The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data

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The results were encouraging: Peters found that her classifiers worked well enough to be useful in practice. As a second example, companies want their modifications be included in projects in order to avoid having to maintain the code themselves, and volunteers want an indication whether their patch stands a chance as well. Like many data science projects, this one starts by getting and cleaning data from multiple sources, including Git repositories and Gerrit code reviews.

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However, for projects that use email-based review, like the Linux kernel, gathering data means scraping mailing list archives and using heuristics like the checksums of patches or set-based intersection of changed lines to match patches to conversations. Even with the help of tools like GrimoireLab , there will always be patches of which multiple versions were reviewed, and patches split into multiple parts that were reviewed separately.

As in all data science, it is up to the analyst to build a model, and the assumptions in it will have a powerful impact on the final conclusions. Just this half dozen might use everything from survival statistics to sentiment analysis. Once deciding what to measure, you can apply the data science tools that DataCamp 's courses teach. Since your real goal is to predict acceptance of future patches, the most straightforward approach is logistic regression, but there are many others. Finally, you can measure variable importance to determine the impact of each variable on patch acceptance.

This will necessarily be partly qualitative, since your goal is to identify what developers can do to improve the odds of their work making it into the product. The biggest change in how programmers work over the last 20 years hasn't been in the languages they use: it has been the near-universal reliance on Stack Overflow for asking questions and getting answers.

Christoph Treude at the University of Adelaide and his collaborators have been developing methods to make sites like this more useful. Their starting point is the Stack Overflow data dump. After doing some exploratory statistics to look at the number of words and sentences, most common words, term frequency—inverse document frequency TF-IDF , and so on, the next step is to see which words in the Stack Overflow threads co-occur with higher votes, higher acceptance rates, and higher view counts.

Since software documentation contains many incomplete sentences and code elements, off-the-shelf natural language processing libraries often get things wrong. Software documentation written in languages other than English is even more difficult to parse since it still tends to use English for technical terminology. That is, it mixes two natural languages and code elements. Ad hoc heuristics and more advanced modeling techniques have to be used together to handle cases like this.

Putting the pieces together makes it possible to build a tool that takes the name of a Python module as input and produces meaningful sentences about this module from the Stack Overflow threads. Going further, Treude and his collaborators were able to use grammatical dependencies between words to automatically find software documentation that explains how to perform a task, and then to automatically identify code snippets that can accomplish this task.

All too often, widely-held truths about software development are based on strong opinions and loud voices rather than evidence. As described at the outset, that is changing as hundreds of high-quality studies appear every year to support some beliefs, such as "code review really is the best way to find bugs", and challenge others, like "test-driven development isn't as effective as some people believe, and goto statements aren't really harmful". If that's true, then software development might finally, thanks to data science, be on its way to becoming a real engineering discipline.

If you would like to see courses to show you how to apply data science to software development, please let us know. Researchers present dozens of new findings in this area every year at conferences like Mining Software Repositories. Some of these proceedings are still locked behind academic paywals, but a growing number of researchers make preprints available. For those in search of an overview, the book Making Software was a "greatest hits" collection of the most interesting results of the time. Log in. What can data science mean for software development?

In this blog post, you'll discover some interesting case studies of data science in software engineering! What a growing number are realizing is that they can use those same techniques to answer their own questions, such as: When will this project be ready to ship? Which components of our application most need to be tested? Who should fix this bug? What parts of my API do people find hardest to use? Springer Codes could be the different types of tools, e. Landis and G. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33 1 —, Example of a card for a card sort 53 Have an ID for each card.

Same length of ID is better. Put a reference to the survey response Print in large font, the larger the better this is 19 pt. Analyze This! ICSE 54 Please list up to five questions you would like them to answer. Summarize each category with a set of descriptive questions. I would use this to plan the replacement of components.

Identify areas to focus on for in-depth security review or re-architecting. Software is rarely a fire and forget proposition but usually has a fairly predictable lifecycle. We rarely examine the long term cost of projects and the burden we place on ourselves and SE as we move forward.

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Years at Microsoft Split questionnaire design, where each participant received a subset of the questions Q Q on average Why conduct interviews? Aranda and G. Types of interviews Structured — Exact set of questions, often quantitative in nature, uses and interview script Semi-Structured — High level questions, usually qualitative, uses an interview guide Unstructured — High level list of topics, exploratory in nature, often a conversation, used in ethnographies and case studies.

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Barr, C. Bird, P. Rigby, A. Hindle, D. German, and P. Cohesive and Isolated Development with Branches. FASE Preparation: Data collection Some interviews may require interviewee- specific preparation. Hindle, C. Zimmermann, N. ICSM Preparation: Contacting Introduce yourself.

Initial Publication (please cite this)

Tell them what your goal is. How can it benefit them? How long will it take? Do they need any preparation? Why did you select them in particular? Bacchelli and C. Thoughts, impressions, discussion with co-interviewer, follow- ups. Affinity Diagram 74 Select representative quotes that capture general sentiment. Additional References Hove and Anda. IEEE, Seaman, C. Find the crap 2. Cut the crap; 3. ICML 81 By Why Prune? But Why Prune? Selection of the optimal prototype subset for 1-nn classification. Pattern Recognition Letters, —, 86 Q: What does that look like?

Di Stefano: On the relative value of cross-company and within-company data for defect prediction. Select any pair favoring those with most power 2. Combine pair, compute its power 3. Sort back into the ranges 4. Explanation is easier since we are explorer smaller parts of the data So would inference also be faster?

There are several examples of conclusion instability in SE model studies. Mair, C. The consistency of empirical comparisons of regression and analogy-based software project cost prediction. In: Intl. Kitchenham, B. Why does Conclusion Instability Occur? Menzies, T. Empirical Software Engineering, 17 , Minku, X.

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Song, L. Minku, L. Management of Data, p. On Soft. Engineering, 39 6 , Ensemble Methods in Machine Learning. Brown, J. Wyatt, R. Harris, X. Journal of Information Fusion 6 1 : , Different ensemble approaches can be seen as different ways to generate diversity among base learners! BNB1 B Bagging Ensembles of Regression Trees L.

Bagging Predictors. Machine Learning 24 2 , Sample uniformly with replacement Hall, E. Frank, G. Holmes, B.

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Pfahringer, P. Reutemann, I. Sc SxSc Sa Sk Rank solo-methods based on win, loss, win-loss Kocaguneli, E. On the Value of Ensemble Effort Estimation. Rank methods acc. Sort methods acc. Multi-objective Ensembles Training data completed projects Ensemble B1 B2 B3 Multi-objective evolutionary algorithm creates nondominated models with several different trade- offs.

The model with the best performance in terms of each particular measure can be picked to form an ensemble with a good trade-off.

The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data
The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data
The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data
The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data
The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data
The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data
The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data

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