The technology is easily adaptable and can be applied at household or community level. To minimise distribution losses, the reactors should be installed close to the CHP where the gas can be used. Micro cogeneration is a so-called distributed energy resource DER useful for a single house or small business because of the low power output. This electricity can be used within the home or business or, if permitted by the grid management, sold back into the electric power grid. Mini cogeneration DERs supplies electricity for more than one household and if the excess energy can be sold, these installations are generally more viable from an economic point of view.
Biogas cogeneration is extensively used and disseminated in rural China, Nepal, Vietnam, rural Costa Rica, Colombia, Rwanda, and other regions of the world where waste management and industry closely interface. This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation anaerobic digestion for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries.
Volume III discusses the micro- and macro-economic viability of biogas sanitation systems. This report is a basic assessment of the feasibility and potential for using animal wastes in anaerobic methane digesters to create electricity in Minnesota. It covers an estimation of the electricity potential, the farm-size thresholds that warrant further investigation for a potential digester system, a quantification of the impact of incentives as well as a financial analysis.
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Biogas is a green energy using new technology. Undoubtedly, the produced kW cost is not yet a competitor against nuclear or fossil fuel energies, but the systems installed are more and more efficient, and their financial profitability is increasing. Marc Schaller reports. This factsheet of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance describes the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change and focuses on the advantages of renewable energies.
Therefore many different technologies like production of biogas or short-rotation-plantations are mentioned. The sewage treatment process at SABESP Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State, Brazil has until now burnt some of the biogas produced in the anaerobic digester to enhance the process temperature and the other part was burnt in order to limit impact of emission.
The transformation of this excess biogas into electricity would be a sustainable solution generating even additional income. An alternative to burn it in flare is the biogas conversion into electricity through engines or microturbines. This paper describes the proposed system to convert biogas in electricity and heat using microturbines 30 kW ISO. This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.
Additionally there are also facts and information on hydronics and gas flare. In the Flintenbreite in Luebeck, Germany, blackwater is collected in vacuum toilets. Together with organic wastes from the kitchen it is converted to biogas. Greywater is treated in a reed-bed filter. The project demonstrated the consistent utilisation of ecological building materials, the use of self-sustaining, integrated energy and wastewater concepts, and the implementation of innovative energy saving technologies, with a minimisation of interference in nature, and a responsible, integrative and active cohabitation of the inhabitants.
The aim of this publication is to build a bridge between the elaborate literature and information on the biogas production side and the existing technical and scientific know-how on the side of internal combustion engines.
An engine fuelled by biogas shall become understandable as a core module in a system of energy supply, energy transformation and a demand of energy for a useful purpose. This publication attempts to provide a source of essential information for decision-making, planning, modification and operation of biogas engines within this system. This presentation gives information on the agricultural aspects of biogas production and focuses on the process of digestion and fermentation. But it also provides knowledge about different ways of using biogas including cogeneration and fuel cells.
This link to Wikipedia provides information on cogeneration. There are many existing further links explaining the technologies of engine or generator types. The webpage of Midwest Rural Energy Council MREC provides a wide range of information on implementing small- and mid-scale biogas plantations in order to produce electricity. The Netherlands Development Organisation SNV library hosts an extensive choice of domestic biogas reports from around the world domestic biogas.
Appropedia is the site for collaborative approaches to sustainability, poverty reduction and international development.
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This article is about simple and sustainable biogas production and use. Utilisation of household biogas systems and large-scale biogas systems as a means to boost rural economy, while contributing to rural poverty reduction and sustainable development are discussed. You want to stay up to date about water entrepreneurship? Find out more. Adapted from. Biogas electricity production hits 17,GWh a year in Europe.
Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Executive Summary. Generation of renewable, green electricity. Increases family income by selling back electric energy to the electric power grid. Requires expert design, skilled construction and expert maintenance required. Factsheet Block Title. Factsheet Block Body. Source: GTZ Media PPT. Library References.
- Finland: Small Scale Gasification Systems | Gasifiers.
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MANG, H. However, difficulties at the company designated as potential user seem to inhibit its operation. In Bavaria a biogas plant provider and operator installed an original gasifier plant from India. The idea was to make use of the woody biomass that is not appropriate as feedstock for this biogas plants. However, the plant did not work well. Most likely the resin contained in conifer wood caused special problems. However, this was not the biggest problem.
Support from the Indian manufacturer was apparently insufficient if not non-existent. Furthermore, the plant - installed in a closed hall due to the cold climate - emitted so much CO and other toxic gases that the company had to stop its operation. On behalf of GTZ gasifiers at six locations in India were visited in All plants seemed to be constantly in use, providing an electricity output of 60 - kW.
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Mainly rice husk and wood were used as fuel. Plants with specially designed gas Otto engines worked exclusively with producer gas as fuel. However they needed an additional small electric generator for the start-up phase. All of these plants had a sophisticated gas cleaning system. However, the plants did not come close to fulfilling any European safety and pollution standards .
Unfortunately no detailed data is available on the efficiency and economics of these plants. A recent, as yet unpublished study from southern Sri Lanka reports on a gasification project that has already been working well for more than one year. The 12 kW plant provides elec-tricity for 27 families, considerably reducing their consumption of kerosene. On average each family saves about EUR 0. However, the installation of the machinery took a long time and required a great deal of know-how.
The operation of the plant is laborious and requires a committed, permanently employed operator. Every day the filters have to be cleaned and once a month the whole plant has to be disassembled and cleaned of tar and soot. The families pay a monthly fee of EUR 1. But this is just enough to cover the running costs. The initial investment costs were cov-ered by the project. All this indicates that commercial operation of such a plant would not be possible in the given environment. Furthermore, compared to other renewable energy technologies gasification proved to be expensive. Obviously the running costs are considerably higher as well .
Another project in Sri Lanka with a locally produced gasifier supported by a German emer-gency aid organisation had a similar experience. It took more than one year of intense modi-fication and adaptation to get the tar and soot problem under control.
Due to the wet gas cleaning system the project had a number of problems in the beginning with high quantities of condensates and liquid waste. A dry gas cleaning system solved this problem and by the gasifier had been working well for more than one year. However, the local population can hardly pay the running costs and it would be impossible to finance the investment costs by the revenues from electricity sales.
As this project was implemented in the context of the Tsunami relief, the most important benefit of this gasifier power plant is seen in its incentive for local reforestation.
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While in Asia many gasifier plants are or have been in operation, there seems to be little on the ground in Africa. In the early s, a gasification plant based on rice husk was opera-tional in Molodo, Mali. It was the result of a joint cooperation between Mali, Germany, and China. However, the performance of the plant was rather mixed and a Chinese technician had to supervise it constantly to guarantee smooth performance. This technician was the only person able to fix the very specific technical problems in particular problems with gas cleaning.
Therefore, replicability and long-term sustainability were not achieved. Since in Senegal two plants are operational, two others have been gone into operation in Benin. Due to the constant beeing in place of two local engineers, the Senegal plants seems to have a satisfying outcome. Some research activities show recent African interest in the gasification technology. The study claims that as little as 1- 1. However, apparently the plans for the system have not yet been implemented in practice. A thorough inquiry by Peter Schragl revealed that this power plant was still in operation in , however, running exclusively on fossil diesel fuel.
The difficulties with the preparation of the biomass seemed to be the main reason for abortion of the renewable fuel. According to internet reports the plant is using local agricultural residues like rice husk as fuel and has a capacity to deliver power to households and commercial entities. IDCOL, In contrast to the information in company brochures of gasifier producers it has to be stated that there is not yet any reliable, affordable standard gasifier technology appropriate for rural small-scale applications readily available off the shelf. There are still several unsolved technical problems.
Even though availability of operation data is limited, the multitude of gasification projects allows for an appraisal of the potentials and challenges:. Clean operation of downdraft reactors can only be achieved in a small power range. The most important issue is to achieve a high purity of the producer gas to avoid the formation and accumulation of tar and soot. The internal combustion engines being used to convert the producer gas to electricity have severe purity requirements regarding the generator gas.
Besides electricity, the power gasification systems produce heat, emissions, solid and liquid waste. The beneficial use of the heat would increase the creditable efficiency of a gasifier system enormously and hence reduce the specific environmental contamination significantly while increasing its profitability. However, apart from a few industrial applications, there seems to be rarely any chance for this in most developing countries. The gaseous emissions of a well established and well operated gasification plant are low.
As most of the gas is used as fuel for the combustion motor, its exhaust gases are similar to those of engines running on fossil fuels. If originated from renewable sources they do contribute to a significantly lesser extent to the GHG burden. However, one component of the generator gas is CO which can constitute a serious threat in case of leakages or improper management. In the EU such plants can therefore only be operated under certain specified precautions. Ensuring such precaution measures seems to be difficult in many of the developing countries.
Cases of CO intoxication seem to be not unheard of Kaupp, The most important environmental challenge is the condensates containing tar, phenol and other remains of the incomplete combustion process. Their amount, composition and state of aggregation depend on the fuel, the reactor type and the gas cleaning system. Not all of these compounds are biodegradable. Theoretically, a well operating gasifier system produces quite low quantities of these condensates ranging from a few mg to several g per kWh.
Wet gas cleaning systems produce very high quantities of condensates while dry gas cleaning systems can achieve acceptable levels. However this small constructor never sold a plant commercially and the performance of the filter could therefore not yet be proven. The economic benefits of small-scale power gasifiers depend on the potential savings of switching from high-cost commercial fuel to locally available low-cost biomass. The potential fuel cost savings have to compensate the higher costs for the initial investment, labour, operation and maintenance.
Little reliable operating data on the economy of gasification plants is available. The available experiences indicate:. The biomass gasification technology is theoretically an interesting option for rural development. Therefore, at present the application of the gasifier technology for small-scale electricity pro-duction in developing countries seems to be justifiable only in very few cases.
Each new plant would be a unique tailor-made facility. At the current stage, the technology may be a reasonable solution in some industrial settings where continuous qualified technical support can be guaranteed. However, at this moment it does not seem to be an appropriate technology for communal purposes and providing elec-tricity to households and small businesses in remote areas. Any international donor or implementation agency has to be aware of its responsibility con-cerning the potential environmental damage as a side effect of a gasification plant.
Hence strict environmentally sound management of the plant has to be guaranteed. With the current state of development this requires expensive know-how, technology and strict supervision. Due to the discrepancy between the promises of gasifier manufacturers and the numerous questionable or negative experiences on the ground; the discussion within GTZ resulted in the following conclusion: If any private company producer or developer claims to have an appropriate solution for a particular situation considering availability of fuel and maintenance know-how, as well as energy needs and cost limits it should be given a chance to implement the plant.
However, the private company should not be paid for the installation of the plant and its develop-ment directly, but instead should be remunerated for the electricity supplied based on output per kWh. How to translate this into appropriate contractual terms remains a chal-lenge. Similar to corresponding guaranteed feed-in tariffs on the national level, output-based remuneration in small mini grids could lead to more sustainable applications of the gasification technology for rural electrification purposes.
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