Hence it is imperative to recognize how Islam can modify the treatment and prevention of different mental disorders. In Islam, religion and spirituality are not mutually exclusive as you cannot have one without the other. Other religious and spiritual traditions may see them as separate where you can have one over the other. This can be applied to Islam in the way it helps with drug adherence through encouraging Muslims to look after their health by seeking advice and receiving treatment as health is considered a gift from God, which should be cherished.
On the contrary to what is commonly thought among Western societies that Muslims believe that mental illnesses are due to demons or bad spirit-related, it was in fact the Europeans in the Medieval Period who viewed mental illness as demon-related, Muslim scholars of that time, including Ibn Sina known in the West as Avicenna — the founder of Modern Medicine , rejected such concept and viewed mental disorders as conditions that were physiologically based.
This led to the establishment of the first psychiatric ward in Baghdad, Iraq in CE by al Razi one of the greatest Islamic physician. This was the first psychiatric hospital in the world. According to al Razi's views, mental disorders were considered medical conditions, and were treated by using psychotherapy and drug treatments. Another fact which clinicians need to be more aware of is that adherence to psychiatric medications may be affected during Muslim fasting periods as in Ramadan in which Muslims fast from just before sunrise to sunset each day , so clinicians should adjust the dosing interval according to timing of iftar and suhoor i.
This can also be achieved by using alternative dosage forms for medication during Ramadan. However, if the patient's mental condition necessitates frequent dosing, or his physical wellbeing will be adversely affected by the combined effect of fasting and psychotropics intake, which may lead to dehydration, the clinician can then advise the patients not to fast as Islam exempts them from fasting in such conditions.
Quran Another detrimental factor in pharmacotherapy adherence is the presence of inert ingredients in psychotropic medications, which might be derived from pork products that may pass unnoticed by the clinicians. So if this issue is not identified and addressed, then patients may not only stop taking their medications, and hence leading to relapse of symptoms, increasing hospitalization rates, and increasing healthcare costs but also lead to a poor doctor-patient relationship. We believe that, in order to maintain a good doctor—patient relationship and improve medication adherence, psychiatrists should have a basic familiarity with religious dietary restrictions and they should discuss such issue frankly with their patients as a part of informed consent.
This does not have its implications for patients alone but may also have ethical and potentially legal consequences for physicians as well. Regarding the psychosocial model, there is Islamic counseling, which is similar to Western counseling in the way the clients seek assistance from a suitably qualified person to deal with their psychological problems, the same may be effectively obtained from a religious leader or Imam.
The main role of the Imam in for this purpose is to provide advice which would be in accordance with the Quranic principles and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. Muslims approach Imams for counseling on social and mental health issues and particularly marital and family problems. Another model of Islamic counseling is the traditional healing, here a traditional healer who may be a shaykh, derwish, or pir depending on their geographical location, practice various rituals to heal a client.
This model explains the illness or personal problems as a possession by spirit jinn. Despite the support of some studies to the value of traditional healing, many Muslims do not believe in this form of healing nor consider it Islamic, which in these instances would make its use inappropriate and even banned in certain Muslim countries.
This is usually done through the Islamic daily prayers and worship with continuous invocation of prayers and the names of God to elevate the spirit zikr.
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Sufism can have beneficial therapeutic outcomes. Even those scholars who do not agree with the traditional counseling for Muslim clients frequently consider Sufism as the basis of an original counseling model in Islam. Nowadays, there are growing interests in Islamic psychotherapy from Western countries perspectives, which means incorporation of Islamic views of human nature while using different psychotherapeutic strategies and evidence-based treatments to help treating Muslim patients.
This therapy includes using of Quranic metaphors, the Sirah of the Prophet and his traditions, as well as the biographies of the Prophet's companions, with Muslim patients, which will provide detailed instructions for implementing successful therapy. It has been widely known that psychotherapy is a unique art developed by the Western society during the 20th century; however, as we can find that psychotherapy was widely used in treating mental disorders all over the world for many ages before it has been started by the West. During the golden era of Islamic civilization, the Islamic scholars had discussed the concept of psychology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, and their relationship to mental health.
For example, Abu Bakar Muhammad Zakaria Al-Razi CE is the first Muslim physician who introduced the methods of psychotherapy and he had achieved a lot of success in discovering the definition, symptoms and mental health. We think that Western practitioners can enhance their ability to skillfully practice Islamically modified interventions through knowing the basic concepts of Islam and cultural norms among Muslims.
Consultation with an Imam a Muslim religious leader , a Muslim social work professional, or another respected community member can also be helpful. Psychoanalytic approaches are not widely accepted among Muslims,[ 29 — 31 ] in contrast to the concept of individualism used by Western counseling. Islam highlights the importance of community rather than looking inward to establish their identity.
Muslims tend to look outward, identify their identity in religious teachings, culture, and family. Group therapy also may be problematic for many Muslims. For instance, some Muslims may feel uncomfortable sharing personal details in group settings, particularly if members of the opposite gender are present. However, the functions of such groups may be enhanced if they are composed of members of the same gender and involve values taken from the Islamic faith.
Practitioners may consider using spiritually modified cognitive therapy, by replacing certain concepts used in Western cognitive therapy with concepts drawn from Islamic teaching. Studies on Muslims that used spiritually modified cognitive therapy for anxiety and depression showed faster results as compared with the therapy that is not Islamically modified. Similarly, a study conducted on Muslims with bereavement showed significantly better results with cognitive-behavioral therapy that had been modified to incorporate Islamic beliefs and practices.
Another striking study was conducted on Muslim patients with schizophrenia in Saudi Arabia, which revealed spiritually modified cognitive therapy was either similar, or superior, to the results achieved with traditional cognitive therapy. Although these researches revealed how effective the cognitive interventions based on Islamic principles for Muslim clients was, there are concerns regarding various methodological issues used in these studies, particularly small sample sizes.
This reflects the utmost need for more research in this area to make definitive statements about the empirical soundness of such approaches. In spiritually modified cognitive therapy, we follow the cognitive restructuring model, where the therapist identifies the patient automatic thoughts and core beliefs. The process would then involve an evaluation and modification of automatic thoughts, followed by modification of core beliefs and assumptions. Modification occurs mainly through examining the evidence and looking for alternative explanation. Therapist can use cognitions from the Islamic faith and offer it as an alternative explanations to dysfunctional thoughts associated with a variety of conditions or disorders.
We have reviewed different studies and books and tried to explore the impact of Islamic values and beliefs on modification of the patient cognitive errors, and how these Islamic values can even help in prevention of different psychiatric disorders. Islam plays an important role in helping Muslims to cope with negative life events, which helps them in both prevention and treatment of depression. Muslims are not superhuman, however, if one experiences negative feelings, he is encouraged to resist them with positive thoughts and actions if possible, or to seek professional help if the case is clinical, exactly like any other form of illness.
Islam encourages people to stay hopeful, even if someone has committed the worst sin or faced with most troublesome life event as there is always God's mercy. To counter maladaptive thoughts related to hopelessness and feeling overwhelmed with life, as there is no place for despair because Muslims believe that it is God Himself who is in charge of everything, the all Seeing, All Knowing, and All Fair and Wise God.
And if anyone puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is Allah for him. For Allah will surely accomplish His purpose: verily, for all things has Allah appointed a due proportion. In Islam, suicide is considered to be strictly prohibited. On the contrary Muslims should remember God in times of suffering and pain and have faith and hope in God's mercy and compassion to ease the suffering. Most Muslim scholars agree that it is God alone who will judge the actions of each individual.
This may help to reduce the guilt feeling that may affect the mentally ill patients after attempting suicide. Although it is reported that the Prophet did not pray at the funeral of a man who killed himself, he did not forbid his companions from praying at the man's funeral; this indicates a possibility for forgiveness. It is a normal reaction toward any life losses.
Muslims believe that all suffering, life, death, joy, and happiness are derived from God and that God is the one who gives us strength to survive. They believe that any loss or deprivation experience is a form of a test from God to his slave of how he will stand this suffering with patience and full trust in God's mercy. These beliefs usually help to comfort and aid the healing process.
For example, in accepting grief and loss, the relatives of the deceased person are urged to be patient sabr and accept God's test. People who have patience in accepting God's decree will be given a reward from Him. However, Muslims are not immune against the feeling of grief. It is permissible to cry and express grief over the death of a loved one.
Prophet Muhammad himself never forgot his love for his beloved wife, Khadijah, even years after her death. This is accompanied with anxiety and fear of Allah's punishment, both in this present world and the hereafter. Most of these patients come from families raised with a strong faith in Allah, but with an exaggerated sense of His punishment; God's love and mercy are diminished in their relationship with Him.
In therapy these patients may improve with interventions, such as modification of cognitive errors that focus on these thoughts and beliefs.
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As cognitive errors are common to be similar in anxiety and depression, the above examples can be used in anxiety as well. One of the foundations of Islamic belief is the understanding that Allah is able to do all things and He runs all affairs. This is an aspect of tawheed belief in the oneness of Allah that specifies oneness in Allah's Lordship. Be mindful of Allah, and you will find Him in front of you. If you ask, ask of Allah; if you seek help, seek help of Allah.
Know that if the Nation were to gather together to benefit you with anything, it would benefit you only with something that Allah had already prescribed for you, and that if they gather together to harm you with anything, they would harm you only with something Allah had already prescribed for you. Other cognitive adapting techniques that can be used to relieve stress and help in anxiety as well as depression, is to count how much God has blessed us and trying to focus on what we have and not on what we are deficient in.
Other way of cognitive restructuring is to help Muslims to learn from the Prophet Muhammad teachings that do not regret for things that have happened in the past, which one cannot go back and change, and to worry about what may happen in the future is useless. Pay attention to that which could benefit you, seek the help of Allah and do not feel incapacitated. From an Islamic perspective, these unwanted obsessive thoughts are called wasawis plural of waswasah , which are whispered into the minds and hearts of people by Ash-Shaytan Satan.
We can find evidence of this in the holy Quran and Hadith. All human beings experience at some point in their life wasawis, regardless of age, sex, faith, or creed. However, the nature, content, severity, and influence of these wasawis vary from one person to the other. For some, they only cause mild anxiety and worry, while for others may be more severely affected to the point of becoming spiritually, mentally, emotionally, psychologically, and socially incapacitated. We find in the holy Quran the counter adaptive thoughts for these obsessions wasawis as called in Islam.
He has no power over those who believe and put their trust only in their Lord Allah. His power is over those who obey and follow him Shaytan and those who join partners with Allah] Quran On my true servants, you would have no authority. Sufficient is your Lord as a guardian] Quran Moreover it can help to relieve the guilt feeling which is associated with the obsessions of religious nature. Alcoholism is not a huge mental health problem among Muslims in comparison with Western society as Islam prohibits alcohol and substance use among Muslims.
Islam stops the wrong doing from its roots and not at the end.
There is no specific age for drinking, or safe drugs to get high. As in Western countries most of the teenage alcoholics do not buy the alcohol from the store but get it at home. Islam prohibits drinking completely total abstinence for all Muslim of any age and sex.
It is the reason why the West finds it a difficult issue to manage the problems of drugs and alcohol, because it has made double standards. Islam prevents Muslims from following the path, which may lead to drug and alcohol intake. Therefore not only promiscuous sex is prohibited, but casual mixing of sexes freely is also prohibited, obscenity and pornography is also prohibited.
The drinking of alcohol, or to come in contact with alcohol or any other spirits such as making, selling, keeping them, or even growing grapes for the sole purpose of selling it to winery for making wine is prohibited. As mentioned in Quran. Muslims are forbidden to harm themselves or others. We all know that cigarette smoking causes a number of health problems that may lead to heart disease, emphysema, oral cancer, stroke, etc. The Quran, does not specifically prohibit smoking, but gives behavioral guidance. In many parts of the Muslim world, the legal status of smoking has further changed during recent years, and numerous religious edicts or fatawa, including those from notable authorities such as Al-Azhar University in Egypt, now declare smoking to be prohibited.
Humans are not homosexuals by nature. People usually become homosexuals because of their surroundings. Of utmost importance is the environment during puberty. All creatures are created in pairs each with certain physical and psychological characteristics to complement and complete one another and to serve certain function. The main function of the human being is to build up the society. The physical—psychological—spiritual development through marriage and mating, followed by procreation that may continue for more than one generation should help humans to understand the wisdom of God and his favors in creating life to build up a balanced society.
Homosexuality is harmful for the health of the individuals and for the society. It is a leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Men having sex with other men leads to greater health risks than men having sex with women not only because of promiscuity but also because of the nature of sex among men. Mouth—anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms, which lead to various infective diseases.
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In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Homosexuality degrades a person and the family structure and hence the society. This is the reason why homosexuality is forbidden in Islam as Allah says:. For ye practice your lusts on men in preference to women: ye are indeed a people transgressing beyond bounds. Of all creatures do ye come unto the males, and leave the wives your Lord created for you?
Nay, but ye are forward folk. Family is an important socio-cultural component as it is the unit of the society, which has a huge impact on personality development and a potential factor in different psychiatric disorders. Bowlby revealed that the permanent loss of a parent during childhood may increase the vulnerability to certain forms of psychopathology, for example, depression. Karen Horney explained that hostility is not an innate instinct but reactive so egocentrism and antisocial cravings like greed were not inevitable phases of human's development but the expressions of a neurotic process.
By helping individuals to grow up under favorable conditions they could develop and lead a healthy life and realize his potentialities. Islam enforces the family role in Muslim's life and emphasizes the religious, moral, and ethical values, on the contrary to Western society, which started nowadays to suffer from moral decay leading to broken families with increased divorce rate and number of unwed mothers and single parent families. Drug abuse and excessive sexual activities are predominant in adolescents and young adults. These events lead to conflict, loneliness, guilt, loss of self-esteem, which results in manifestation of a variety of pathological disorders.
Despite the fact that the trials of Western societies to substitute the role of family in the life of the mentally ill patients through the help of social workers and care coordinators is a step forward in their care plan, but it is not as beneficial as family role is. There is nothing like a family especially if this is a supportive family, which can have a great impact on the illness outcome and the patient's quality of life. Psychiatrist and social workers need to consider the impact of family's involvement on individual mental health, which may be a double-edged blade.
On one hand, it may be helpful as the family may help in supporting the patients regarding his medications and psychotherapy, which help to improve the outcome. On the other hand, as the family unit is sacred among Muslim people and it is very common to find different families with over involvement and enmeshment patterns, who are considered a continuous source of support to the individual. In some cases the family will interfere on behalf of the identified patient, although they too lack in trust, whereas they expect much.
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For example, they might try to control the interview by answering the questions directed at the client while they withhold information that may be perceived as embarrassing, they may interfere with his medications and choice of treatments. Therefore the psychiatrist and social workers should educate themselves regarding Islamic values and nature of Islamic family patterns, so that they can in turn sensitively educate the family about the necessary requirement for a workable helping relationship.
Reported evidence shows the magical effect of music to heal the body and strengthen the mind. Researchers found that music has a great effect on treatment of depression, insomnia, stress, schizophrenia, dementia, and childhood-related disorders like autism. Regarding the concept whether music is allowed or forbidden in Islam Halal or Haram , we can find different views from Islamic scholars, however, generally music is not considered forbidden in Islam as long as it is a therapeutic need.
A thousand years ago, Muslim physicians were at the leading frontiers of medicine and used innovations and different therapeutic techniques that are now considered modern. They treated mental illnesses by confining patients in asylums with twenty-first-century techniques of music therapy. Al-Mansuri hospital in Cairo, which was established by Malik al-Mansur Sayf al-Din Qalawun in , just like today's advanced hospitals; provided patients with entertainment by light music. The Sufis mention that mental and nervous disorders are cured by music.
The great Turkish Islamic scientists and doctors Al-Razi — , Farabi — , and Ibn Sina — established scientific principles concerning musical treatment, especially of psychological disorders. According to Farabi, the effects of the makams of Turkish music on the soul vary according to the type of makam i. He also outlined the effects of the makams of Turkish music differs according to the times they were effective i. Then the great Islamic thinker and philosopher Ibn Sina — applied Farabi music work in his practice with mentally ill patients.
The work of these two scientists became the base for the developing Turkish music therapy. Meditation is based on concentrating on any one idea or object to the exclusion of all other ideas or objects. Meditation works by eliciting the relaxation response. The relaxation response is characterized by decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen consumption, and muscle tension. Meditation by focusing on God's creatures plants, animals, space, human body, etc. In fact, the Quran describes Muslims involved in such a process of meditation as:.
Glory to thee! Other forms of meditation may be enhanced by the recitation of one word or a few words that give the person a sense of internal peace and calm, which is known as remembrance zikr in Islam; for example, by repeating the words subhan Allah glory be to Allah or al-hamdu lillah all praise be to Allah. It also adds an additional factor that helps in stress elimination and that is giving the individual the feeling that he or she is in extreme proximity with Allah, the Controller of the whole world.
Muslims prayers themselves can be considered as a form of meditation and remembrance as while praying, Muslim feels that he is in extreme connection with the controlling power of this world God and that from Him he receives maximum support. O ye who believe! Quran, 2: Recent studies showed that praying reduces postoperative complications following open-heart surgery.
Praying also lowers the incidence of depressions in patients following hospitalization. Recently, it is recommended that praying can be used as an alternative therapy as successfully as meditation, exercise, or herbal treatments. Generally aromatherapy is considered one of the relaxation techniques both physically and mentally and it can help in different psychiatric disorders like anxiety, depression, and dementia.
Reviewing Islamic history, one will find many references to musk, rose, sandalwood, oud, bakhoor, frankincense, myrrh, jasmine, lilies, citrus oils, and other fragrances. Avicenna Ibn Sina, the Islamic philosopher writings record over medicinal plants and essential oils including chamomile, lavender, and countless others. He was the first to perfect the distilling of oils from plants, which is used today to make concentrated forms of aromatherapy oils.
In the thirteenth century, the Arab physician Al-Samarqandi wrote on the aromatherapeutic use of herbs and flowers. In summary, there is a huge impact of Islamic religion and spirituality within psychiatric clinical practice. Using Islamic values and beliefs can be beneficial in treatment of mentally ill Muslims, through incorporation of Islamic beliefs that help in drug adherence and modification of different psychotherapeutic techniques to suit Muslim patients.
Such aspects provide the basis for specific guidelines in working with Muslim mental health clients. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Indian J Psychiatry v. Please try again later. Format: Paperback Verified Purchase. This book was a surprise. The author gently encourages compassion and understanding of these difficult to raise children. Many of the "games" are informal ways to link with your kid by working their strengths. The first part of the book suggests you make a list of what is right with your kid.
When I did this I realized just how fascinating he really is. I am starting to turn around my focus from problem oriented to strength oriented. Quite a change. The activities are not for just one age group. The author discusses one and suggests adaptations for different ages. Also suggests variations depending on your child's interests.
The best part is the author's understanding the difficulties of raising an ADHD kid, the problems parents encounter and the potential for turning things around to benefit your kid. It is easy to read clear and insightful. It is organized in a way so you can pick one aspect and work on those activities. You don't have to read cover to cover to start using the techniques. I recommend this book. This book was not what i expected.
I needed tangible ideas to do for my son. This book didn't help it was too much common sense general ideas. One person found this helpful. This book really helped me redefine the difficulties and struggles our daughter was experiencing with ADHD! I love the new definitions to make the acronym ADHD.
The book provides excellent activities to engage children who have been diagnosed with or who have strong tendencies of ADHD. The activities are also wonderful for our other daughter too. They have both grown and learned through the activities, and our family has benefited from the information.
We even shared the book with our school counselor and she is going to purchase it for her library at school to help other teachers and staff learn a new way of looking at ADHD behaviors. Thanks for writing this book, and I would definitely purchase from this author again. Good book for alternative view on ADHD. It also provided different strategies for dealing with children with aDHD.
One size doesn't fit everyone. This book offers another "size" for trying. I bought this book after seeing Dr. Honos-Webb speak on a different topic parenting. She spoke with such wisdom and insight, and addressed some of the most important questions and fears regarding parenting today -- and she did it in such a simple way.
I am a lifelong lover of learning and I can honestly say that I have never seen a speaker come at a topic so directly yet so intimately. It was a life-changing talk. It made me want to hear more of Honos-Webb's take on the world - so much more that I went home and ordered all of her books which is a lot to say for a single mother watching every dime!
Her books are more than I had hoped for. There are new insights and food for thought on every page. She is also a wonderful writer. I am a writer and an editor myself and I was continually impressed with not only the beauty of the ideas she expresses but the beauty of her words as well. Honos-Webb sheds extraordinary light on these topics. Her books should be required reading for everyone who cares about the human mind. PS And if you ever get a chance to see her speak, seize the opportunity.
This woman should have her own TV show! Could she be the next Oprah????? We can only hope. The original book along with this handbook are both great resources for every parent, teacher and administrator who work with gifted students with ADHD amazing, dynamic, happy inDividuals! I personally recommend it to every parent, family or friend who interact with these amazing kids each day. Being a member of this group, and never being medicated through the blessings of my parents! I am deeply grateful to the author for helping to educate all of those families who don't know or aren't sure what to do with thei ADHD child.
Bless you! This book has some pretty good ideas. I wish there were more though because you can only do some so many times before your child becomes bored. See all 21 reviews.
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