Teton Indians — Social life and customs. Teachers — Great Plains — Biography. Frontier and pioneer life — Great Plains. Great Sioux Reservation n. Pine Ridge Indian Reservation s.
Sky Farm Home 1 2. Berkshire Farewells 15 3. Serving the Sioux 26 4. Love and Marriage 41 5. Your World or Mine? Back in New England 72 7. The Writing Game 86 8. Flower of the Forest 95 9. Stresses and Separation Henry Sterling Goodale, ca. Navy uniform, Irene Eastman by Granite Lake, ca.
Elaine, ca. The book was published in Apple-Blossoms was replete with such references, and, surprisingly, the poetry itself was quite good. A question that intrigued me then, and that eventually led to this biography, was that of how people who are outstandingly successful as children manage to live out the rest of their lives.
Elaine, for example, had published four books of verse three with sister Dora before she was eighteen years old. Whatever happened to Elaine? Later on I would learn that Elaine had indeed lived a long and productive life. Eastman Ohiyesa , and went on to rear six children. Before I learned any of this, however, Elaine was a mystery to me, and I began searching for information at my local library in Amherst, Massachusetts. These women, it seems, were considered Amherst authors. Where I have lived for most of my life? I rushed up to Special Collections and asked the ix preface nonplused curator to bring me anything they had about either Elaine or Dora Read Goodale from their time in Amherst.
I began a search for the stone house. The Belchertown line was three miles east of the center of Amherst, just beyond Harkness Road on Route 9. A little driving back and forth — and then — yes! I drove in and knocked on the door. A woman opened it, and I stumbled through some kind of explanation as to why I was there.
The woman was pleasant and said that she knew about Dora — and Elaine — and Charles — and Henry — and Robert — and Rose. Rose was responsible for the name Lodestone — which was intended to describe its magnetic attraction for family and friends over the years. Then Elaine, with her husband and six children, lived in Lodestone for about eight years, from to Rose had lived here in the s and was responsible for most of the landscaping and plantings around the house. A trunk full? Needless to say, this visit was followed by many more. The trunk proved to be a treasure trove. There were hundreds of letters, yes.
But there were also scrapbooks, journals, diaries, brochures, newspaper clippings, and photographs. Miriam was most kind and generous, permitting me to go through everything, take notes, and work at Lodestone whenever I wanted. For the next two to three years, I spent at least one morning a week at Lodestone. One of my aims was to organize these letters by author and date — or estimated date. The letters helped, though Elaine never dated her letters and Rose almost always threw the envelopes away. I quickly learned that Elaine had become an Indian reformer after leaving Sky Farm.
Charles had recently been appointed the government physician at the Pine Ridge Reservation. Charles and Elaine immediately fell in love, and they announced their engagement at Pine Ridge on Christmas Day The Wounded Knee massacre occurred shortly thereafter, and both Charles and Elaine were deeply involved in caring for survivors. However, they went through with the wedding in New York City in June Part of this opposition was certainly based on racial bias, but there was also some concern that Elaine was giving up the chance for an independent literary career.
Many issues surrounding this wedding were addressed in the letters Rose preserved, and I felt privileged — and grateful — to have access to them. Charles failed as a government physician in the Indian Service at both Pine Ridge and Crow xi preface Creek and in his one attempt to establish a private practice in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Finding gainful employment as an educated Native American was proving to be nearly impossible. Meanwhile, Elaine bore a child every other year. Something had to be done, and Elaine now took charge. Here, the children could be properly educated and Charles could concentrate on a new career — writing about his Indian reminiscences.
That career had actually already begun. Back in Saint Paul, Elaine had urged Charles to write down some of the stories that he had been telling his young daughter Dora. The Amherst years, and especially those spent at Lodestone, were clearly productive. There were college expenses for two of the daughters — Dora at Mount Holyoke and Virginia at Wellesley; Irene, who had a remarkable singing voice, was taking advanced voice lessons.
Fortunately, a good deal of information and insight into this period comes from two sets of letters that Rose preserved — the correspondence between herself and her two sons, James and Theo, who attended college in Amherst and remained in close contact with the Eastmans throughout their college careers. The Eastman marriage had been under tremendous stress almost from the outset. The Amherst years, while appearing successful, served only to exacerbate some of these problems.
Communication between Elaine and Charles was apparently impossible, and the marriage seemed largely a matter of perseverance. Irene was just at the threshold of a promising musical career, and her death devastated both parents. Neither could console the other, however, and the distance between them remained. The separation was abrupt — and permanent. Charles died and was buried in Detroit in Elaine died in Hadley, Massachusetts, in and was buried in nearby Florence, Massachusetts. Elaine remained embittered by this experience for the rest of her life. She essentially denied that Charles had ever existed, and removed all references to him from the materials that she donated to Smith College in But Elaine did not stop writing.
The last thirty years of her life, most of which were spent in the homes of her two married daughters in Northampton, Massachusetts, were quite productive. In addition, Elaine wrote numerous articles, letters, and book reviews that appeared in a variety of magazines and newspapers. She was interested in many of the issues that concerned post—World War I America, though she continued to concentrate on topics relating to Indians and Indian reform. It is very rare, I believe, to have such a body of letters, and I must acknowledge once again the remarkable opportunity that I was given and the women who made it possible.
Rose Sterling Goodale Dayton set the stage, of course, and her foresight and courage are hereby applauded. Miriam Johnson Dayton then displayed great generosity, along with admirable patience and gentle encouragement, without which this book could not have been written.
Miriam has also ensured that all the materials that Rose so carefully accumulated will now be widely accessible, as she has donated them to the Sophia Smith collection at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. This collection, known as the Eastman—Goodale—Dayton Papers, augments the extensive materials that Elaine herself left to the Sophia Smith Collection in Elaine Goodale Eastman has become, in my view, a more interesting person with the passage of time.
Her early and bold decision to marry a Native American has attracted renewed attention as interest in such interracial marriages has increased in recent years. At the same time, more attention is being focused on her writings, and particularly her mature poetry, as these seem to provide especially revealing glimpses into her own personal world. Beyond all this, however, she was an interesting woman who lived in interesting times.
This project, however, has taken the better part of seven years to complete, so I may not remember everyone who should be acknowledged. I begin, therefore, by extending my heartfelt thanks and humble apologies to those whose contributions may have been inadvertently overlooked. I have especially valued our lively e-mail exchanges on many matters of mutual interest. Marybeth Lorbiecki, whose publications include Painting the Dakota: Seth Eastman at Fort Snelling, has also been very helpful — and again, particularly through e-mail conversations.
I would also like to thank my children, David and Meryl, for their love and understanding; my grandchildren, Elliot and Lydia, for simply being; and my wife, Katherine, for her constant support and patience in the face of my seven-year obsession with another woman. Finally, I wish to express my gratitude to Miriam Dayton, the present owner and occupant of Lodestone in Amherst, Massachusetts, for her generosity, encouragement, and wisdom in all things. Here he hoped to make a living at potato farming, though this ambition was never fully realized.
However, the farm was home for Elaine until she was eighteen years old. While he was teaching at Nassau, his father decided to give him the seven-hundred-acre farm in Mount Washington that was to become Sky Farm. Henry was delighted, for he had always loved this beautiful property, and he quickly moved into its old, woodbine-covered farmhouse. Something or other must be done. What should I do, dear Carrie, since you had left me? I brushed my hair perfectly smooth one fair morning, stopped in the boat in Hudson and sailed thoughtfully down to New York.
Now where on earth should I look for a brilliant little lady who would love me always and go and live with me on the blue mountain? Well, while I was wondering and wandering about, looking into all the pretty bonnets on the streets, I suddenly found a face that pleased me very much.
It had a low forehead and black hair and thoughtful dark eyes and a red mouth quite like yours, Carrie. So all that evening I was real good to Dora in a quiet bashful way, and Dora was rather good and pleasant to me and half promised to ride up to Berkshire sometime and look about. Elaine was seemingly never that close to her mother.
As Elaine recalled: The ancient farmhouse, solidly built, sat as close to the ground as a bird to her nest. Water was all fetched in pails from an outdoor pump and wood from a shed close by. Great washings were done by hand and hung to dry in the open air. Butter was churned by hand and bread baked at least three times a week. Such were a few of the tasks confronting a dainty city girl. We slept, studied and played together. Together we wandered for long blissful hours over pasture and meadow, canvassed the secrets of beast, bird and tree, and came as near to sharing every thought and dream as two sisters can.
By the closeness of their years, however, Elaine and Dora maintained a childhood bond that essentially excluded these younger siblings. Grandma in her easy chair Smiling sits, the centre bright, Of the happy children there, Of the comfort and the light. Dodo, on the little stool, Bits of silk and cotton rends, While nearby, between the two, Jenny Goslin sits and mends.
There were, however, signs of discontent in the Goodale household, even at this early date. One line of evidence is found in the pages of the journal that Grandmother Lyon kept in Henry, especially, appears to have been a loving parent who tended to spoil his precocious daughters.
The bearer to be soundly — kissed. The girls were not permitted to attend the district school that was only a mile away; Dora, a former schoolteacher herself, devised a demanding schedule of home lessons that emphasized the standard and classical literature. The girls were also trained in Greek and Latin, and an artist friend of the family instructed them in sketching and botany.
It is not surprising that Elaine and Dora showed extraordinary early promise in writing, especially in writing poetry. Both parents were poetically inclined and, genetics aside, they provided the girls with many homespun examples of the craft. Mother also made certain that their daily readings included large doses of classical poetry.
However, it was probably the social isolation from other children of their own age that really forced the issue. Nicholas Magazine. Permission was granted, somewhat reluctantly, and the December issue of St. This has since become her most frequently anthologized work. Reaction to these poems was enthusiastic, and it was now readily apparent that these Goodale girls were truly exceptional children. This similar poem was copied rather widely and at some point the name of F. Bourdillon, a contemporary English poet, was appended to it.
To answer these questions, the parents sought advice from many of their friends and relatives, as well as from some of the most prominent luminaries of the day. Of particular interest is a long letter they received from Thomas Wentworth Higginson, the highly respected colonel, clergyman, and author, perhaps best remembered today for his association with Emily Dickinson. The letter begins: 6 sky farm home Dear Sir I have rarely been so much interested by any letter as by yours. There is time enough for that. The girls were eventually enrolled for two terms in a boarding school in New York City.
Despite the rather widespread opinion that early publication might harm 7 sky farm home the young poets in the long run, the decision was made to go ahead and publish a volume of their poems. Nicholas Magazine for the six poems published there in , and this was a fairly substantial amount of money at that time.
Total sales amounted to some ten thousand copies — a remarkable total for those days. The book was pages long and included sixty-two poems by Elaine, seventy-one poems by Dora, and three that were jointly authored. Yet many of these poems compel, even today. There is innocence, a childhood joy in the beauties of nature, careful craftsmanship, and enviable powers of observation.
The new poems in All Round the Year revealed some real growth in both of the young authors. Elaine, now seventeen, was approaching womanhood, and her poems give hints of the changes that she was experiencing. Nay, the human passion enters, — Fateful thought for good or ill! Dora had not yet developed physically as far as Elaine had, but her already remarkable poetic gifts had developed further. In the Journal, Elaine describes the day-to-day activities at Sky Farm — beekeeping, berrying, haymaking, potato digging, and the like — in beautiful, if sometimes stilted, prose and poetry.
It is essentially a loving portrayal of New England farm life in the late s; occasionally, by reading between the lines, one sees hints of the problems, especially the poverty, that would eventually dissolve the Sky Farm home. The second factor was the puritanical home atmosphere at Sky Farm, with its unrelenting emphasis on the importance of duty and service and the exclusion of playmates and pleasure.
As far as the failed marriage is concerned, the seeds were planted early. I was in my 13th year when they separated. What Dora Goodale especially resented was the fact that the duties imposed by her primitive setting interfered with the pursuit of her writing. She had had some success in placing poems in local newspapers; after the separation, she was able to support herself through her writing for some thirty years. Both Elaine and Rose were highly critical of their mother over the marital separation itself. Thomas Wentworth Higginson commented critically on this restrictive environment as early as This was, however, only one of many mixed messages that Elaine received.
This question haunted Elaine throughout her life and was the theme of her last and most ambitious novel, Hundred Maples Because of this, Elaine missed the experience of school-day chums — exchanging ideas, competing, 13 sky farm home taunting, playing games, telling lies — in short, educating each other. The actual breakup of the Sky Farm home began when Henry Goodale left in But, as it turns out, Henry proved to be quite successful in his new position as a hotel manager and certainly must have enjoyed some aspects of his newfound freedom.
She was also career-oriented, and often a writer or artist — exactly the kind of woman who would appeal to Henry Goodale — and he reveled in his managerial role. Here, Henry fully indulged his love of nature. Elaine was the next one to leave Sky Farm. On the other hand, it may be that Elaine was not terribly enthusiastic about going to college. We do know that she thoroughly disliked her one boarding-school experience, and perhaps a paying job was more attractive to her than further schooling at this point. She was, after all, a very successful author — without any college education — and she may have felt that she could easily continue to write without formal training.
At any rate, her lack of further schooling undoubtedly limited her personal and literary horizons and hampered her progress from time to time. In Elaine felt that only two options were available to her: tutoring small children in a private family or accepting a teaching position at the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Hampton, Virginia. She chose the latter. Samuel Chapman Armstrong, who had risen to command the Ninth U.
Colored Troops Regiment in the Civil War. Even Mother succumbed. A delightful gaiety is my most general recollection. But geniality, wit, humanity, all these showed in his speech, and when he came in it was always as if a wind of strength and healing blew. At intervals he would call for the pans, and all would solemnly beat their pans, producing dreadful discords; at last some one would burst out laughing and a general laugh would ensue, which is what he made the performance for. Skillful agriculturists and mechanics are needed rather than poets and orators. Today we would describe Armstrong as well-intentioned but hopelessly naive.
He undoubtedly felt that he was helping the people that his own people had wronged, but his unquestioned assumptions of racial and religious superiority are now rejected out of hand. Listening to Armstrong at Sky Farm, Elaine, however, was untroubled by the concerns that we have voiced. She had been brought up with similar notions of superiority, and in a devoutly Christian home. Armstrong was undoubtedly caught up in the recent introduction of Indians at Hampton at this time. Just a few months earlier April , Gen. Richard Henry Pratt, who had been in charge of seventy-two Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne, and Arapaho prisoners of war being interred at Fort Marion, Florida, brought seventeen of them to Hampton and started a new Indian department there.
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Pratt had experimented with an education program similar to the one at Hampton for his prisoners in Florida, and some of them decided to go on to Hampton to continue that education. But she is, after all, human — and rewriting personal history is a seemingly universal human characteristic. How could I live, and know thee not? Each glance from thee, so worth the winning, Blots out the past! He was presumably aware of her infatuation but, to his credit, did not take advantage of the situation. He did eventually remarry, in ; his second wife, Mary Alice Ford, who had also been a teacher at Hampton, was two years younger than Elaine.
One can only wonder what Elaine thought of this woman and of the marriage. Did she ever have any regrets? As with the question of going on to college, Elaine probably played a more decisive role in the ultimate decision than she seems willing to admit. Sister Dora, meantime, was writing poems and natural-history articles for local newspapers and magazines and had begun to experiment with painting, especially watercolors. Mother Dora was also writing, mainly poems, and mostly for the local newspapers. A year later Rose also entered Smith.
Sometime during these Northampton years Dora also got engaged. I must not kill myself because it would make life harder for others — for Rose, Elaine, and Robert, who are struggling now under heavy burdens. Henry acquired this property, located three miles east of the center of Amherst out toward the Pelham Hills, with his retirement in mind. In fall the Northampton Goodales moved into the Amherst cottage. Rose, who had been married in Northampton that fall, was moving into her new home in Redding, Connecticut.
Henry, though he owned the cottage, remained in New York. I have lost everything, dear Rose — every stitch of clothing except what I have on, all my 23 berkshire farewells letters, my dearest possession — my camera — in fact everything. Besides that loss, the mother and daughter, both constantly engaged in literary work, lost nearly all their manuscripts and literary materials, as well as their books and personal belongings of every kind.
The younger Dora then stayed on there until , when she moved to Tennessee, where she would remain for the rest of her life. Back in Amherst, Robert Goodale, with some help from his father, set about building a new stone house on the site of the burned-out cottage. This ambitious undertaking required nearly six years to complete, and the result was a remarkable structure, built entirely of native stones and local timber.
A sense of history pervades the home, for here is where Henry Goodale retired, and where he died in Elaine, Charles, and their six children lived here for nine busy years — Rose also spent many of her latter years here, and her important collection of family mementos eventually found its way to the attic. Years later, I too found my way to this attic. Ultimately, it would preclude any possibility of pursuing an independent literary career.
As we shall see, this would prove to be characteristic. Her decision to marry Charles, and many of the choices she makes as a wife, mother, and grandmother, reveal a similar pattern. The maid is gone, the house chilly, the children cranky, and my own work interrupted — but at least I am useful. But how close that can come to being resigned, resentful, or even martyred. Now, when Elaine was leaving home, her mother showed little enthusiasm for the work she was about to begin. This response, however, would never be totally satisfactory. There was no winning at this game. There could no longer be any question about who was making the decisions.
Elaine had become a woman. Met Elaine Goodale, a very sweet and attractive face; serious, self-conscious, genuine. Expect great things from that girl. Toward that end, most reformers advocated some means of breaking up tribal allegiances among the Indians. The most extreme method 26 serving the sioux involved removing the young from the reservations and placing them in distant boarding schools like Hampton and, later, Carlisle to prepare them for entry into mainstream America. A somewhat less catastrophic dismantling of the reservations was envisioned by many other reformers, including General Armstrong at Hampton.
In this case the Indian graduates of the eastern boarding schools would return to the reservations where, by leadership and example, they would begin to introduce the ways of mainstream American culture. As we shall see, the later practice of allotting land in severalty to Indians on reservations, as mandated by the Dawes Act of , was an extension of this belief in the possibility of turning Native Americans into copies of white Americans.
In her view, Indians should remain on the reservations, and schools should be brought to them. In this case, the young would be taught English and the skills needed to participate in the white world; with the youth remaining on the reservations, the old would be exposed to and thus acquire many of the same skills.
Eventually, she thought, the reservations would become indistinguishable from the surrounding American cities and towns. He had asked her, for example, to edit an Indian page in the school journal, the Southern Workman. But now he must have sensed other strengths in his young teacher, for he immediately arranged a tour of the Sioux agencies for her and another young Hampton teacher, Florence Bascom. She committed herself then and there to serving as a teacher in one of these schools.
In Sister to the Sioux, Elaine later described her experience: Meantime, one young teacher came home in spirit deeply committed to her task as she saw it. She had made up her mind to begin at the beginning, in the heart of a newly transplanted, leaderless, bewildered little community.
Others could carry on in more solidly established institutions where there was ample support and companionship. Behind such considerations lurked, no doubt, a taste for adventure and a distinct bent toward pioneering, possibly handed down through a long line of early American forebears. So, in October she addressed that body. She believes that the best educational centre, the place where the greatest results can be secured, is in the day school on the reservation. She was not discouraged. Young, articulate, and very attractive — and, predictably enough, soon to have her way.
This time her companion was Laura Tileston, a slightly older Hampton teacher who had volunteered to participate as a missionary. The two women would spend the next three years at White River Camp in a primitive four-room lodge that served as a day school and mission to the local population of some two hundred Sioux. A noon lunch was a popular feature, and this gave the older girls opportunities to practice cooking.
During the warmer months the boys worked in a nearby school garden and learned to cultivate a wide variety of vegetables. She often assisted the local government physician, for example, preparing and delivering medicines and food to the homes of the sick. In the course of such interactions with the Sioux, Elaine learned their language. Thus, she could always understand exactly what was being said by the Sioux without waiting for the often tedious, and sometimes inaccurate, translations.
This was especially useful when members of the community were discussing agency personnel or government policies. Elaine undoubtedly got much closer to Indians than most of the reformers of her era, and that intimacy fostered a deep appreciation of these people and their ways.
The Sioux women, in turn, found Elaine entirely trustworthy and often sought her counsel, especially on matters of love. They were poor psychologists and poorer realists. These activities included rough-and-tumble games, wedding and funeral ceremonies, and even the sacred Ghost Lodge ritual. The next year, however, she spent her vacation traveling the Great Sioux Reservation. She purchased an Indian pony, had a small tent made, and joined various family parties traveling across the reservation. In this way, she familiarized herself with the Dakota 30 serving the sioux countryside and the personnel at some of the Sioux agencies.
Dora, however, was busy pursuing her degree in art at Smith College, and so, at the insistence of her mother — who felt that Elaine could use a conscientious chaperone — Elaine settled for her elderly aunt. After her third year of teaching at White River, Elaine felt that the time had come to return east and push for more day schools on the reservation. The trip proved to be everything that Elaine had hoped it would be.
She camped out 31 serving the sioux every night and learned a great deal about wilderness food — both plant and animal — including, among the latter, such exotics as badger, skunk, and mud turtle. She also enjoyed her close association with the Indian women and often shared in their work.
Trading between the Indians and the settlers was common, and Whirling Hawk often posed as a destitute wanderer in order to receive better deals in these transactions. He was particularly proud of three hats that were given to him, though never worn, and sometimes made fun of these gifts and their givers. She felt accepted and, in turn, accepted those around her. Indeed, Elaine may never have been happier than during the summer of But she also felt, and properly so, that she was now an authority on Indian matters and that it was time to promote her own ideas on serving these people.
Looking back. I am amazed by such rashness on the part of a young woman barely twenty-six years old without family or political backing and lacking even a college diploma! Here Elaine wrote newspaper articles and embarked upon a series of paid talks arranged by Herbert Welsh of the Indian Rights Association, Mrs. Her message remained constant: only education would protect the Indians from further exploitation in the form of usurpation of land and betrayal of treaties by whites, and education was best accomplished in day schools on the reservations themselves.
During this time, Elaine often shared the platform with Thomas J. Morgan, the recently appointed Indian commissioner who shared similar views on Indian education. Elaine took her task extremely seriously. I gave no less than a full day to each little camp school at each visit, and to every boarding school a week or more. Young women as a rule did better. One man particularly seemed resentful of my unsupervised conversations with the Sioux.
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In the meantime, however, Elaine was getting caught up in the events that would lead to the tragedy of Wounded Knee. Furthermore, government rations had recently been cut by nearly one-half as a result of a new census. The Sioux had also lost some eleven million acres of land in recent negotiations with the government. The high priests of this new religion taught believers that dancing would hasten the return of the Messiah and that, while dancing, they could see the regenerated world to come and their dead relatives by falling into trances.
These garments, the new priests said, were bulletproof. Nelson A. A new agent, Daniel P. Royer, was appointed to Pine Ridge in October; he was young, inexperienced, and totally unable to control the Indians, who referred to him derisively as Young-Man-Afraid-of-Indians. Agent Royer sent repeated requests to Washington for military assistance. We need protection and we need it now. Army troops under the command of Gen. John R. Brooke arrived at the Pine Ridge Reservation.
Soon there would be nearly thirty thousand troops scattered throughout the Sioux country — under the overall command of General Miles, who directed military operations from his headquarters in Rapid City. Many white settlers had felt threatened by the ghost dancers, and their fears were fanned by journalists who were writing sensationalist articles for local and eastern newspapers.
Often, however, the hostile Sioux retreated to isolated locations, where they felt more independent. The most prominent of these isolated locations was a section of the Badlands northwest of Pine Ridge that became known as the Stronghold. After his death a number of his followers joined forces with another venerable old chief, Big Foot, who lived on the Cheyenne River. The army saw Big Foot as a major troublemaker, though he had already abandoned the Ghost Dance religion himself and wished to live in peace. Some of the young men in his band, however, were more aggressive. At any rate, the army issued an order to arrest Big Foot and when it was discovered that he was moving his band south toward the Badlands, he was intercepted by the Seventh Cavalry, led by Maj.
Whitside, on December Here, additional troops from the Seventh Cavalry, under the regimental commander Col. George A. Forsyth, surrounded the Indians. The idea was that Big Foot and his band would be disarmed in the morning and then taken to the agency to be transported by railroad to stay in Omaha until the Ghost Dance troubles were over.
This, of course, never happened. This shot unleashed a furious assault by the troops surrounding the camp. Toward evening, wagons began to arrive with some of the wounded survivors. Charles A. Eastman, the Sioux physician who had only recently arrived at Pine Ridge, recalled: We laid the poor creatures side by side in rows, and the night was devoted to caring for them as best we could.
General Brooke placed me in charge and I had to do nearly all the work, for although the army surgeons were more than ready to help as soon as their own had been cared for, the tortured Indians would scarcely allow a man in uniform to touch them. Cook, Miss Goodale, and several of Mr. In four instances, babies were found alive under the bodies of their mothers.
Only one of these survived, however. The weight of testimony is overwhelmingly against this supposition. They were pursued up the ravines, and shot down indiscriminately by the soldiers. Eastman, is now seen as one of the most accurate of the early accounts of the Wounded Knee tragedy. Then the Wounded Knee tragedy intervened. I might as well admit that her personality impressed me deeply. I had laid my plans carefully, and purposed to serve my race for a few years in my profession, after which I would go to some city to practice, and I had decided 39 serving the sioux that it would be wise not to think of marriage for the present.
I had not given due weight to the possibility of love. Eastman, it was with a thrilling sense of two-fold consecration. I gave myself wholly in that hour to the traditional duties of wife and mother. She and Charles lived together for thirty years, but that ended in a bitter separation in Oh, rapt, enchanted day When burning joys undreamed of Stole my white peace away!
I could not close my eyes, dear — Such bliss was all too new; Your face swam on the darkness, Each star, a prayer for you! Charles had just arrived as the newly appointed government physician, while Elaine had been there for about a month in connection with her duties as supervisor of education. Seth Eastman —75 , the noted white painter of North American Indians. Hakadah was then taken by his paternal grandmother, Uncheedah, who raised the boy in the traditional Sioux fashion, preparing him, physically and mentally, to become a hunter and a warrior. Ohiyesa retained this new name and used it along with his adopted English name for the rest of his life.
Meanwhile, more than Sioux warriors were captured in Minnesota; of them were tried and sentenced to death. I know, though young, your heart is strong and your courage is great. You must give up Ohitika. He is brave; and you, too are brave. He will not fear death; you will bear his loss bravely. Many Lightnings had not been hung at Mankato, as rumored, but had instead been among the prisoners that President Lincoln had pardoned.
Furthermore, while imprisoned, he had converted to Christianity and taken the English surname of his late wife — calling himself Jacob Eastman. Upon his release from prison, Jacob, along with his sons who had also been pardoned, took a homestead near Flandreau, South Dakota, and was attempting to make an independent living outside the Indian reservation system. It was with this thought in mind that he sought his youngest son. They had boldly ventured across the northern border. It was as well that I was absent with my gun.
Charles admitted that the subject of running away often occupied his thoughts. Alfred A. It was clear, however, that Charles was not yet ready to settle down to a reservation job. He had demonstrated academic excellence, but teaching at a mission day school seemed a waste of his talent. Then, once again, Alfred Riggs came through, this time securing a scholarship for Charles at prestigious Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire — a school that had originally been founded as a school for Indians. So Charles left for New England in January Upon his arrival by train in Boston, he was met by Mr.
Frank Wood, friends of Alfred Riggs, who were deeply involved in the Indian reform movement that was then in vogue. The Woods introduced Charles to the Boston social world and advised him on all matters, including dress and deportment, in his new environment. In addition, he participated in a number of varsity sports, including football, baseball, track, and boxing.
Here, again, he distinguished himself academically, and he was the unanimous choice of his graduating class to give the student oration at his commencement in June We do know that he gave some lectures, perhaps to help with expenses. Things had indeed moved swiftly. But this is not surprising, really, considering that both were of marriageable age he, thirty-two; she, twenty-seven , physically attractive, and strongly committed to serving the Sioux people.
It may be that she simply could not imagine the amount of racial prejudice that existed in her professedly Christian family. But there was much more to it than that. This letter reads, in part: My dear Miss Goodale: Your very kind letter was received a few days ago. Let me assure you it was appreciated.
Naturally I feel the unpleasant way in which the press has announced our engagement, that is, it is shown in romantic view of the entire thing. Perhaps, the matter has sicken you all. My life has been given out in two or three of the eastern papers which were full of errors. My life has been a very pleasant one, especially my student life, free from all sad, capricious events and mistakes. Never dreamed for a moment that I should make such a surrender out here.
I love her dearly. We are comparatively well corresponded in many ways. We have many common ideas, desires, and purpose of life. These reservations, however, probably account for her apparent lack of interest in having a big wedding back East. I preferred to be married at Pine Ridge by Mr. Cook and take a camping trip into Canada to visit his uncle! Elaine resigned her position in March and went east to help with the arrangements.
Charles followed later, spending some time in Boston with the Woods, who planned to host a gala wedding reception after the New York festivities. Public interest in the wedding was high. Interracial marriages were not all that common, and here a white woman was marrying an Indian man — a reversal of the more usual white man—Indian woman interracial union.
Eastman, the full-blooded Sioux who was graduated last summer from the Boston University, and whose letters descriptive of the recent troubles near Pine Ridge have been widely published. Eastman took his professional degree at the Harvard Medical School. Here we know that Elaine received considerable help from her father. Indeed, the very fact that the wedding was held in New York City shows that he was a willing, and probably eager, assistant.
We know that 48 love and marriage his apartment at the Windermere Hotel was used for the wedding reception and that he went to considerable trouble to decorate it with mountain laurel blossoms from Sky Farm. Meantime, Elaine was able to persuade her two sisters, Dora and Rose, to serve as bridesmaids.
Rose, however, later married Redington M. Elaine was dazzling: It was a few minutes past the hour set for the ceremony when the bride arrived at the church with her father. She carried a bouquet of lilies of the valley. These luminaries included Moncure D. Frank Wood hosted a second wedding reception on June Perhaps we can sense, as well, one of the problems that would plague their union — other women. Eastman very fond and proud of her. It is beautiful. May it last!
Elaine, however, was absolutely determined to make her marriage work at this point. So after a few days in Boston and brief visits with family, the young couple embarked by train for Montreal, and thence headed west. Finally, the couple arrived at Pine Ridge, where their new home was being built. After a few weeks in the old barracks, they moved into the new house.
Will it be his, or hers? In this case, would it be Indian or white? For while Elaine was clearly a product of the white world, Charles had experienced both worlds. So in some ways their decision to start life together on an Indian reservation was a compromise — a choice between worlds in which neither Charles nor Elaine had had extensive experience.
It might even be argued that Elaine was more at home on a reservation, given her recent positions as a teacher and supervisor of education to the Sioux nation. Later on, as we shall see, Elaine became far more assertive, and eventually she would make most of the family decisions. Here we will examine those years and look for the factors that led to the increasing frustration and impatience, and even hostility, that she turned onto Charles.
The reasons for his failures were many. He was carrying out his duties as agency physician, under the overall direction of the acting Indian agent, Capt. George Le Roy Brown, when an incident occurred that would lead to a long and bitter confrontation between himself and Agent Brown. Cooper in charge of these disbursements. Soon after Cooper had begun making payments, some Indians complained to Charles that they had not received their rightful shares. Unfortunately, Charles then committed an error in protocol by not reporting these complaints to his immediate supervisor, Agent Brown.
Instead, Charles described the complaints in letters that he wrote to a number of other people, including Commissioner Morgan. Both men also enlisted support from some of the prominent and powerful individuals in the Indian reform movement. Thus, Charles was sup53 your world or mine? Noble, the secretary of the interior, and Dawes, at least, presented supportive materials to Pres. Benjamin Harrison. This request was granted, but it was already too late. This account outlines the Brown-Eastman controversy. Charles could be a very formidable opponent, particularly in situations that involved what he perceived as a matter of principle.
Here, for example, he issued a bold challenge to authority and persisted until it cost him his job. I believe, however, that Elaine also played an important, and perhaps pivotal, role in this particular case. Given this experi54 your world or mine? Indeed, there is some evidence that he was willing to drop this particular matter at one point. And this picture is entirely consistent with the general view of Charles as an amiable, engaging person. As Maj. This really amounts to saying that Elaine may have begun to assert dominance in the marriage and that Charles was unwilling, or unable, to counter her opinions.
The second piece of evidence that implicates Elaine as a major antagonist in the Brown-Eastman controversy is her own actions in the case. We know that she wrote a number of candid letters criticizing Agent Brown and the conditions at Pine Ridge and that these letters were widely published in eastern newspapers. Whether or not this is true may never be known.
Collection: Eastman-Goodale-Dayton family papers | Smith College Special Collections
I would receive a curt written order to proceed without delay to some remote point to visit a certain alleged patient; then, before I had covered the distance, would be overtaken by a mounted policeman with arbitrary orders to return at once to the agency. On driving in rapidly. I might be rebuked for overdriving the horses, and charged with neglect of some chronic case of which I had never been informed. Paul, where I proposed to enter upon the independent practice of medicine.
Ah, rest from agony! Oh, precious poignancy of life! I tried to think that it was his place to decide and that he knew best! Just as she had done when she went to teach at the Hampton Institute years before, Elaine dissociates herself from a decision that eventually proves to have negative consequences. The Eastmans had almost no money when they arrived in Saint Paul. This was primarily because Charles had received a very small salary at Pine Ridge one hundred dollars per month.
Charles had to take a three-day medical examination in order to practice in Minnesota; to his credit, he was among the applicants who passed nearly half failed. In fact, the only real opportunities that presented themselves were ones that Charles himself described as illegal. I told them, of course, that I had no such medicine.
Finally, a prominent business man of St. This integrity, sadly, meant that there would be no future for Charles in the practice of medicine. He began to write when Elaine, impressed with the stories of his boyhood that Charles related to little Dora, suggested that he write some of them down.
The stories were immediately accepted and were published in six installments between and In the meantime, Charles was forced once again to seek a position as a government physician among the Indians. After some discussion, Ober urged Charles to accept that position. Thus, in June , he began his duties as the Indian secretary of the International Committee of the ymca.
I had a pretty hard time and am so thankful to be safely through the ordeal. The baby is a dear little creature, plump and healthy. I have only to be patient and try to get strong as soon as possible. It is probably fair to say that Elaine would never again sound so contented. We correspond almost daily when he is away. It has been a hard summer — I miss him so dreadfully. Unfortunately, one also senses the beginnings of her discontent and resentment.
Eventually these emotions would completely erode the love that she once felt. Clearly, Charles enjoyed this nomadic life, and traveling would always be important to him. Just as clearly, however, his wife resented these absences, which left her with the task of rearing their young children almost entirely alone. I was inevitably house-bound. He seems to have accepted the tenets of Christianity, which he felt were similar to the spiritual beliefs of Indians. He was opposed to material acquirement and to great possessions. He was inclined to peace. He was as unpractical as any Indian and set no price upon his labor of love.
These are not the principles upon which the white man has founded his civilization. It is the grandmother who almost invariably predicts an early death for the child who goes to school, and who prophesies every misfortune for those who accept the new way.
She is invariably suspicious of the white man, and takes no pains to hide her dislike of him. She revives some of the worst features of the old Indian life in her tales, her death-dirges and songs, upon every possible occasion. He also seemed to be implying that these ways were no worse, and perhaps even better, than the ways of white civilization.
Ohiyesa, the boy that Elaine had never known, was reemerging. I suspect, however, that Charles was mostly bewildered. Clearly, the Eastman marriage was by now far from idyllic. Sadly, there is as well the suggestion that whatever passion she may once have known is now subsumed in duty. That feeling would not bode well for any marriage. Indeed, there is some evidence that problems in the Eastman marriage were quite obvious to others during these early years.
Thus, for example, at a ymca meeting in Charles Ober publicly condemned a rumor that Charles and Elaine had separated. It is possible, too, that Charles 62 your world or mine? And this time his decision involved a return to the East. John Eastman. The interests in question centered on a petition that the Santee tribe had drawn up in to ask for restoration of government annuities that had been ended in in retribution for the alleged responsibility of these Indians for the Great Sioux Uprising of However, special congressional legislation would be needed before the Santee petition could be taken up by the U.
Court of Claims. So, Charles was pressured to go to Washington as a legal agent of the tribe — and he eventually agreed to assume that responsibility. The landlady, Mrs. Cutler, pushed vigorously for payment — asking both the Indian commissioner and the secretary of the interior to intervene on her behalf. Eventually, at the urging of the commissioner, Charles agreed to pay this debt in monthly installments. When he defaulted again, Mrs. Cutler hired attorneys and once more brought the matter to the attention of the commissioner.
As is often the case, we learn more about her feelings from a poem than from any other source. Relaxed in every massive limb, The man, sore wearied sleeps; His bearded cheek is rough and grim. Now once again she feels and sees Her nursling warm upon her knees, And seeing, weeps. However, he quickly encountered dishonest politicians, 64 your world or mine? She had, of course, known Colonel Pratt since Hampton. The Carlisle Indian School was established in ; as we have seen, its founder, Colonel Pratt, was an ardent assimilationist.
He was convinced that Indians should be fully integrated into white American culture, and his school stressed industrial training that, he believed, would further that goal. He was also asked to do some recruiting for new pupils on various western reservations.
There are occasional chatty references to family members in the Indian Helper, the Carlisle weekly newsletter. O-hi-ye-sa, the baby boy, is as happy as happy when on the ground, down among the girls. Dora is a girl of seven, and makes herself quite at home among her little Indian sisters, and curly haired Irene is always manifest with her pointed questions and baby-like logic. Overall, however, she seems to have remained disenchanted with her lot. As usual, she expressed satisfaction in meeting the demands of duty — as in this Thanksgiving poem that she wrote for the Helper : For life — and life is more than meat; For health of body, more than raiment; For skillful hands and willing feet; For love of work and not of payment — For these, O Lord of all, we raise Our thankful hearts in prayer and praise!
We do know that Elaine considered separating from Charles at the end of their year with Carlisle. I did consider it at one time — before he went back to work in the Indian country, having failed in Washington and at Carlisle. But you see I had three young children then — no, four! At any rate, Elaine was unhappy — of that there can be no question. There is little, if any, evidence of sympathy for the torment that he must have felt in 66 your world or mine?
She seems not to have understood that this was not a matter of choice for Charles: He was an Indian. Charles was as poorly equipped to face her problems as she was to face his. The result, not surprisingly, was resentment on both sides. Pratt believed. By the following spring, his mother Elizabeth Clementine Stedman moved the boy and his younger brother to Plainfield, New Jersey to live with her wealthy father, David Low Dodge.
Dodge , a Calvinist and pacifist , was strict, did not want to use his finances to support his grandchildren, physically punished the boys for bad behavior. Stedman sold poems and stories to magazines including Graham's Magazine , Sartain's Magazine , The Knickerbocker , Godey's Lady's Book for income; the children were taken in by their paternal grandfather, Griffin Stedman, his brother James in Norwich, Connecticut. Stedman studied two years at Yale University ; as opportunity offered, he studied law and was for a time private secretary to Attorney-General Bates at Washington, was a member of the New York Stock Exchange in Wall Street from to His first book, Poems and Idyllic, appeared in , followed by successive volumes of similar character, by collected editions of his verse in , and An idyllic atmosphere is the prevalent characteristic of his longer pieces, while the lyric tone is never absent from his songs and poems of reflection or fancy; as an editor he put forth a volume of Cameos from Walter Savage Landor.
This study appeared in separate chapters in Scribner's Monthly , was reissued, with enlargements, in the volumes entitled Victorian Poets and Poets of America, the two works forming the most symmetrical body of literary criticism yet published in the United States , their value is increased by the treatise on The Nature and Elements of Poetry a work of great critical insight as well as technical knowledge.
Stedman edited, with A Library of American Literature. After the death of James Russell Lowell , Stedman had the leading place among American poets and critics. In addition to his literary achievements, Stedman pursued technical endeavors. In , he proposed a rigid airship inspired by the anatomy of a fish, with a framework of steel, brass, or copper tubing and a tractor propeller mounted on the craft's bow changed to an engine with two propellers suspended beneath the framework; the airship never was built, but its design foreshadowed that of the dirigibles of the early decades of the 20th century.
Cambridge University Press ; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College , subsequently served as the third president of the University of California , as the first president of Johns Hopkins University , as founding president of the Carnegie Institution , he was co-founder of the Russell Trust Association , which administers the business affairs of Yale's Skull and Bones society.
Gilman served for twenty five years as president of Johns Hopkins. Daniel Coit Gilman graduated from Yale College in with a degree in geography. The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society, traveled to Europe together after graduation and remained lifelong friends. Gilman was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Petersburg, Russia from to , he returned to Yale and was active in planning and raising funds for the founding of Sheffield Scientific School. Gilman contemplated going into the ministry, took out a license to preach, but settled on a career in education.
From to Gilman served as librarian of Yale College, was concerned with improving the New Haven public school system; when the Civil War broke out, Gilman became the recruiting sergeant for the Norton Cadets, a group of Yale graduates and faculty who drilled on the New Haven Green under the oversight of Yale professor William Augustus Norton. In , Gilman was appointed professor of geography at the Sheffield Scientific School, became secretary and librarian as well in Having been passed over for the presidency of Yale, for which post Gilman was said to have been the favorite of the younger faculty, he resigned these posts in to become the third president of the newly organized University of California.
His work there was hampered by the state legislature, in Gilman accepted the offer to establish and become first president of Johns Hopkins University. Before being formally installed as president in , he spent a year studying university organization and selecting an outstanding staff of teachers and scholars, his formal inauguration, on 22 February , has become Hopkins' Commemoration Day, the day on which many university presidents have chosen to be installed in office.
Gilman's primary interest was in fostering advanced instruction and research, as president he developed the first American graduate university in the German tradition. The aim of the modern research university, said Gilman, was to "extend by minute accretions, the realm of knowledge" At his inaugural address at Hopkins, Gilman asked: "What are we aiming at? Gilman was active in founding Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medical School , he founded and was for many years president of the Charity Organization of Baltimore , in he served on the commission to draft a new charter for Baltimore.
From to , he was a member of the commission to settle the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana. Gilman served as a trustee of the John F. Slater and Peabody education funds and as a member of John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board. In this capacity, he became active in the promotion of education in the southern United States. He retired from Johns Hopkins in , but accepted the presidency of the newly founded Carnegie Institution of Washington , his books include biographies of James Monroe and James Dwight Dana , a collection of addresses entitled University Problems, The Launching of a University.
Gilman married twice, his first wife was daughter of Tredwell Ketcham of New York. They married on December 4, , had two daughters: Alice, who married Everett Wheeler. Daniel Gilman's brother Dr. Daniel Coit Gilman died in Connecticut. The original academic building on the Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University. Indian reservation An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U.
Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non—Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave ; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties.
The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,, acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation.
Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection.
Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In , there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas , Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement.
The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings.
Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. On 11 March , John C. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system.
President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before The population was at the census.
Pleasant Hill was first settled by European Americans before In a teacher from the American Missionary Association established the Pleasant Hill Academy to provide broad liberal arts education for rural youth, while giving vocational training in agriculture and local skills. Supported by the Congregational Church , the school operated until , its main building, Pioneer Hall, is still standing. May Cravath Wharton , an early woman physician from Minnesota, established a medical clinic at the academy, where her husband was the director.
Wharton cared for people in the community, they invited her to stay after the death of her husband Edwin. Wharton created a small hospital and, with successful fundraising in New England through the AMA, she was able to add a sanatorium annex for the care of people with tuberculosis ; as no antibiotic was known at the time and good nutrition were the only treatment. The Uplands Sanatorium was adapted as a retirement home when the hospital was relocated to Crossville , the county seat.
The hospital is now known as the Cumberland Medical Center. Camp Crossville, a site just east of Pleasant Hill, was used as a prisoner of war camp during World War II , housing German and Italian officers from November until the end of the war. Route 70 passes through the southern portion of Pleasant Hill, connecting the town with Crossville to the east and Sparta to the west.
According to the United States Census Bureau , the town has a total area of 1. As of the census of , there were people, households, families residing in the town. The population density was There were housing units at an average density of The racial makeup of the town was Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. There were households out of which The average household size was 1. In the town, the population was spread out with The median age was 72 years. For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were About 7.
Dora Read Goodale, a poet and teacher from Massachusetts , director of the Uplands Sanatorium in the late s through , her book of poetry, Mountain Dooryards, incorporated the traditional Appalachian dialect of the area. Earl Webb , baseball player. May Cravath Wharton, an early woman physician from Minnesota, who created the first hospital and sanatorium in the area at Pleasant Hill , established Cumberland Medical Center in Crossville. The population was 23, at the census. Keene is home to Antioch University New England , it hosted the state's annual pumpkin festival—then called the Keene Pumpkin Festival—from until , after which the festival moved to Laconia.
A new, child-focused Keene Pumpkin Festival, organized by the state festival's previous organizers, has taken its place in the city since In Colonial Governor Jonathan Belcher granted lots in the township of "Upper Ashuelot" to 63 settlers who paid five pounds each. In , during King George's War , the village was burned by Natives. Colonists fled to safety, but would return to rebuild in Located at the center of Cheshire County, Keene was designated as the county seat in Land was set off for the towns of Sullivan and Roxbury , although Keene would annex acres from Swanzey.
Timothy Dwight , the Yale president who chronicled his travels, described the town as " The Ashuelot River was used to provided water power for sawmills and tanneries. After the railroad was constructed to the town in , numerous other industries were established. Keene became a manufacturing center for wooden-ware, chairs, shutters, pottery, soap, woolen textiles, saddles, mowing machines and sleighs, it had a brickyard and foundry.
Keene was incorporated as a city in , by had a population of 6, New England manufacturing declined in the 20th century, however during the Great Depression. Keene is today a center for insurance and tourism; the city retains a considerable inventory of fine Victorian architecture from its mill town era.
By the early s all had been absorbed by the Maine Railroad. Keene became notable in when F. Nelson Blount chose the city for the site of his Steamtown, U. However, there were no longer enough customers to warrant service on the line. Track conditions on the Ashuelot Branch were so poor at the time that the engine returned light to Brattleboro.
A hi-rail truck was used instead to remove the flatcars. In the freight house, one of the last remaining railroad buildings in town, burned due to arson. Since the late 20th century, the railroad beds through town were redeveloped as the Cheshire Rail Trail and the Ashuelot Rail Trail. In , radical activist Thomas Ball immolated himself on the steps of a courthouse in Keene to protest what he considered the court system's abuse of divorced fathers' rights.
According to the United States Census Bureau , the city has a total area of Keene is drained by the Ashuelot River; the highest point in Keene is the summit of Grays Hill in the city's northwest corner, at 1, feet above sea level.
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Keene is within the Connecticut River watershed , with all of the city except for the northwest corner draining to the Connecticut via the Ashuelot. State highways converge on Keene from nine directions. Route 10 leads north to Newport and southwest to Massachusetts. Route 12 leads northwest to Walpole and Charlestown and southeast to Massachusetts. A limited-access bypass used variously by Routes 9, 10, 12, passes around the north and south sides of downtown. Keene is served by Dillant—Hopkins Airport , located. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Carlisle Indian Industrial School.
Related Images. YouTube Videos. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects. Sitting Bull , a Hunkpapa Lakota chief and holy man , c. As of the Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, and median household income in the United States. Scenery upon Barndoor Hills in Granby in autumn. Winter in East Haven. Main Street, Newtown.
Harper's Magazine is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts. Launched in June , it is the second-oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the U. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern Mill River. The Knowledge Corridor surrounding Springfield from space. The Republican is a newspaper based in Springfield, Massachusetts covering news in the Greater Springfield area, as well as national news and pieces from Boston, Worcester and northern Connecticut.
It is owned by Newhouse Newspapers, a division of Advance Publications. The October 17, , front page of The Republican. The historic Republican Block was home to The Republican from to Warner 3.
Related The Life of Elaine Goodale Eastman (Women in the West)
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