As a result, management should pay attention to developing relationships between supply chain operations. As far as logistics is concerned, recycling and product take back initiatives are a priority. Therefore, logistics operations should be redesigned to suit such integrative relationships between players. The development and application of the most appropriate green strategies and the insight of the implications of the chosen strategy is a challenge to most decision makers in GSCM. Supply chain managers should be able to identify the most appropriate green solution to meet various needs of different product-market characteristics.
Moreover, the decision makers should find ways to evaluate the impact of potential supply chain strategies to the natural environment and the environmental performance change, apart from the economic advantages expected from the strategy.
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In this study, we have proposed a taxonomic approach to the selection of appropriate green supply chain strategies, based on a study of real-world case studies found in literature. The study identifies three key dimensions upon which our taxonomy is based, that is, product , process , and supply chain relationship or collaboration.
Our approach categorises green supply chain strategies into compliance-based, eco-efficient, innovation-centred, and closed-loop strategies, proving case examples in each category. This research offers a significant contribution to both academics and practitioners in green supply chain management. First, the study goes a long way in providing a practical tool or framework for managers when developing green supply chain strategies, given specific industrial contexts in which the strategies are to be applied.
Second, the taxonomic framework offers managerial insight into the implications of the choice of specific strategies on the operations policies of the supply chain. Third, the study goes a long way in advancing the body of knowledge in GSCM. Alexander, F. ISO what does it mean for IE's? IIE Solutions , January, Arena, U.
Life cycle assessment of a plastic packaging recycling system. International l Journal of Life Cycle Assessment , 8, 92— Ashley, S. Designing for the environment. Mechanical Engineering, 3. Azzone, G. Exploiting green strategies for competitive advantage. Long Range Planning , 27 6 , 6 Measuring strategic environmental performance. Business Strategy and the Environment , 3, Measuring the environmental performance of new products: an integrated approach.
International Journal of Production Research , 34 11 , 30 At last we are creating environmental strategies which work. Long Range Planning, 30 4 , Baines, T. Examining green production and its role within the competitive strategy of manufacturers. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management , 5 1 , Barros, A. A two-level network for recycling sand: A case study. European Journal of Operational Research , , Beamon, B.
Designing the green supply chain. Logistics Information Management , 12 4 , Sustainability and the Future of Supply Chain Management. Operations and Supply Chain Management , 1 1 , Childerhouse, P. Enabling seamless market-orientated supply chains. Christopher, M. Developing market specific supply chain strategies. International Journal of Logistics Management , 13 1 , The agile supply chain: competing in volatile markets. Industrial Marketing Management , 29 1 , A taxonomy for selecting global supply chain strategies.
The International Journal of Logistics Managemen t, 17 2 , Corbett, C. Extending the horizons: Environmental excellence as key to improving operations. Manufacturing and Service Operations Management , 8 1 , 5 - Crainic, T. Dynamic and stochastic models for the allocation of empty containers. Operations Research, 41, Dobers, P. Business Strategy and the Environment, 9 3 , Elkington, J. Oxford: Capstone Publishing.
Sustainable Logistics and Supply Chains: Innovations and Integral Approaches
Fisher, M. What is the right supply chain for your product? Harvard Business Review , March-April, Guide, V. Inventory buffers in recoverable manufacturing. Journal of Operations Management, 16, Guide, D. The reverse supply chain.
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management
Harvard Business Review, 80 2 , Building contingency planning for close-loop supply chains with product recovery. Journal of Operations Management , 21, Hart, S. A natural-resource-based view of the firm. Academy of Management Review, 20 4 , Beyond greening: Strategies for a sustainable world. Harvard Business Review, 75 1 , Heying, A. Hu, A. Empirical study in the critical factors of green supply chain management GSCM practice in the Taiwanese electrical and electronics industries. King, A. The strategic use of decentralized institutions, exploring certification with the ISO management standard.
Academy of Management Journal , 48 6 , Klassen, R. Collaboration and evaluation in the supply chain: The impact on plant-level environmental investment. Production and Operations Management , 12 3 , Kocabasoglu, C. Linking forward and reverse supply chain investments: The role of business uncertainty. Journal of Operations Management , 25 6 , Kumar, S.
System dynamics study of the Japanese automotive industry closed loop supply chain. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management , 1 2 , Laan, E. Production planning and inventory control with remanufacturing and disposal.
Sustainable supply chain management: current debate and future directions
European Journal of Operations Research, , Lamming, R. The causes and effects of structural change in the European automotive components industry. Lenox, M. Prospects for developing absorptive capacity through internal information provision. Strategic Management Journal , 25 , Liker, J. Building deep supplier relationships. Harvard Business Review , December.
Melnyk S. Assessing the impact of environmental management systems on corporate and environmental performance. Journal of Operations Management , 21 3 , Modi, S. Supplier development: Improving supplier performance through knowledge transfer. Journal of Operations Management , 25 1 , New, S. An analysis of private versus public sector responses to the environmental challenges of the supply chain. Navin-Chandra, D. Design for environmentability.
Design Theory and Methodology, 31, Ninlawan C. Pagell, M. The supply chain implications of recycling. Business Horizon , 50 , - Paulraj, A. Inter- organizational communication as a relational competency: Antecedents and performance outcomes in collaborative buyer—supplier relationships. Journal of Operations Management , 26 , 45 - Plambeck, L. Supply Chain Management Review , Pohlen, T.
Reverse logistics in plastic recycling. Porter, M. Green and competitive. Harvard Business Review, 73 5 , Pratt, K. Environmental standards could govern trade. Transportation and Distribution , 38, Rahimifard, S. Aspects of sustainable design and manufacture. International Journal of Production Research, 45 , Roberts, D.
Wal-Mart CEO lays out ambitious social and environmental goals for his company. Roy, R. Successful recycling through value-chain collaboration. Long Range Planning, 25, Reverse logistics practices in the Spanish SMEs context. As one of the leading food and beverage companies in the world, PepsiCo is the parent company for hundreds of diverse and beloved household brands.
The company has done a great job transitioning its supply chain capacity to handle more complex products to follow consumer trends to more nutritious foods than carbonated soft drinks and processed snacks. PepsiCo has developed significant improvements such as sustainability initiatives, collaborative production scheduling, setting inventory buffers, and selective procurement and sourcing, to achieve a resilient and efficient supply chain.
Formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, 3M produces more than 55, products including adhesives, laminates, electronic materials, medical products, optical films, dental and orthodontic products and more. Starting in , the company underwent a massive restructuring of their supply chain, from a linear, analog structure to a technology-based one. The manufacturer of pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods and medical devices has been making consistent improvements to their supply chain , with significant advancements happening as recently as last year. Developments include procurement sustainability, measuring energy use and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, lean manufacturing, responsible sourcing, and increasing standards for suppliers.
In order to serve consumers with greater efficiency and reduced cost, 95 percent of the beverages are made in the country where they are sold. By keeping manufacturing and sourcing local, The Coca-Cola Company is able to minimize production time. Communications and information technology company Nokia owes much of their supply chain management success to a dedication for agility. As the largest producer of chemicals in the world, German company BASF uses science and innovation to create chemical products that serve the society of today as well as the future.
The company applies a combination of social responsibility and environmental protection to its production efforts, and sustainability is at the forefront of its supply chain management priorities. BASF is currently working toward their goal of reviewing the sustainability performance of 70 percent of their relevant suppliers and developing action plans for necessary improvements.
Multinational retailing corporation Wal-Mart is the second-largest employer in the United States, and their supply chain management is a logistical and operational masterpiece. The company has made their supply chain work for them with fewer links in the chain, strategic vendor partnerships, a cross-docking inventory tactic, and technology innovations to cut costs.
HP is most well known for their printers and other IT products, but they also have a serious dedication to sustainability for their company and the global community through their supply chain excellence. By , HP has goals to double their factory participation in sustainability programs and improve the skills and well-being of , factory workers.
With essential products that touch one in every four people around the world every day, Kimberly-Clark is a personal care corporation whose consumer products mostly paper-based are integral to almost every household. There was not our focus a literature review, but it is necessary to know about social sustainability in relation to its integration with the supply chain management studies.
Among the many themes, we identified some aspects that can contribute to have equilibrium in the concept: Socially responsible purchasing EHRGOTT et al. These are the main topics discussed in the literature. The majority of them have a focus in social issues only in the business, but it is clear that societal issues should to be practiced to have a great contribution for the sustainability. As can be seen in these themes, when social dimension of sustainability are discussed, few studies are focusing in sustainable supply chain.
This occurs mostly because the focus has been on the changes of social practices and process in individual businesses. According to Leire and Mont , social issues studied in this form have high internal legitimacy in organizations, which is related to routines and everyday decisions, though it is necessary to observe such questions in the supply chain as a whole. This occurs as discussed by Clift , about sustainability, since what is internal in the organizations is not normally observed in all the supply chain.
A tendency for corporate social responsibility is observed is these studies, which is not equivalent to sustainability concept. However, it is necessary to expand the impact of the social dimension and its interaction with other basic dimensions. As pointed out by Hutchins and Sutherland , this is an issue that until recently has not been well defined.
For these authors, the companies seek initially in their practices to remedy basic needs of employees and sometimes of community; however macro actions must also be considered. This idea differs from the sustainable practices in developing countries MONT et al. In the same way, Sharma and Ruud indicate that one should observe the aspect of social problems with poverty reduction and the minimization of environmental impacts, as in building networks and sustainable communities in developing countries, to consider the adequacy of country conditions, such as the set of small and medium enterprises SMEs that may be involved in the procurement process.
Such a type of company needs a different view. For Ciliberti et al. As an example, Ehrgott et al. As one seeks to change the interaction with another context, one should also modify their actions. According to the authors, the suppliers' selection was carried out in developing countries, leaving dubious understanding of the intentions of this process, if it has the approach of seeking to develop the best suppliers to provide a dynamic on sustainability in SCM, or if the idea is just reducing costs so in relation to what is known about the locality.
The impacts of these practices are questionable, both in relation to the supply chain and for the development of the locality. According to Ketchen and Hult , discussing social capital within a traditional view of supply chains is to seek to understand the conflicting loyalties between the company and the relationship.
For Min et al. With this view, we discuss a transposition of aspects that are individual to the business context as possible, seeking to consider other elements. According to Coleman , capital can be understood as a resource available to facilitate the construction of a social structure conducive to the joint market proposed by Granovetter For Coleman , social capital has a focus on individual contribution to the relationship between social actors. In other words it is directed for social relations.
There are many definitions on this topic, whether internal or external to the organizations, but as Adler and Kwon present, there are a number of issues that confront these fields. For Putnam , the ability of cooperation between groups and organizations is referred. Under the supply chain perspective, one may consider the concept as a set of features that not only focuses on the relationship, but the interactions between the actors in such a relationship MIN et al. It is noteworthy that for the discussion made here, this development goes beyond the economic, influencing in the process of local change.
Therefore, it is understood that there necessarily be an interaction of relationships and social structures considered with an institutionalization process of practices for sustainability, which can be well observed with respect to corporate social responsibility and the development of actions and practices that influence the community in different areas such as education, for example CILIBERTI et al.
Thus, according to Hutchins and Sutherland , one should consider the identification of the borders surrounding social impact assessment resulting from the interaction between companies and their suppliers, among other actions. It would help if there was a narrowing between social relations, facilitating the sustainability. There are different ways of dealing with this approach.
For Ketchen and Hult , this can be facilitated by the inclusion of discussions of organizational theories in the field of operations and supply chains. According to the authors, there are many discussions that may be performed even if the use of these theories is still at an early stage. For Gold et al. Thus, the Institutional Theory IT stands out. According to Zsidisin et al. According to Moxham and Kauppi , using IT is possible to achieve the social issues in sustainable supply chain. For them, the way for that can be to use the fair trade perspective seeking to legitimate the use of social dimension in the topic.
In relation to social issues, it is also possible to apply institutional theory to study CSR and Social Capital. From the discussion conducted, it is clear that the social issues can be the core of the strategies and contribute directly for sustainable supply chain in different perspective. Next section highlights the Brazilian context.
As presented in our arguments until here, the social issues can be considered a strategic pillar toward sustainable supply chain. This is a necessity around world, but mostly in emerging economic, since the social issues require more attention in the society. We bring the Brazilian perspective to discuss about a demand that is clear in our daily operations, but this debate is also necessary considering the last cases of slave labor that some company are presenting. Moreover, child labor and lack of human right are latent aspects that are observed as result of a low concern of companies in their practices and in certificate or auditee its suppliers.
Therefore, Griesse argues that the Brazil is considered as a multifaceted country, in which it should consider to create a better set of interactions between organizations in the market: the geographical diversity, inequalities in socioeconomic issues, and current trends in policy and economy, which tend to adjust to the practices that are developed in the supply chains depending on the characteristics that surround them. From this reflection, it is necessary to thought about an inquiry conducted by Sharma and Ruud , would sustainability in supply chains be conditioned to groups or networks of organizations in the same geographic region, therefore fragmenting the global chains?
Considering this point of view, as shown by Griesse , among other aspects geographical diversity has great influence on the process of building strategies. According to our arguments, if more social issues are introduced in the company strategy i. This perspective opens a research field which can demonstrate, from a critical point of view, their own point of view coming from their specificities.
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Thus, it is clear that the current setting on the topic is interesting in the sense of being stimulated by research throughout the world, but there are many advances needed on the global research agenda. Moreover, a new agenda should to emerge in the Brazilian context since to demonstrate that the social issues are an important topic to contribute for the sustainability.
The challenge is to advance the sustainable supply chain concept and consider the social aspects towards the central condition in a more sustainable management, mostly in emerging economies. This is important in these economies, mainly because different necessities emerge as relevant toward to a transformation for sustainability.
Considering this perspective, this view creates a logic of greater integration between the dimensions of sustainability, being that if the social is highlighted by local needs, this creates a direct influence on the environment and consequently in the dynamic business of the country.
We should rethink what is the supply chain, whether it is a linear sequence of boxes that influence in a certain way, or the relationship between a set of actors that interact, relate and meet a desired collective goal. Using the idea of alternative ways of looking at this social structure, demonstrates the possibility of new features.
Therefore, we can also rethink the role received for the sustainability incorporated into organizations. Its discussion goes beyond the competitive advantage and concern to the environment; it is assumed a change in values. Thus, emerge the following propositions in this context:.
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