The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya)

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Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria , a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD. In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. Denis Papin , a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in , first used a piston to raise weights in ; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in by Thomas Savery.

It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost.

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Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in ; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder.

It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.

The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam.

The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient , depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.

Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres. Crankshaft A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.

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In a reciprocating engine, it translates reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion. In order to do the conversion between two motions, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or "crankpins", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder attach, it is connected to a flywheel to reduce the pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle, sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsional vibrations caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from the output end acting on the torsional elasticity of the metal.

The earliest hand-operated cranks appeared in China during the Han Dynasty , they were used for silk-reeling, hemp-spinning, for the agricultural winnowing fan, in the water-powered flour-sifter, for hydraulic-powered metallurgic bellows, in the well windlass. The rotary winnowing fan increased the efficiency of separating grain from husks and stalks. However, the potential of the crank of converting circular motion into reciprocal motion never seems to have been realized in China, the crank was absent from such machines until the turn of the 20th century.

Al-Jazari described a crank and connecting rod system in a rotating machine in two of his water-raising machines, his twin-cylinder pump incorporated a crankshaft, including both the crank and shaft mechanisms.

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The 15th century saw the introduction of cranked rack-and-pinion devices, called cranequins, which were fitted to the crossbow's stock as a means of exerting more force while spanning the missile weapon. In the textile industry, cranked reels for winding skeins of yarn were introduced. Around , the early medieval rotary grindstone was improved with a crank mechanism. Cranks mounted on push-carts first appear in a German engraving of Crankshafts were described by Leonardo da Vinci and a Dutch farmer and windmill owner by the name Cornelis Corneliszoon van Uitgeest in His wind-powered sawmill used a crankshaft to convert a windmill's circular motion into a back-and-forward motion powering the saw.

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Corneliszoon was granted a patent for his crankshaft in Cranks were common on some machines in the early 20th century. Reciprocating piston engines use cranks to convert the linear piston motion into rotational motion. Internal combustion engines of early 20th century automobiles were started with hand cranks, before electric starters came into general use; the Reo owner's manual describes how to hand crank the automobile: First: Make sure the gear shifting lever is in neutral position.

Second: The clutch pedal is unlatched and the clutch engaged. The brake pedal is pushed forward as far as possible setting brakes on the rear wheel. Third: See that spark control lever, the short lever located on top of the steering wheel on the right side, is back as far as possible toward the driver and the long lever, on top of the steering column controlling the carburetor , is pushed forward about one inch from its retarded position. Test for this by pressing down on the small pin projecting from the front of the bowl until the carburetor floods. If it fails to flood it shows that the fuel is not being delivered to the carburetor properly and the motor cannot be expected to start.

See instructions on page 56 for filling the vacuum tank. Sixth: When it is certain the carburetor has a supply of fuel, grasp the handle of starting crank, push in endwise to engage ratchet with crank shaft pin and turn over the motor by giving a quick upward pull.

Never push down, because if for any reason the motor should kick back, it would endanger the operator.

Ismail al-Jazari

Large engines are multicylinder to reduce pulsations from individual firing strokes, with more than one piston attached to a complex crankshaft. Many small engines, such as those found in mopeds or garden machinery, are single cylinder and use only a single piston, simplifying crankshaft design. A crankshaft is subjected to enormous stresses equivalent of several tonnes of force; the crankshaft is connected to the fly-wheel, the engine block, using bearings on the main journals, to the pistons via their respective con-rods.

The crankshaft has a linear axis about which it rotates with several bearing journals riding on replaceable bearings held in the engine block; as the crankshaft undergoes a great deal of sideways load from each cylinder in a multicylinder engine, it must be supported by several such bearings, not just one at each end.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people with the name, see al-Jazari surname. Cizre , Artuqid State [1]. Main article: Elephant clock. Further information: Clock tower. The musical robot band designed by al-Jazari.

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A table device automaton designed by al-Jazari. Donald R. Hill, in Dictionary of scientific biography , 15, suppl. Lehr , De Geschiedenis van het Astronomisch Kunstuurwerk , p. See odur. Beeston, M. Young, J. Routledge , London and New York. Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 4 October Reidel, part II. Retrieved 6 September Categories : births deaths History of Islamic science Inventors of medieval Islam Medieval Arab clockmakers Locksmiths Medieval physicists 12th-century mathematicians 13th-century mathematicians Medieval engineers. Related Images. YouTube Videos. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.

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The Kaaba in Mecca is the direction of prayer and Muslim destination of pilgrimage. Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.

A manuscript written on paper during the Abbasid Era. Traditional hand block print artisan in India. Glassblowing artisans at work in a crystal glass workshop. Craftsman of salt in Salinas Grandes, Salta province Argentina. Detail of arabesque decoration at the Alhambra in Spain. The Ardabil Carpet , probably the finest surviving Persian carpet , Tabriz , midth century.

Scene from the Khamsa of Nizami , Persian, — Turkish Ushak carpet. Mardin is a city and multiple bishopric in southeastern Turkey. The city's history dates to before BC. Located some km north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank.

The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries. Ayyubid Sultanate in pink at the death of Saladin in An Ayyubid coin minted in Aleppo bearing the name of Emir al-Zahir. The Firdaws Madrasa was built in under the patronage of Dayfa Khatun. Statue of Saladin in Damascus. A possible portrait of Saladin, found in a work by Ismail al-Jazari , circa Saladin ended his siege of the Ismaili " Assassins " fortress of Masyaf , which was commanded by Rashid ad-Din Sinan , under uncertain circumstances in August Saladin assured the protection of caravan routes that allowed travel to distant lands.

Motorcycle transmission showing cylindrical cam with three followers. Each follower controls the position of a shift fork. Key duplicating machine. The original key mounted in the left hand holder acts as a linear cam to control the cut depth for the duplicate. An automaton is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.

The book About automata by Hero of Alexandria edition. The Antikythera mechanism from — BC was designed to calculate the positions of astronomical objects. Elephant automaton at Waddesdon Manor. A water clock or clepsydra is any timepiece by which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into or out from a vessel, and where the amount is then measured. A display of two outflow water clocks from the Ancient Agora Museum in Athens.

The top is an original from the late 5th century BC. The bottom is a reconstruction of a clay original. The water-powered mechanism of Su Song's astronomical clock tower , featuring a clepsydra tank, waterwheel , escapement mechanism, and chain drive to power an armillary sphere and striking clock jacks to sound the hours and to display informative plaques.

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Ancient Persian clock in Qanats of Gonabad Zibad. They are used in pairs. The lower, stationary, stone is called a quern, while the upper mobile stone is called a handstone. The central hole is called the hopper and a handle slot enables the handstone to be rotated. An ancient tool used to grind food items in Nepal. A stack of quern-stones for sale in a market in Haikou , Hainan , China. These quern-stones are only about 30 cm wide.

Querns from the Whithorn Museum. Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Public Domain. Author: Badi' al-Zaman ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari — Object Name: Folio from an illustrated manuscript. Date: dated A. Geography: Attributed to Syria or Iraq. Medium: Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper. Dimensions: H. Classification: Codices. Credit Line: Rogers Fund, Accession Number: Timelines The Eastern Mediterranean, A. Browse the Collection. With the exception of two manuscripts attributed to the thirteenth century,[1] the dispersed book from which these illustrations come is the earliest copy of the text.

The book had its genesis in a conversation between al-Jazari and Nasr al-Din Mahmud r. The sections cover: 1 the construction of clocks that show the passage of the "constant and solar hours"; 2 the construction of vessels and figures used for drinking; 3 the construction of pitchers and basins for phlebotomy and ritual washing; 4 the construction of fountains that change shape and "machines for the perpetual flute"; 5 the construction of machines for raising water; and 6 the construction of "different, dissimilar things. The image fol.

At the top is a lobed arch mihrab containing two young confronted peacocks. In the completed device, the arch would be surmounted by a further arch containing a peahen, above which was a semicircle bordered by fifteen glass roundels. Another arch below the pair of peacocks would contain a single peacock. At daybreak the peahen would face right but in the course of half an hour would turn completely to the left.

Half of the first roundel would turn red and the pair of peacocks would whistle loudly. After another half an hour, the peahen would turn back to the right, the roundel would turn red, and the peacocks would whistle, and so on until half an hour after sunset. At night the roundels would fill with light for the number of hours of darkness.

Below the peacocks is a wheel with large scoops intersected by an axle and another wheel that should be toothed and mesh with another toothed wheel attached by a rod to a ball on which the single peacock stands. When the water fills the scoops, the wheels turn and the peacock rotates. Although the scooped wheel is depicted sideways, its axle would have been perpendicular to the back wall of the mihrab, which it would have pierced, connecting to a pipe on the inside of the house. This pump is remarkable for three reasons: [4] [28] [29] [30].

Al-Jazari's suction piston pump could lift This was more advanced than the suction pumps that appeared in 15th-century Europe, which lacked delivery pipes. It was not, however, any more efficient than the noria commonly used by the Muslim world at the time. The system had water from a lake turn a scoop-wheel and a system of gears which transported jars of water up to a water channel that led to mosques and hospitals in the city.

Al-Jazari built automated moving peacocks driven by hydropower. Mark E. Rosheim summarizes the advances in robotics made by Muslim engineers, especially al-Jazari, as follows:. Unlike the Greek designs, these Arab examples reveal an interest, not only in dramatic illusion, but in manipulating the environment for human comfort. Thus, the greatest contribution the Arabs made, besides preserving, disseminating and building on the work of the Greeks, was the concept of practical application.

This was the key element that was missing in Greek robotic science. The Arabs, on the other hand, displayed an interest in creating human-like machines for practical purposes but lacked, like other preindustrial societies, any real impetus to pursue their robotic science. One of al-Jazari's humanoid automata was a waitress that could serve water, tea or drinks.

The drink was stored in a tank with a reservoir from where the drink drips into a bucket and, after seven minutes, into a cup, after which the waitress appears out of an automatic door serving the drink. Al-Jazari invented a hand washing automaton incorporating a flush mechanism now used in modern flush toilets. It features a female humanoid automaton standing by a basin filled with water. When the user pulls the lever, the water drains and the female automaton refills the basin. Al-Jazari's "peacock fountain" was a more sophisticated hand washing device featuring humanoid automata as servants which offer soap and towels.

Rosheim describes it as follows: [35]. Pulling a plug on the peacock's tail releases water out of the beak; as the dirty water from the basin fills the hollow base a float rises and actuates a linkage which makes a servant figure appear from behind a door under the peacock and offer soap. When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant figure — with a towel! Al-Jazari's work described fountains and musical automata, in which the flow of water alternated from one large tank to another at hourly or half-hourly intervals.

This operation was achieved through his innovative use of hydraulic switching. Al-Jazari created a musical automaton, which was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties.

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  8. Professor Noel Sharkey has argued that it is quite likely that it was an early programmable automata and has produced a possible reconstruction of the mechanism; it has a programmable drum machine with pegs cams that bump into little levers that operated the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs were moved around. Al-Jazari constructed a variety of water clocks and candle clocks. These included a portable water-powered scribe clock , which was a meter high and half a meter wide, reconstructed successfully at the Science Museum in [24] [40] Al-Jazari also invented monumental water-powered astronomical clocks which displayed moving models of the Sun, Moon, and stars.

    According to Donald Hill , al-Jazari described the most sophisticated candle clocks known to date. Hill described one of al-Jazari's candle clocks as follows: [4]. The candle, whose rate of burning was known, bore against the underside of the cap, and its wick passed through the hole. Wax collected in the indentation and could be removed periodically so that it did not interfere with steady burning.

    The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya)
    The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya)
    The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya)
    The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya)
    The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma ’rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya)

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