause for war. In many cases, such claims result in long-term hostile relations between neighbouring states. Irredentist movements typically circulate maps of the claimed national territory, the greater nation state.
That territory, which is often much larger than the existing state, plays a central role in their propaganda. Irredentism should not be confused with claims to overseas colonies, which are not generally considered part of the national homeland. It has been speculated by both proponents of globalization and various science fiction writers that the concept of a nation state may disappear with the ever-increasing interconnectedness of the world.
Another possibility is a societal collapse and move into communal anarchy or zero world government , in which nation states no longer exist. Globalization especially has helped to bring about the discussion about the disappearance of nation states, as global trade and the rise of the concepts of a ' global citizen ' and a common identity have helped to reduce differences and 'distances' between individual nation states, especially with regards to the internet. The theory of the clash of civilizations lies in direct contrast to cosmopolitan theories about an ever more-connected world that no longer requires nation states.
According to political scientist Samuel P. Huntington , people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post— Cold War world. The theory was originally formulated in a lecture  at the American Enterprise Institute , which was then developed in a Foreign Affairs article titled "The Clash of Civilizations? Huntington began his thinking by surveying the diverse theories about the nature of global politics in the post— Cold War period. Some theorists and writers argued that human rights , liberal democracy and capitalist free market economics had become the only remaining ideological alternative for nations in the post—Cold War world.
Huntington believed that while the age of ideology had ended, the world had reverted only to a normal state of affairs characterized by cultural conflict. In his thesis, he argued that the primary axis of conflict in the future will be along cultural and religious lines. As an extension, he posits that the concept of different civilizations , as the highest rank of cultural identity, will become increasingly useful in analyzing the potential for conflict.
In the Foreign Affairs article, Huntington writes:. Sandra Joireman suggests that Huntington may be characterised as a neo- primordialist , as, while he sees people as having strong ties to their ethnicity, he does not believe that these ties have always existed. Historians often look to the past to find the origins of a particular nation state. Indeed, they often put so much emphasis on the importance of the nation state in modern times, that they distort the history of earlier periods in order to emphasize the question of origins. Lansing and English argue that much of the medieval history of Europe was structured to follow the historical winners—especially the nation states that emerged around Paris and London.
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This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Northern Ireland.
3. The modern state system - Very Short Introductions
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The Nature And Development Of The Modern State
Search within Contents Front Matter List of illustrations and maps Acknowledgments 1. A very bordered world 2. Borders and territory in the ancient world 3. The modern state system 4. The practice of bordering 5. Border crossers and border crossings 6. Related Content 4. The practice of bordering Epilogue: A very bordered future 1. Borders and territory in the ancient world 5. Border crossers and border crossings. More from VSIs "The best hope of mankind? Show Summary Details List of illustrations and maps Acknowledgments 1.
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