Small-scale farmers throughout the tropics have long faced serious challenges. Many have struggled to secure access to nutritious food and good incomes. Climate change and ever dwindling natural resources make life even more difficult. However, with challenge comes opportunity. To achieve their goals, CIAT develops new crop varieties, farming techniques, and technologies and disseminates them to farmers.
In recent years, climate change resilience and sustainability have become top priorities for the organization. For this reason, CIAT and other agricultural research programs around the world have made a significant break from the past and refocused much of their efforts on building climate resilience. Climate resilience is the ability for farmers to endure and recover after shocks like hurricanes and droughts. Fortunately, Dr. While CIAT has long focused primarily on increasing the productivity and incomes of farmers throughout the tropics, they also have come to recognize the importance of sustainability.
Indeed, the organization sees sustainability as vital for continued food production. As such, they research and promote sustainable intensification, an approach to agriculture that increases food production while minimizing impacts on the environment. For example, there are techniques that can address the devastating effects that growing meat demand is having on the environment.
Another exciting trend in agricultural research is the use of big data. Scientists are now using extremely large sets of data collected on climate conditions, crop genetics, and other factors, such as soil type. They use this data to develop new farming technologies and develop forecasts to make planting recommendations. Though the future of tropical agriculture holds promise, Dr. However, can we rest on our laurels and consider that we have fully achieved our objectives? Of course not! Firstly, because we have to improve our scientific output in all its forms, in terms of both quality and quantity, and ensure that it continues to evolve through the responses we strive to provide to the ever more complex problems affecting the South: major issues such as food security, population pressure, sustainable natural resource management, climate change and sustainable development in all its forms, environmental issues and migratory phenomena, and so on.
Their complexity, the often unexpected ways in which they evolve, the conflicts of access and of ownership they trigger, and their very diversity, should push us to build our capacity to evolve and innovate. This is what. The aim was to debate the priorities for the coming years in terms of agricultural development in the region, in the run-up to the upcoming drive to renew our platforms in partnership dPs.
Above and beyond the quality of the debate, the fact that it was possible to hold such a meeting, the likes of which had not been seen for more than a decade, demonstrated the current confidence in CIRAD and the quality of its relations with the region. Our partners were clearly delighted with the outcome, and we have decided to continue in the same vein in by scheduling another meeting, to be organized by WECARD along the same lines, in Africa this time.
This operation is being led by the new Director General in charge of Research and Strategy, Jean-Luc Khalfaoui, supported by the entire management team. This operation will be of use to us in drafting the new contractual objectives that we will be negotiating with the State between now and the end of Moreover, the war is far from won: there is still room for improvement in many areas, which were also highlighted by the HCERES.
Along with some criticisms, notably concerning the risks of some of our activities becoming dispersed, our inadequate institutional communication policy, our role and our activities within the research landscape, and the gender imbalance in terms of both general recruitment and senior management, the HCERES also stressed the need to measure the impact of our activities. After a two-year phase of debate and construction, during which the establishment made a series of choices, the action plan for the pact was established in It aims to formalize what CIRAD has to offer in various fields research, training, expertise, etc , and support the design of big projects and promote our offering more effectively to decision-makers in the various value chains.
It means fine-tuning our donor strategies, to foster greater interest in CIRAD on their part and to ensure project design teams receive better support. It is too soon to judge the effects of the pact on the consolidation of our economic model. Indeed, from that last point of view, what impact do you think the development pact, which was introduced in to consolidate and transform our economic model, will have?
The development pact is an approach intended to serve our scientific and partnership strategy and objectives. It is designed to give us the means to implement that strategy in line. The co-existence of two agreements was looking increasingly obsolete, more than thirty years after CIRAD was founded. The new agreement lays the foundations for a new, more modern employment framework that will, above all, apply to each and every CIRAD employee. The new framework also redefines the rules applying to geographical mobility between metropolitan France and the French overseas regions.
This is a long-term goal, but the first encouraging results should push us to keep up our efforts. We all know that we do not have any choice but to implement this type of operation if we are to fulfil our ambitions. If not, more jobs will inevitably be lost. This would force us to give up on building skills at CIRAD and to downscale our ambitions and our scientific and partnership strategy. The way ahead is clear, and we will do all we can to succeed, while giving ourselves enough time to do so. I am confident of our collective capacity to meet the challenges we face. The approach, which is participatory, was built on case studies in various countries worldwide.
The crossanalysis of various past projects proved to be a mine of information. In particular, it highlighted the vital role of stakeholder capacity building and public policy in innovation processes all the way along impact pathways, which are necessarily long term. Tell us why this topic was chosen Those chains are currently in turmoil, and the associated scientific and partnership approaches are being revised, particularly in the English-speaking world.
CIRAD saw the new global sustainable development agenda signed by the UN in late as an opportunity for a collective in-depth debate on the role of agri-chains. Why and how are agri-chains changing at the moment? The global population and agricultural production are both growing, consuming ever more resources and generating waste and pollution. Against this backdrop, agri-chains are adapting by combining technical and social innovations.
For instance, waste has become a resource, like the livestock production effluent now being used to fertilize sugarcane plantations. Agri-chains, which used to be linear and sectoral, are now interconnected, or even circular. In the light of growing environmental and social concerns, agri-chains are now regulated by new players and standards sustainability and social responsibility norms, etc. This is transforming the relations between the private and public sector, and calls for increasingly sophisticated assessment tools.
What were the highlights of this year? We produced a collective work looking at agri-chains as vectors for development, regulatory spaces, innovation frameworks and objects of assessments. In addition to the CIRAD-AFD stand at the Paris International Agricultural Show, we worked with a wide range of partners to organize a lab debate to discuss our experiences of assessment at the European Development Days in Brussels, which bring together the whole development community. This long-term operation, coordinated by Patrick Caron when he was CIRAD Director General in charge of Research and Strategy, has three components: production and sharing of methodological tools; construction of scientific integration projects linking biological, technical and institutional systems; and specification of our relations with the private sector.
This will enable CIRAD to draw up a charter setting out the rules for collaboration with private operators, which is particularly relevant now that the ambitious agenda set by the UN has called upon the private sector to join forces with governments and civil society in a global partnership.
Agri-chains cover the relations between all the stakeholders involved from production to consumption: farmers, the agrifood sector, traders, retailers and consumers. SPOTLIGHT In the light of the environmental and social concerns triggered by their expansion, agri-chains are increasingly behind new sustainable development approaches.
This book summarizes the changes under way within tropical agri-chains. Those agri-chains link farming systems and other economic sectors, and in the light of growing concerns about the environment and social inequalities, they are experiencing substantial technical, economic and social change.
CIRAD and the AFD are both witnesses to and supporters of the technical, biological and institutional changes the agricultural world and societies are going through. Based on their experiences as researchers and development agents, the book discusses agri-chains as vectors for development, innovation frameworks, objects of assessments and regulatory spaces.
It is intended for anyone interested in these issues. CIRAD was also active in the media and on social networks throughout the show.
The stand welcomed some twenty overseas delegations. Serge Palu was invited to speak on the potential of alternative sources of natural rubber guayule and Russian dandelion. More than researchers, key development players and innovation specialists from more than 40 countries attended. Plenary sessions, forum theatre and interactive, participatory parallel sessions enabled the range of participants to analyse numerous innovations.
CIRAD invited the general public to discover the range of cocoa and chocolate aromas. Centring on agro-ecological approaches to promote innovative banana production systems. The project, entitled VCA4D Value Chain Analysis for Development and due to run for four years, is an assessment of 30 agri-chains in terms of their economic, environmental and social impact. The initiative specifically concerns micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in agriculture and related fields.
CIRAD is heavily involved. CIRAD was involved in a preparatory phase choice of methods, feasibility study and field tests in , and then in drafting the final project proposal, for a second, operational phase. Future studies will cover the coffee, pineapple, citrus, rice, banana, sugarcane and livestock chains, among others, in different countries. CIRAD has a unique collection of data on agrichains, in-depth knowledge of the field situation and of partners in the countries concerned, and an internationally recognised assessment capacity.
As part of the operation, a researcher school is planned in , notably to build a coherent CIRAD information system on agri-chains. At the same time, legal specialists are looking into the question of data ownership. After publishing the complete sequence for the banana Musa acuminata in , CIRAD and its partners have now produced an improved reference sequence. Using semi-automatic bioinformatics tools, they conducted high quality assemblies that will serve to study this species, which is the origin of all edible banana varieties, in greater detail.
This is the first time this kind of approach has been applied to tropical perennial crops. Left: fruit with seeds from a wild banana plant. Right: seedless fruit from a cultivated hybrid from the Cavendish group.
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Landscape characteristic of an intensive high-altitude coffee production zone in Costa Rica. This means that their development and especially fruit quality are highly variable.
Their sweetness, which is very popular with consumers, may therefore be difficult for producers to predict. To enable them to manage their plots and the quality of their fruit better, a team from CIRAD recently simulated pineapple growth and sugar content at harvest according to climate and to cropping practices.
An interactive animal disease surveillance tool Animal disease surveillance, especially early detection of emerging disease outbreaks worldwide, is one of the means of preventing diseases entering France. The system, which has been under development since , retrieves text data, extracts relevant information from it and reinterprets that information as spatiotemporal series and maps.
Five tropical animal diseases are currently being monitored, but others could easily be integrated. How can we stop the spread of avian influenza? In Mali, live poultry markets are supplied by a multitude of small village farms. Poor hygiene standards and animal overcrowding are highly conducive to the transmission of diseases such as Newcastle disease and avian influenza. How can the risks be limited? Based on a vast survey of markets in the country, researchers from CIRAD and their Malian partners have come up with simple, inexpensive measures to remedy this situation.
This process gives the wood new chemical and mechanical properties, especially better resistance to decay.
Sustainable Development and Tropical Agri-chains : Estelle Bienabe :
But those properties differ depending on the treatment methods; it is therefore essential to control the quality of treated wood. CIRAD and its partners have conducted a vast bibliographic review of methods for analysing the quality of heat treated woods, their advantages and disadvantages and, above all, their potential for industrial use. Discussion of the merits of different wheat varieties in a trial plot in Morocco P. CIRAD drafted a ten-year strategy in , aimed at making research a true tool for development.
At mid-term, the decision was taken to revise it, to take into account the results of the audit and the intervening changes in the context of its research. In , it asked its longstanding partners in West Africa to think about how its research in partnership offering could be adjusted for the coming decade, and about how it fits in with the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs.
It has worked with those partners on a joint analysis of the issues and fields of intervention, the priorities and the adjustments to be made to how partnerships are structured, notably through the platforms in partnership for research and training dPs. They acknowledged the efficacy and relevance of the platforms in partnership for research and training dPs , of which there are five in West Africa, which could be tied in with other organizations in the region WECARD national centres of specialization, CGIAR Research Programmes, IRD joint international laboratories, etc , and discussed the merits of promoting other types of cooperation thematic networks, regional networks while systematically ensuring strong political backing and impact in terms of donors.
To convert this shared vision into operational future scenarios, another meeting could be organized under the aegis of WECARD in Scenarios for a new ambition Capacity building among partners in southern countries is key to development through research. The possible scenarios are presented below. The creation of the Agreenium consortium French Agricultural, Veterinary and Forestry Institute has enabled CIRAD to strengthen its links with French specialist higher education establishments and work with them on training projects in the South.
The report suggested five scenarios that would enable the establishment to achieve that ambition. Some could be combined: 1. Improving organization and strengthening alliances. Building its professional training activities within a specific structure, promoting. Using the Montpellier University of Excellence MUSE I-site to build a joint offering with establishments awarding qualifications for the South and boost the attractiveness of Montpellier on the international stage.
Building joint undergraduate and postgraduate courses with establishments in the South, hand in hand with Agreenium and the MUSE project. In this case, taking account of demand from economic players in the South to steer construction of basic training for future graduates including partners from the South, in coordination with the other members of Agreenium , and also what it has to offer in. Lastly, it stresses the need to use longterm institutional partnerships to support the professional training courses on offer.
Not forgetting continuing to invest in training engineering and teaching tools with Agreenium. In the medium term, the aim is to develop an international Euro-African training structure. She will head the consultative body for three years, replacing Gilles Boeuf.
After a few months in the post, Christine Cherbut looks back on her appointment and evokes the prospects for the future. Why do you think that was? This systemic approach, from agricultural production to food consumption, is gaining ground all over the world. Moreover, this experience should also teach me a lot, since the CIRAD Science Council represents a very wide range of cultural backgrounds and skills.
What is the aim of your mission? A dual one: giving a collective, independent opinion on questions posed by CIRAD, on the one hand, and enlightening the establishment on scientific topics suggested by the Council itself, on the other. We began doing this at our first meeting, in November , when three researchers presented various incentive operations supported by the.
How do you see this mandate going? The first two years are set to be busy, and should have real effects on CIRAD strategy for the coming years. We will have lots to think about! Its aim is to improve animal health, public health and food security in the South, notably against a backdrop of global change and transitions within socio-ecosystems. The main challenge is to develop an integrated health approach: inter-sectoriality and interdisciplinarity centring on animals, ecosystems and territories, in line with the One Health and EcoHealth approaches.
Global change, particularly climate change, and its impact on the agricultural sector and food security, are a major concern for the ministry, which is relying on CIRAD and its expertise to come up with solutions for the French overseas regions and elsewhere. CIRAD is helping establish a new generation of tropical forest ecosystem management plans, by leading logged tropical forest monitoring and measurement networks.
CIRAD will be sharing its work with stakeholders in and partners of the plan,. CIRAD is involved in the global One Health human and animal health approach, and intends to broaden it to include ecosystem and plant health and biodiversity. This also includes working to cut chlordecone pollution and on the Ecophyto II plan to reduce the use and impact of phytopharmaceutical products. Understanding the changes in farming systems worldwide CIRAD is continuing its research on public policies in favour of family farming in partner countries in the South.
The government has asked the AFD to move into new fields, such as governance, higher education, and research. The aim is to understand donor expectations better, so as to adapt its research, expertise and training products. Specific incubators have been launched to this end. The projects supported include a web portal for easy mapping of watch data, a vaccine against ehrlichiosis, and a programming language for simulating landscape dynamics.
EU, Horizon funding. Through the incubator, we can offer three types of specific support: legal and intellectual property expertise, economic and promotional development backup, and financial leverage. After these first success stories, we are repeating the call in ! Five main donor families have been identified: public development donors, research donors, private development donors, private agri-chain donors, and French overseas regions donors. After submission to a selection committee involving numerous research units and platforms in partnership for research and training dPs , twelve project proposals out of 26 have been pre-selected to join the CIRAD Big Projects incubator.
Seven were sufficiently advanced for the incubator to provide them with additional resources and specific internal support aimed at convincing donors and partners to support them. Twenty partners from the worlds of academia and agriculture and the private sector are associated with this promising project led by CIRAD, which has a budget of 4. Several internal operations at CIRAD ensured the success of the project: a debate to assess the impact of the research and the launch of incentive operations centring on the Big Projects. Agroforestry is one way for the coffee supply chain to adapt to climate change, but few coffee varieties are suitable.
Two clusters are to be tested in Vietnam and Cameroon, along the lines of a prototype developed on ha of agroforest in Nicaragua. The farmers involved are mainly smallholders who do not have access to quality planting material suited to the specific constraints of this type of system.
Creating a new supply concept One other aim is to link European roasters and coffee producers, with a view to understanding why they adopt or reject new. In choosing a participatory approach to analyse the impact of its research, CIRAD is hoping to understand the preconditions for development better.
It centres on stakeholder participation, and enables a comparative analysis of case studies, distinguishing between four models of research involvement. In this way, it highlights the crucial roles of stakeholder capacity building and public policy in innovation processes, and has produced novel, and even unexpected, results. An analysis of case studies served to identify four models in which research plays a more or less important role in innovation processes:.
Policy-makers play a key role in the construction, development, dissemination and rollout of innovation. Each case was analysed using participatory methods, with scientific partners in the South and development players. It is the in-depth ex post analysis of research impact pathways over long periods that explains in detail how research operations affect development. Innovation is sociotechnical in nature.
Impact on development is always long term. It is essential to co-produce research results outputs , and also their adoption by stakeholders outcomes with various types of players. Stakeholder capacity building based on formal or informal learning systems is vital at every stage of the process, and is a determining factor in the success of innovation. Interactions with public players and policy-makers are essential, but take various forms and intervene at various stages of the innovation process.
Research has a range of different roles. SDG2 Zero hunger. SDG12 Responsible consumption and production. SDG15 Preserving terrestrial ecosystems. SDG17 Partnerships for the goals. Assessing the real impact of research is one expression of the social and environmental responsibility of research establishments, and should be done before, during, and at various stages after research operations. Understanding changes in farming systems WAW gathers data on structural changes in farming systems worldwide, their dynamics and their impacts.
Those changes may relate to land tenure regimes, new forms of employment, or market integration. A watch to support development The initiative, which came from the world of research, has become a real tool for development.
In Madagascar, an integrated information system and monitoring mechanism have been established. The new data that can now be gathered help the authorities to study changes in their farming systems and their performance in terms of socioeconomic and environmental viability.
This information is of value for fine-tuning public policy, for. Assessing the contribution of agriculture to global issues Agricultural and food security issues no longer only concern the agricultural sector; they fit into the global issues identified in the UN Sustainable Development Goals SDGs. The FAO is therefore on the lookout for new indicators capable of assessing the sustainability of farming systems and their contribution to poverty alleviation, climate change, employment and migration issues, resource management, etc. The results are very positive and demonstrate considerable interest on the part of the countries involved in the initiative.
Agriculture is increasingly looking like a major lever for action in terms of making the necessary transitions. CIRAD helps stakeholders find appropriate innovations, international partnerships and public policies. In both North and South, the agro-ecological approach is key to the development of sustainable, versatile farming systems and sustainable food systems. With this in mind, in addition to the topic of agro-ecology in its strictest sense, CIRAD and INRA have identified five complementary lines of research that will support the study and implementation of the agro-ecological transition: functional biodiversity, the main bio-geochemical cycles, landscapes and territories, production systems, and innovation systems.
The aim is to strike a better compromise between agriculture and the environment in a context of modernization, homogenization and specialization, in which 2. Rural employment and poverty are major development issues. The aim is to help small-scale family farmers adapt to climate change without reproducing some of the deadlocks resulting from productivist models.. A rapidly developing research topic Agro-ecology is often seen as a cross between ecology and agronomy, with a view to designing and managing sustainable agro-ecosystems.
It also calls upon the economic and social sciences in order to come up with versatile systems and foster their deployment through appropriate public policy and support. For both organizations, agro-ecology is a rapidly developing research topic, with almost articles referenced in The Agrimonde-Terra foresight study How could land use throughout the world change by ?
The results of the study, presented in Paris on 24 June, highlighted the main levers for action, particularly the need for global governance of land use, placing the agricultural and food sectors on a par with other economic sectors. Five scenarios were then drawn up, by combining various hypotheses: three trend-based scenarios and two others based on sudden breaks, involving radical changes in land use. Those scenarios were illustrated for fourteen world regions. Lastly, the other two scenarios centre on breaks. In North Africa, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa and India, the joint effects of population growth, poor agricultural performance and insufficient food supplies will have increased land use pressure and limited food security.
Remedying that situation will mean making major systemic changes, introducing strong public policies, and ensuring concer ted ac tion by a range of players. Agrimonde-Terra could facilitate dialogue between the various stakeholders, as shown by its recent use in Tunisia, at a foresight workshop: within a few days,.
This approach echoes the four dimensions of food and nutritional security availability, access, use and stability. However, for want of an overall agreement on the respective shares for adaptation and mitigation, talks on this funding have been postponed, to resume in Bonn during the technical negotiations scheduled in the spring of Emmanuel Torquebiau, what came out of COP22?
Sustainable Development and Tropical Agri-chains
What about the specific aid mechanisms planned for developing countries? The Paris agreement specified that funding for developing countries should concern both mitigation and adaptation, significantly increasing funding for adaptation, a vital detail that developing countries are following closely. The final. What is the current role of agriculture in climate talks? Agriculture first appeared in climate talks in , when the Paris agreement mentioned food security for the first time.
The aim is to help African farming systems cope with the adverse effects of climate change by highlighting four topics: soils, water, risks and funding, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. As regards agriculture, what message did France try to put across at COP22?
Almost participants from 37 countries have signed up to the initiative. The book was presented during COP At the same time, it is vital to come up with new healthy, sustainable ways of producing, processing and consuming food. This will mean building skills. All these changes are now urgent. Since , the matrix has been improved to ensure greater transparency as regards the deal situation.
The latest Land Matrix report takes stock: This represents approximately 2 per cent of the arable land worldwide, or roughly the equivalent to the area covered by the United Kingdom and Slovenia put together. This creates increased competition for land and the potential for conflicts with the local population. More and more agricultural land has changed hands, and is increasingly being actively cultivated, for example to grow cereals, oil palm and sugarcane.
The report provides detailed information on who GIGA research fellow is buying up farmland in which regions of the world and co-author and how that land is being used. It also highlights of the report.
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