Excellent Reference for modeling! Inhalt Abschnitt 1. Abschnitt 3. T Medium Tank —94 Steven J. He has published numerous books and articles dealing with modern military technology, especially armoured vehicle development. His main area of interest is military affairs in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in the Second World War, and he has also written extensively on American armoured forces.
Jim Kinnear was born in Glasgow in and graduated from Aberdeen University in He has published numerous articles in the defence press on Soviet and Russian AFV's, weapon systems and military transport. Some Russian histories use different names: they refer to the first T as the T Model instead of , all Ts with the original turret and F gun as Model instead of Models and , and hexagonal-turret T as Model instead of Zheltov , passim. The Finns called the T Sotka after a diving duck common goldeneye, because the side silhouette of the tank resembles a swimming waterfowl as related in the memoirs of Finnish tank ace Lauri Heino.
Various technical improvements continued to be made to the T, including major refurbishing programs in and All T models are externally very similar. Pre-war development of a more advanced T tank was resumed in , leading to the T The new tank had a turret design based on the T's, but a new hull with torsion-bar suspension and transversely-mounted engine. It had a lower profile than the T and was simpler to manufacture. Between to of these tanks were built before the end of the war. With some drive-train modifications and a new turret and gun, it became the T, starting production in Czechoslovakian-built Ts can be recognised by a semi-conical armoured fairing like a rear-facing scoop on the left rear slanting side panel of the engine compartment sponson.
These were widely exported. After the Second World War, some Ts were fitted with mm howitzers as self-propelled artillery by Syria and Egypt. There were many support vehicles and even civilian tractors and cranes built on the T chassis starting during the war and continuing at least into the s.
The vast majority of these were conversions of old or damaged tanks and self-propelled guns. The T is often used as a symbol for the effectiveness of the Soviet counterattack against the Germans. The appearance of the T in the summer of was a psychological shock to German soldiers, who had been prepared to face an inferior Soviet enemy; this is shown by Alfred Jodl's diary, who seems to have been taken by surprise at the appearance of the T in Riga.
The T could take on all German tanks effectively. There was a shortage of recovery and repair equipment, and it was not uncommon for early Ts to go into combat carrying a spare transmission on the engine deck. The mechanical troubles were eventually sorted out.
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During the winter of —42, the T again dominated German tanks through its ability to move over deep mud or snow without bogging down. German tanks simply could not move over the same terrain the T could handle.
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The German infantry, at that time armed mostly with PaK 36 37mm and PaK 38 50mm towed antitank guns, had no effective means of stopping Ts. At the time, German troops began to call the PaK 36 37mm gun by the derisive name "Door-Knocker," since it was incapable of penetrating the tank's armour even at close ranges, and served only to announce the location of a camouflaged German firing position to the T crew.
Only the poor level of Soviet crew training and the ineptitude of Soviet commanders prevented the T from achieving greater success. The emphasis in the Red Army in —43 was on rebuilding the losses of and improving tactical proficiency.
T production increased rapidly, but the design was 'frozen' — generally, only improvements that sped production were adopted. Soviet designers were well aware of the need to correct certain deficiencies in the design, but these improvements would have cost production time and could not be adopted.
By mid T production was running at about 1, tanks per month, much higher than the German rate. However, Soviet losses greatly exceeded German losses due to continued tactical inferiority. In response to the T, the Germans were beginning to field larger numbers of high-velocity PaK 40 75mm guns, both towed and self-propelled. They were also able to put the Tiger heavy tank into the field in late and Panther medium tank by mid By mid-war the T no longer held technical superiority over German tanks. Loss ratios remained unfavourable to the Soviets; as their technical superiority waned, their tactical proficiency was not catching up fast enough.
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However, the few Soviet tank crewmen who survived early encounters became clever and battle-hardened veterans. To the Soviet advantage there were far fewer Panthers than Ts, and the T was good enough to allow skilled crew and tactical situations to tip the balance. By the time the T had replaced older models and became available in greater numbers, newer German tanks including the improved German design based on the T, the Panzer-V 'Panther' outperformed it.
The Soviets' late-war Iosif Stalin heavy tanks were also better-armed and better-armoured than the T Each tank formed the backbone of the armoured units in their own and allied armies. Both were good designs at the time they debuted. Both were improved significantly without much loss of effectiveness. Both could be manufactured in large numbers and maintained in difficult conditions. Tanks were expected to have many roles on the battlefield, the foremost being infantry support and exploitation.
The tank-vs-tank role is nonetheless very important. That German tank production was limited to relatively small numbers of superior but complex vehicles in part because of production diversion into self-propelled guns told against them. The Soviet decision to build large numbers of Ts, gradually improving and simplifying the design, was a much better decision and helped to win the Second World War. The North Korean invasion of South Korea in was spearheaded by a full brigade equipped with about Ts. M24 light tanks, but lost its momentum when faced with U. M26 medium tanks and infantry well-equipped with antitank weapons.
Ts equipped many of the Warsaw Pact Armies and were employed in the suppression of the Hungarian uprising in Croatia inherited twenty-five or thirty from Yugoslavia but has since withdrawn them from service. Ts were sporadically available in Afghanistan it is unknown if Ts were used against coalition troops and Saddam Hussein had Ts in his army in the early s. Several African states, including Angola and Somalia , have employed Ts in recent years.
T Medium Tank, by Steven Zaloga, Jim Kinnear | Waterstones
Cuban Ts have also seen action in Africa. Cyprus National Guard forces equipped with some thirty-five T tanks were used to enforce a coup by the Greek junta against democratically-elected President Archbishop Makarios on July 15, They also saw extensive action against Turkish forces during the Turkish Invasion in July and August , with two major actions at Kioneli and at Kyrenia on July 20, Drousiotis China produced T under the designation Type 58 , though production soon stopped when Type 59 became available. A small number of T's have also been spotted in China, converted into fire-fighting vehicles.
Combat effectiveness of early war Ts can best be evaluated in terms of 'hard' factors—armour, firepower, and mobility—and 'soft' factors: ergonomic features such as ease of use, vision devices, crew task layout and so forth. The T was outstanding in hard factors and poor in soft ones. The 'big three' of tank design have always been armour, firepower, and mobility. In its thick, sloped armour could defeat all German anti-armour weapons at normal ranges. Ts could be knocked out only by the towed 88mm Flak guns or at close range by 50mm and 75mm short-barrelled tank guns.
New Vanguard: T-34-85 Medium Tank 1944-94 20 by Jim Kinnear and Steven J. Zaloga (1996, Paperback)
The majority of German tanks in did not have 75mm guns; indeed 37mm guns were far more common. By mid the T was vulnerable to improved German weapons and remained so throughout the war, but its armour protection was equal to or superior to comparable tanks such as the US M4 Sherman or German Pzkw-IV. In terms of firepower, the T's 76mm gun could penetrate any German tank with ease. This gun also fired an adequate HE round. Find out more about OverDrive accounts. The T tank is one of those rare weapons that have remained in service for more than half a century. First introduced in , it has seen combat in nearly every corner of the globe.
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