Segmentation is about analysing your customer base and putting customers into different categories according to distinct characteristics DNA. Segments are increasingly dynamic as life events described on previous page take over from life stages as a means of profiling and predicting needs. However, this can be anticipated with the aid of various predictive modelling techniques. Fundamental to successful modelling is quality data. Below is an illustrative example of six customer segments and the corresponding strategies. Therefore, the strategy for developing your business and servicing the needs of your valuable customers should be the catalyst for a CRM programme across your organisation.
A properly planned CRM programme demands the creation of a cross-functional team with CEO and wider executive-level sponsorship. This will ensure that the organisation focuses on how people, systems and processes need to be integrated in order to deliver the customer promise and the business result. This section covers the roles different elements of the organisation can play. Marketing and information technology services are described in detail since many failed CRM programmes start here. The cause of failure varies but a common theme is lack of understanding of the wider context of CRM.
Thumb nail sketches of the roles of human resources, finance and administration, sales, support, and research and development are provided. Key questions that should be asked on behalf of the customer about an approach, service, product or output from the CRM programme are: G G G G G Will the customer value it and, if so, how much? Will the deliverables from the CRM programme meet our target customer expectations?
Is the proposed time-scale in line with the customer expectations? It brings significant change for an organisation and people can easily become uncomfortable or feel left out of the process. Direct Marketing G Marketing activity based on customer knowledge built from customer data G Direct marketing campaigns to acquire, retain and grow customers, and to cross-sell to them G Marketing channels to support: help lines; web Customer Relationship Management G Business-wide commitment not just marketing, cross-functional G Business organised around customers not products G Single view of customer across all touch points, technology challenge G Multi-channel delivery of goods, information process G Relevant dialogue across all touch points, communication Use the definitions in this pocketbook to help build your communications plan.
Traditional techniques are still of value but must be integrated into a planned mix. Where data is collected at multiple touch points web, direct mail, call centres, etc there must be consistency. How can this knowledge be consistently collected? How will it be analysed to further understand customer needs and behaviour? Does the IT department understand how customer data is used in marketing and across the organisation? For example, airlines run loyalty programmes in which the best customers get: G G G G G G Superior service fast check-ins, last to board Executive lounges Privileged partner offers Reward points Greater recognition Better support services eg: call centres How will the marketing to customer segments be treated within your overall CRM strategy?
The range and breadth of communication possibilities have grown exponentially. This will involve marketing assessing and planning all response options. Customers' expectations are now much higher. For instance, in people would expect mail order deliveries to be made within 28 days. In their expectation is closer to three days. Many unsuccessful CRM programmes have failed to take account of this. Summarised below and on the following pages is a clear terms of reference for the information technology services function in your organisation.
Changes affect both people and processes. A balance between mediumand long-term strategy and tactical short-term financial control is vital. Unfortunately, this is rarely achieved. Probably more than any other group, sales can reap significant reward from a CRM programme: G G G Reduced administration More time spent on selling and planning sales strategy Increased productivity and return on investment through effective collaboration Regrettably, many CRM programmes are viewed negatively by sales.
Simply because they are not sold the benefits of the programme. Instead, they are told to invest significant time capturing the knowledge they hold in their heads or locally. Successful CRM programmes take this into account and reward good behaviour. Unfortunately, with multiple channels many companies are failing to deliver a robust, consistent service.
Support must: G G G G Provide consistent service levels across all customer touch points Take responsibility for customers at each of these points Implement and improve standards Ensure that the service is being delivered through constant testing such as mystery experience exercises. This is a marketing research programme that tests all typical customer experiences at all touch points on a regular basis.
Not surprisingly, the serial switcher always suggests better price, longer offer period or simply more for less.
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It is vital that you keep investors informed and supportive of a CRM initiative. If they do not understand CRM then they may well create pressure for ceasing investment in favour of short-term gains. There are many types of investors. Let's look at the main ones as they all have different drivers. They have very different agendas. Institutional investors are probably the holders of the majority of stock. They must be on side.
Managing the message to their analysts is vital. They are generally cynical of strategic investment or the promise of jam tomorrow unless announcing it will improve the share price or earnings. Private investors fall into two groups: G Large private investors: can create mayhem for a business if they are not bought in; rarely are they there for the long-term G Small investors: invariably speculate on share price growth Lifestyle investors invest because they believe in your business and want to be part of its success over a long period.
They can be large or small shareholders. Either way they are advocates and can be great advocates of CRM investments. It is important to understand this when communicating strategy and investment decisions as you may be required to set it in a different context. Investors seeking capital growth only care about an increase in share price which favours the short-term approach.
Invariably, any investment that may delay this is seen negatively. This dividend is used as income. Typically pension funds and investment funds aimed at delivering income represent the majority of investors along with small investors. Any investment that reduces the income will be viewed negatively. What different models and themes are there?
Pocket Book 2017
What are the different roles played within an organisation? With this knowledge you are now in a position to develop a CRM programme plan and business case. Undertake a CRM audit - Identify how feasible it is to undertake CRM within your organisation and compare your position within your own market. Identify customer financial value - How valuable are different groups of customers?
What money should you invest? What return will you get? Establish the CRM vision - Visualise the long-term picture of the future, what you want your relationship to be with your customers in the years ahead. What are the individual projects that contribute to the CRM programme, that deliver the vision? Develop the business case - Gain sign off from your board. What is the current level of customer focus across the organisation?
How important is it? What are the barriers to CRM being implemented? How will you get buy in and support? How can you drive CRM forward? There are: G Buying touch points G Communication touch points G Customer service touch points G Customer generated touch points - informal routes into an organisation eg: complaints Consider duplication and distribution of touch points eg: four call centres, two internet sites. Assess usage and importance of each. G Grade by: - ability to handle query - level of customer sensitivity - how customers are moved to another part of the organisation.
G Assess what improvements can be made short-term and longer-term. What impact will this have on other departments? Which CRM capabilities have the most financial impact and warrant investment? To answer these questions you NEED to apply customer lifetime value modelling.
Thus, you need to calculate customer lifetime value. CRM strategies aim to increase profitability through improved customer management. How should you serve them? What will be their return on investment? Applicable for both consumer and business markets. Allocate revenues and costs against each event.
Calculate the propensity for each event to occur at future time periods. A CRM vision is a clear picture of how a company will be organised to serve its customers in the future. Key questions to consider in developing a vision are: G G G G What will our future customers want in five years' time? How do they want to deal with us in the future? How will they be using the new tools of society to manage their relationship? What will their expectations be of our company? What is the gap between our current offering and future expectations? The vision must be supported with an outline of how your company should be structured in order to meet the needs of the future customer.
This may be five or ten years away. Its purpose is to provide a focus. Your challenge is to identify incremental steps. We do this by defining the scope of CRM.
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Attempting to do too much can result in doing nothing. Long-term Example: company-wide re-organisation that dispenses with product departments in preference to customer segment departments. Your challenge is to identify the benefits and expertise needed by project areas. Start with your company business objectives: G G What are the stated objectives?
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What is the strategy outlined in the annual report? How will your CRM plan support the business objectives? G What are the risks of doing nothing? CRM vision The long-term vision of the future that encapsulates how you will meet future customer needs. CRM objectives These need to be quantifiable. What specific objectives are you trying to achieve?
G Increase in customer retention? Increase in customer value? G What impact should this deliver on the bottom line? Situation analysis G Your company.
This provides a snapshot of what you found from the internal audit. G Customer experience.
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This provides a snapshot of what you found from the external audit. G Competitor analysis. How does your customer management compare with that of your competitors? Provide the quick wins. These are lower cost initiatives that improve the customer experience and can be easily justified. G Medium-term broad brush. These projects will require significantly more input from other areas of the business and should only be presented in outline.
Resource areas Which departments need to deliver what? Initial budget Anticipated costs that will be incurred for the first projects. Time lines When you will achieve the earlier projects. Critical success factors What are the key things that measure the overall success of this project? Executive Summary is a key deliverable. The diagram below will help you visualise the overall programme.
An explanation of each element is given on the following pages. It is best to think of the CRM programme plan in terms of a tour or journey with specific stages or adventures along the way. Safety zones Critically, there are points in time where you can clearly state what the organisation will look like after a series of projects have been implemented or steps taken. Safety zones allow you to review progress, tune the overall programme plan if circumstances have changed and demonstrate business results. During the period usually no more than six months several projects, which may be interconnected, can be in operation.
Projects These are time limited. In short, they start and finish and have specific measurable, attainable, relevant and trackable outputs. A team is put together for the specific duration and released at the end. Projects cannot be interconnected across evolution zones. Time and Funding A programme runs over years. This means that budgets and planning across the organisation need to make provision for this, year on year.
It is simply the cost of doing business. People are the key to success: this, after all, is as much about change management as anything. So, let's summarise what you need before you start: G CEO sponsorship - The CEO must understand it, be able to clearly state what the vision and requirement are, and be prepared to take executive action.
G Programme Director Champion - Someone with clout eg: respected operational board director who is prepared to take responsibility for delivering against business objectives. The individual will be accountable to the board and no one else. Can call on the CEO when needed. This poses challenges to your management team, to release people to work on the CRM programme.
Do not let it become a dumping ground for poor performers. Process is a tool to deliver the result, not an end in itself. G Execute an ongoing communication plan - This should be aimed at all stakeholders, be they customers, investors, employees or suppliers. It should focus on benefits expected, route to achieving them and the role people can play in making the CRM programme happen. Different emphasis and depth for each audience are required. G Fail to prepare, prepare to fail! Plans are living things, they need constant updating and monitoring. They should be the key tool for determining the status of the programme or projects.
Plan your work and work your plan! Then train them in: - listening skills - negotiating skills - presentation and communication skills - planning skills G Remember the sequence - Design, plan, build, implement and then operate. This simple reminder will provide a sanity check at any stage of a project or the overall programme. Too many projects have ended up on the rocks because people tried to bypass these basic steps. Failure to do this will sink your programme and people will never understand the consequences of requests for changes.
But, as we all know, things rarely go exactly to plan, so ensure you have flexibility and contingency built in. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! There is only one opportunity to make a good a start and this Pocketbook will help new managers do just that. Central to The Starting in Management Pocketbook are team skills - creating staff loyalty and commitment, building working relationships that are constructive and creative, and forging teams that are successful.
The author begins by defining management, identifying the skills required and highlighting the different styles of management. The importance of reconnaissance and preparation prior to taking up the post is then dealt with before spotlighting the key issues facing managers on day one in the new job. Help Centre. Track My Order.
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