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Springer-Verlag New York Inc. For example, in the case of malaria, opportunities might include the use of insecticide-treated bednets for the host, reduced areas of standing water in the environment, destruction of the Anopheles mosquito vector through pesticides, and chemoprophylaxis targeted at the plasmodium. Note that the public health model takes a very broad view of what constitutes a risk factor for disease.
Whereas a traditional biomedical paradigm tends to focus on a small number of causes for a disease, such as a specific microorganism, public health considers more diverse social, economic, and environmental factors as playing a potentially causative role in disease development, each offering an opportunity for intervention.
Indeed, there are potentially an infinite number of causative factors, each acting at various points along a timeline as shown in Figure , which depicts two such factors for simplicity. For each factor, there is an induction period between when that factor acts and when the disease is initiated. After disease initiation, there follows a latent period corresponding to a preclinical phase before the disease is recognized. Preventive strategies can be placed into three groups based on this chronology.
The preferred approach is always primary prevention because interventions are made prior to disease initiation, such as vaccination to confer immunity to measles. Screening is by definition a form of Forgot Password?
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Standardization of Epidemiologic Studies of Host Susceptibility
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