Science and Society in the Twentieth Century


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Introduction

Directly based on the works [] of Newton , Descartes , Pascal and Leibniz , the way was now clear to the development of modern mathematics , physics and technology by the generation of Benjamin Franklin — , Leonhard Euler — , Mikhail Lomonosov — and Jean le Rond d'Alembert — The impact of this process was not limited to science and technology, but affected philosophy Immanuel Kant , David Hume , religion the increasingly significant impact of science upon religion , and society and politics in general Adam Smith , Voltaire.

The early modern period is seen as a flowering of the European Renaissance, in what is often known as the Scientific Revolution , viewed as a foundation of modern science. The Romantic Movement of the early 19th century reshaped science by opening up new pursuits unexpected in the classical approaches of the Enlightenment. Major breakthroughs came in biology, especially in Darwin's theory of evolution , as well as physics electromagnetism , mathematics non-Euclidean geometry, group theory and chemistry organic chemistry.

The decline of Romanticism occurred because a new movement, Positivism , began to take hold of the ideals of the intellectuals after and lasted until about Eurocentrism in scientific history are historical accounts written about the development of modern science that attribute all scholarly, technological, and philosophical gains to Europe and marginalize outside contributions.

Until Joseph Needham's book series Science and Civilisation in China began in , many historians would write about modern science solely as a European achievement with no significant contributions form civilizations other than the Greeks. In contrast to the Eurocentric view, historians argue evidence of east Asian influence in the scientific revolution. The German astronomer and mathematician Nicolaus Copernicus's is credited to have began the Scientific Revolution with his work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium which used calculations of Islamic astronomers.

Being Modern : The Cultural Impact of Science in the Early Twentieth Century

These findings lead Copernicus's heliocentric system; knowledge known to Chinese astronomers based on their understanding of heavenly bodies moving against the path of the sun and the pole star, such as comets. With the scientific revolution , paradigms established in the time of Classical antiquity were replaced with those of scientists like Nicolaus Copernicus , Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. As the role of scientific knowledge grew in society, it became incorporated with many aspects of the functioning of nation-states. The scientific revolution is a convenient boundary between ancient thought and classical physics.

Nicolaus Copernicus revived the heliocentric model of the solar system described by Aristarchus of Samos. This was followed by the first known model of planetary motion given by Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century, which proposed that the planets follow elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. Galileo " Father of Modern Physics " also made use of experiments to validate physical theories, a key element of the scientific method.

William Gilbert did some of the earliest experiments with electricity and magnetism, establishing that the Earth itself is magnetic. In , Isaac Newton published the Principia Mathematica , detailing two comprehensive and successful physical theories: Newton's laws of motion , which led to classical mechanics; and Newton's Law of Gravitation , which describes the fundamental force of gravity. During the late 18th and early 19th century, the behavior of electricity and magnetism was studied by Luigi Galvani , Giovanni Aldini , Alessandro Volta , Michael Faraday , Georg Ohm , and others.

These studies led to the unification of the two phenomena into a single theory of electromagnetism , by James Clerk Maxwell known as Maxwell's equations. The beginning of the 20th century brought the start of a revolution in physics. The long-held theories of Newton were shown not to be correct in all circumstances. Beginning in , Max Planck , Albert Einstein , Niels Bohr and others developed quantum theories to explain various anomalous experimental results, by introducing discrete energy levels. Not only did quantum mechanics show that the laws of motion did not hold on small scales, but even more disturbingly, the theory of general relativity , proposed by Einstein in , showed that the fixed background of spacetime , on which both Newtonian mechanics and special relativity depended, could not exist.

In Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann discovered nuclear fission with radiochemical methods, and in Lise Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch wrote the first theoretical interpretation of the fission process, which was later improved by Niels Bohr and John A. Further developments took place during World War II, which led to the practical application of radar and the development and use of the atomic bomb. Around this time, Chien-Shiung Wu was recruited by the Manhattan Project to help develop a process for separating uranium metal into U and U isotopes by Gaseous diffusion. Though the process had begun with the invention of the cyclotron by Ernest O.

Lawrence in the s, physics in the postwar period entered into a phase of what historians have called " Big Science ", requiring massive machines, budgets, and laboratories in order to test their theories and move into new frontiers. The primary patron of physics became state governments, who recognized that the support of "basic" research could often lead to technologies useful to both military and industrial applications.

Currently, general relativity and quantum mechanics are inconsistent with each other, and efforts are underway to unify the two. Modern chemistry emerged from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries through the material practices and theories promoted by alchemy, medicine, manufacturing and mining. Other important steps included the gravimetric experimental practices of medical chemists like William Cullen , Joseph Black , Torbern Bergman and Pierre Macquer and through the work of Antoine Lavoisier " father of modern chemistry " on oxygen and the law of conservation of mass , which refuted phlogiston theory.

The theory that all matter is made of atoms, which are the smallest constituents of matter that cannot be broken down without losing the basic chemical and physical properties of that matter, was provided by John Dalton in , although the question took a hundred years to settle as proven. Dalton also formulated the law of mass relationships. In , Dmitri Mendeleev composed his periodic table of elements on the basis of Dalton's discoveries.

The later part of the 19th century saw the exploitation of the Earth's petrochemicals, after the exhaustion of the oil supply from whaling. By the 20th century, systematic production of refined materials provided a ready supply of products which provided not only energy, but also synthetic materials for clothing, medicine, and everyday disposable resources.

Application of the techniques of organic chemistry to living organisms resulted in physiological chemistry , the precursor to biochemistry. The 20th century also saw the integration of physics and chemistry, with chemical properties explained as the result of the electronic structure of the atom. Linus Pauling 's book on The Nature of the Chemical Bond used the principles of quantum mechanics to deduce bond angles in ever-more complicated molecules.

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Pauling's work culminated in the physical modelling of DNA , the secret of life in the words of Francis Crick , In the same year, the Miller—Urey experiment demonstrated in a simulation of primordial processes, that basic constituents of proteins, simple amino acids , could themselves be built up from simpler molecules. Geology existed as a cloud of isolated, disconnected ideas about rocks, minerals, and landforms long before it became a coherent science. Chinese polymath Shen Kua — first formulated hypotheses for the process of land formation. Based on his observation of fossils in a geological stratum in a mountain hundreds of miles from the ocean, he deduced that the land was formed by erosion of the mountains and by deposition of silt.

Geology did not undergo systematic restructuring during the Scientific Revolution , but individual theorists made important contributions. Robert Hooke , for example, formulated a theory of earthquakes, and Nicholas Steno developed the theory of superposition and argued that fossils were the remains of once-living creatures.

Beginning with Thomas Burnet 's Sacred Theory of the Earth in , natural philosophers began to explore the idea that the Earth had changed over time. Burnet and his contemporaries interpreted Earth's past in terms of events described in the Bible, but their work laid the intellectual foundations for secular interpretations of Earth history.

Modern geology, like modern chemistry, gradually evolved during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Aided by chemical experimentation, naturalists such as Scotland's John Walker , [] Sweden's Torbern Bergman, and Germany's Abraham Werner created comprehensive classification systems for rocks and minerals—a collective achievement that transformed geology into a cutting edge field by the end of the eighteenth century. These early geologists also proposed a generalized interpretations of Earth history that led James Hutton , Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart , following in the steps of Steno , to argue that layers of rock could be dated by the fossils they contained: a principle first applied to the geology of the Paris Basin.

The use of index fossils became a powerful tool for making geological maps, because it allowed geologists to correlate the rocks in one locality with those of similar age in other, distant localities. Over the first half of the 19th century, geologists such as Charles Lyell , Adam Sedgwick , and Roderick Murchison applied the new technique to rocks throughout Europe and eastern North America, setting the stage for more detailed, government-funded mapping projects in later decades.

Midway through the 19th century, the focus of geology shifted from description and classification to attempts to understand how the surface of the Earth had changed. The first comprehensive theories of mountain building were proposed during this period, as were the first modern theories of earthquakes and volcanoes. Louis Agassiz and others established the reality of continent-covering ice ages , and "fluvialists" like Andrew Crombie Ramsay argued that river valleys were formed, over millions of years by the rivers that flow through them.

After the discovery of radioactivity , radiometric dating methods were developed, starting in the 20th century. Alfred Wegener 's theory of "continental drift" was widely dismissed when he proposed it in the s, but new data gathered in the s and s led to the theory of plate tectonics , which provided a plausible mechanism for it. Plate tectonics also provided a unified explanation for a wide range of seemingly unrelated geological phenomena.

Since it has served as the unifying principle in geology. Geologists' embrace of plate tectonics became part of a broadening of the field from a study of rocks into a study of the Earth as a planet. Other elements of this transformation include: geophysical studies of the interior of the Earth, the grouping of geology with meteorology and oceanography as one of the "earth sciences", and comparisons of Earth and the solar system's other rocky planets.

Aristarchus of Samos published work on how to determine the sizes and distances of the Sun and the Moon, and Eratosthenes used this work to figure the size of the Earth. Hipparchus later discovered the precession of the Earth. Advances in astronomy and in optical systems in the 19th century resulted in the first observation of an asteroid 1 Ceres in , and the discovery of Neptune in In , Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin determined that stars were composed mostly of hydrogen and helium. George Gamow , Ralph Alpher , and Robert Herman had calculated that there should be evidence for a Big Bang in the background temperature of the universe.

Supernova SNA was observed by astronomers on Earth both visually, and in a triumph for neutrino astronomy , by the solar neutrino detectors at Kamiokande. But the solar neutrino flux was a fraction of its theoretically expected value. This discrepancy forced a change in some values in the standard model for particle physics. William Harvey published De Motu Cordis in , which revealed his conclusions based on his extensive studies of vertebrate circulatory systems. He identified the central role of the heart, arteries, and veins in producing blood movement in a circuit, and failed to find any confirmation of Galen's pre-existing notions of heating and cooling functions.

This discovery predated the germ theory of disease. However, Semmelweis' findings were not appreciated by his contemporaries and handwashing came into use only with discoveries by British surgeon Joseph Lister , who in proved the principles of antisepsis. Lister's work was based on the important findings by French biologist Louis Pasteur.

Pasteur was able to link microorganisms with disease, revolutionizing medicine. He also devised one of the most important methods in preventive medicine , when in he produced a vaccine against rabies. Pasteur invented the process of pasteurization , to help prevent the spread of disease through milk and other foods. Perhaps the most prominent, controversial and far-reaching theory in all of science has been the theory of evolution by natural selection put forward by the Engish naturalist Charles Darwin in his book On the Origin of Species in He proposed that the features of all living things, including humans, were shaped by natural processes over long periods of time.

The theory of evolution in its current form affects almost all areas of biology. In the early 20th century, the study of heredity became a major investigation after the rediscovery in of the laws of inheritance developed by the Moravian [] monk Gregor Mendel in Mendel's laws provided the beginnings of the study of genetics , which became a major field of research for both scientific and industrial research. By , James D. Watson , Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins clarified the basic structure of DNA, the genetic material for expressing life in all its forms.

The discipline of ecology typically traces its origin to the synthesis of Darwinian evolution and Humboldtian biogeography , in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Equally important in the rise of ecology, however, were microbiology and soil science —particularly the cycle of life concept, prominent in the work Louis Pasteur and Ferdinand Cohn. The word ecology was coined by Ernst Haeckel , whose particularly holistic view of nature in general and Darwin's theory in particular was important in the spread of ecological thinking.

In the s, Arthur Tansley and others began developing the field of ecosystem ecology , which combined experimental soil science with physiological concepts of energy and the techniques of field biology. Successful use of the scientific method in the physical sciences led to the same methodology being adapted to better understand the many fields of human endeavor. From this effort the social sciences have been developed. Political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. The roots of politics are in prehistory.

In each historic period and in almost every geographic area, we can find someone studying politics and increasing political understanding.

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In Western culture , the study of politics is first found in Ancient Greece. The antecedents of European politics trace their roots back even earlier than Plato and Aristotle , particularly in the works of Homer , Hesiod , Thucydides , Xenophon , and Euripides.

Later, Plato analyzed political systems, abstracted their analysis from more literary - and history- oriented studies and applied an approach we would understand as closer to philosophy. Similarly, Aristotle built upon Plato's analysis to include historical empirical evidence in his analysis. In this treatise, the behaviors and relationships of the people, the King, the State, the Government Superintendents, Courtiers, Enemies, Invaders, and Corporations are analysed and documented.

During the rule of Rome, famous historians such as Polybius , Livy and Plutarch documented the rise of the Roman Republic , and the organization and histories of other nations, while statesmen like Julius Caesar , Cicero and others provided us with examples of the politics of the republic and Rome's empire and wars. The study of politics during this age was oriented toward understanding history, understanding methods of governing, and describing the operation of governments.

With the fall of the Western Roman Empire , there arose a more diffuse arena for political studies. The rise of monotheism and, particularly for the Western tradition, Christianity , brought to light a new space for politics and political action. Works such as Augustine of Hippo 's The City of God synthesized current philosophies and political traditions with those of Christianity , redefining the borders between what was religious and what was political.

Most of the political questions surrounding the relationship between Church and State were clarified and contested in this period. In the Middle East and later other Islamic areas, works such as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Epic of Kings by Ferdowsi provided evidence of political analysis, while the Islamic Aristotelians such as Avicenna and later Maimonides and Averroes , continued Aristotle 's tradition of analysis and empiricism , writing commentaries on Aristotle's works. Later, the expansion of the scientific paradigm during the Enlightenment further pushed the study of politics beyond normative determinations.

Historical linguistics emerged as an independent field of study at the end of the 18th century. After Jones, an effort to catalog all languages of the world was made throughout the 19th century and into the 20th century. Descriptive linguistics, and the related structuralism movement caused linguistics to focus on how language changes over time, instead of just describing the differences between languages. Noam Chomsky further diversified linguistics with the development of generative linguistics in the s. His effort is based upon a mathematical model of language that allows for the description and prediction of valid syntax.

Additional specialties such as sociolinguistics , cognitive linguistics , and computational linguistics have emerged from collaboration between linguistics and other disciplines. Smith criticized mercantilism , advocating a system of free trade with division of labour.

He postulated an " invisible hand " that regulated economic systems made up of actors guided only by self-interest. Karl Marx developed an alternative economic theory, called Marxian economics. Marxian economics is based on the labor theory of value and assumes the value of good to be based on the amount of labor required to produce it.

Under this assumption, capitalism was based on employers not paying the full value of workers labor to create profit. The Austrian School responded to Marxian economics by viewing entrepreneurship as driving force of economic development. This replaced the labor theory of value by a system of supply and demand. In the s, John Maynard Keynes prompted a division between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Under Keynesian economics macroeconomic trends can overwhelm economic choices made by individuals. Governments should promote aggregate demand for goods as a means to encourage economic expansion.

Monetarism focuses on using the supply and demand of money as a method for controlling economic activity. In the s, monetarism has adapted into supply-side economics which advocates reducing taxes as a means to increase the amount of money available for economic expansion.

Other modern schools of economic thought are New Classical economics and New Keynesian economics. New Classical economics was developed in the s, emphasizing solid microeconomics as the basis for macroeconomic growth. New Keynesian economics was created partially in response to New Classical economics, and deals with how inefficiencies in the market create a need for control by a central bank or government.

The above "history of economics" reflects modern economic textbooks and this means that the last stage of a science is represented as the culmination of its history Kuhn , The " invisible hand " mentioned in a lost page in the middle of a chapter in the middle of the " Wealth of Nations ", , advances as Smith's central message. That this "invisible hand" prefers "the support of domestic to foreign industry" is cleansed—often without indication that part of the citation is truncated. The end of the 19th century marks the start of psychology as a scientific enterprise.

The year is commonly seen as the start of psychology as an independent field of study. In that year Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig. Other important early contributors to the field include Hermann Ebbinghaus a pioneer in memory studies , Ivan Pavlov who discovered classical conditioning , William James , and Sigmund Freud. Freud's influence has been enormous, though more as cultural icon than a force in scientific psychology.

The 20th century saw a rejection of Freud's theories as being too unscientific, and a reaction against Edward Titchener 's atomistic approach of the mind. This led to the formulation of behaviorism by John B. Watson , which was popularized by B. Behaviorism proposed epistemologically limiting psychological study to overt behavior, since that could be reliably measured. Scientific knowledge of the "mind" was considered too metaphysical, hence impossible to achieve. The final decades of the 20th century have seen the rise of a new interdisciplinary approach to studying human psychology, known collectively as cognitive science.

Cognitive science again considers the mind as a subject for investigation, using the tools of psychology , linguistics , computer science , philosophy , and neurobiology. New methods of visualizing the activity of the brain, such as PET scans and CAT scans , began to exert their influence as well, leading some researchers to investigate the mind by investigating the brain, rather than cognition. These new forms of investigation assume that a wide understanding of the human mind is possible, and that such an understanding may be applied to other research domains, such as artificial intelligence.

Ibn Khaldun can be regarded as the earliest scientific systematic sociologist. Among many early sociologists e. Max Weber was concerned with the modernization of society through the concept of rationalization , which he believed would trap individuals in an "iron cage" of rational thought. Some sociologists, including Georg Simmel and W. Du Bois , utilized more microsociological , qualitative analyses. This microlevel approach played an important role in American sociology, with the theories of George Herbert Mead and his student Herbert Blumer resulting in the creation of the symbolic interactionism approach to sociology.

In particular, just Auguste Comte, illustrated with his work the transition from a theological to a metaphysical stage and, from this, to a positive stage. Comte took care of the classification of the sciences as well as a transit of humanity towards a situation of progress attributable to a re-examination of nature according to the affirmation of 'sociality' as the basis of the scientifically interpreted society.

American sociology in the s and s was dominated largely by Talcott Parsons , who argued that aspects of society that promoted structural integration were therefore "functional". This structural functionalism approach was questioned in the s, when sociologists came to see this approach as merely a justification for inequalities present in the status quo. In reaction, conflict theory was developed, which was based in part on the philosophies of Karl Marx.

Conflict theorists saw society as an arena in which different groups compete for control over resources. Symbolic interactionism also came to be regarded as central to sociological thinking. Erving Goffman saw social interactions as a stage performance, with individuals preparing "backstage" and attempting to control their audience through impression management. While these theories are currently prominent in sociological thought, other approaches exist, including feminist theory , post-structuralism , rational choice theory , and postmodernism.

Anthropology can best be understood as an outgrowth of the Age of Enlightenment. It was during this period that Europeans attempted systematically to study human behaviour. Traditions of jurisprudence, history, philology and sociology developed during this time and informed the development of the social sciences of which anthropology was a part. At the same time, the romantic reaction to the Enlightenment produced thinkers such as Johann Gottfried Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey whose work formed the basis for the culture concept which is central to the discipline.

Traditionally, much of the history of the subject was based on colonial encounters between Western Europe and the rest of the world, and much of 18th- and 19th-century anthropology is now classed as scientific racism. During the late 19th-century, battles over the "study of man" took place between those of an "anthropological" persuasion relying on anthropometrical techniques and those of an " ethnological " persuasion looking at cultures and traditions , and these distinctions became part of the later divide between physical anthropology and cultural anthropology , the latter ushered in by the students of Franz Boas.

In the midth century, much of the methodologies of earlier anthropological and ethnographical study were reevaluated with an eye towards research ethics, while at the same time the scope of investigation has broadened far beyond the traditional study of "primitive cultures" scientific practice itself is often an arena of anthropological study.

The emergence of paleoanthropology , a scientific discipline which draws on the methodologies of paleontology , physical anthropology and ethology , among other disciplines, and increasing in scope and momentum from the midth century, continues to yield further insights into human origins, evolution, genetic and cultural heritage, and perspectives on the contemporary human predicament as well.

During the 20th century, a number of interdisciplinary scientific fields have emerged. Examples include:.

Theories of Knowledge in the Twentieth Century: the “Split of Scientific Rationality” | MPIWG

Communication studies combines animal communication , information theory , marketing , public relations , telecommunications and other forms of communication. Computer science , built upon a foundation of theoretical linguistics , discrete mathematics , and electrical engineering , studies the nature and limits of computation.

Subfields include computability , computational complexity , database design, computer networking , artificial intelligence , and the design of computer hardware. One area in which advances in computing have contributed to more general scientific development is by facilitating large-scale archiving of scientific data. Contemporary computer science typically distinguishes itself by emphasising mathematical 'theory' in contrast to the practical emphasis of software engineering.

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary field. It draws upon the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth sciences , ecology, geography, mathematics, and physics. Materials science has its roots in metallurgy , mineralogy , and crystallography. It combines chemistry, physics, and several engineering disciplines. The field studies metals, ceramics , glass , plastics , semiconductors , and composite materials. Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary branch of science that combines physiology , neuroanatomy , molecular biology , developmental biology , cytology , mathematical modeling and psychology to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons , glia , nervous systems and neural circuits.

Metascience also known as meta-research is the use of scientific methodology to study science itself. Metascience seeks to increase the quality of research while reducing waste. The replication crisis is the result of metascientific research. As an academic field, history of science and technology began with the publication of William Whewell 's History of the Inductive Sciences first published in A more formal study of the history of science as an independent discipline was launched by George Sarton 's publications, Introduction to the History of Science and the Isis journal founded in Sarton exemplified the early 20th-century view of the history of science as the history of great men and great ideas.

He shared with many of his contemporaries a Whiggish belief in history as a record of the advances and delays in the march of progress. The history of science was not a recognized subfield of American history in this period, and most of the work was carried out by interested scientists and physicians rather than professional historians.

Bernard Cohen at Harvard, the history of science became an established subdiscipline of history after The history of mathematics , history of technology , and history of philosophy are distinct areas of research and are covered in other articles. Mathematics is closely related to but distinct from natural science at least in the modern conception.

Technology is likewise closely related to but clearly differs from the search for empirical truth. History of science is an academic discipline, with an international community of specialists. Much of the study of the history of science has been devoted to answering questions about what science is , how it functions , and whether it exhibits large-scale patterns and trends. Since the s, a common trend in science studies the study of the sociology and history of science has been to emphasize the "human component" of scientific knowledge, and to de-emphasize the view that scientific data are self-evident, value-free, and context-free.

Humboldtian science refers to the early 19th century approach of combining scientific field work with the age of Romanticism sensitivity, ethics and aesthetic ideals. A major subject of concern and controversy in the philosophy of science has been the nature of theory change in science. Karl Popper argued that scientific knowledge is progressive and cumulative; Thomas Kuhn , that scientific knowledge moves through " paradigm shifts " and is not necessarily progressive; and Paul Feyerabend , that scientific knowledge is not cumulative or progressive and that there can be no demarcation in terms of method between science and any other form of investigation.

The mid 20th century saw a series of studies relying to the role of science in a social context , starting from Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in It opened the study of science to new disciplines by suggesting that the evolution of science was in part sociologically determined and that positivism did not explain the actual interactions and strategies of the human participants in science.

As Thomas Kuhn put it, the history of science may be seen in more nuanced terms, such as that of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix that includes intellectual, cultural, economic and political themes outside of science. Further studies, e. Jerome Ravetz Scientific Knowledge and its Social Problems referred to the role of the scientific community, as a social construct, in accepting or rejecting objective scientific knowledge. They described as well differences between the idealized model of a pure science and the actual scientific practice; while scientism , a revival of the positivism approach, saw in precise measurement and rigorous calculation the basis for finally settling enduring metaphysical and moral controversies.

Bruno Latour noted that "dangerous extremists are using the very same argument of social construction to destroy hard-won evidence that could save our lives. Was I wrong to participate in the invention of this field known as science studies? Is it enough to say that we did not really mean what we meant?

One recurring observation in the history of science involves the struggle for recognition of first-rate scientists working on the periphery of the scientific establishment. For instance, the great physicist Lord Rayleigh looked back cited here on John James Waterston 's seminal paper on the kinetic theory of gases. The history of the neglect of Waterston's path-breaking article, Rayleigh felt, suggests that "a young author who believes himself capable of great things would usually do well to secure favourable recognition of the scientific world. William Harvey 's experiences led him to an even more pessimistic view: [].

In more general terms, Robert K. Merton remarks that "the history of science abounds in instances of basic papers having been written by comparatively unknown scientists, only to be rejected or neglected for years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see History of Science journal. For the treatise about history, see The New Science. History Literature Method Philosophy. Education Funding Pseudoscience Policy Sociology. Main article: History of science in early cultures. See also: Protoscience and Alchemy. Further information: Babylonian astronomy , Babylonian mathematics , and Babylonian medicine.

Main articles: Egyptian astronomy , Egyptian mathematics , and Egyptian medicine. Main article: History of science in classical antiquity. Main article: History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent. Main articles: History of science and technology in China and List of Chinese discoveries. Further information: Chinese mathematics and List of Chinese inventions. Main article: Byzantine science. Further information: List of Byzantine inventions. Main articles: Science in the medieval Islamic world and Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world.

Main article: European science in the Middle Ages. Further information: Renaissance of the 12th century , Scholasticism , Medieval technology , List of medieval European scientists , and Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. Main articles: Scientific revolution and Age of Enlightenment. See also: Continuity thesis , Decline of Western alchemy , and Natural magic.

Main article: Science in the Age of Enlightenment. Main article: Romanticism in science. Main article: History of physics. Main article: History of chemistry. Main article: History of geology. Main article: History of astronomy. Main articles: History of biology , History of molecular biology , History of medicine , and History of evolutionary thought.

Main article: History of ecology. Main article: History of the social sciences. Main article: History of political science. Main article: History of linguistics. Main article: History of economics. Main article: History of psychology. Main article: History of sociology. Main article: History of anthropology.

Main article: History of science and technology. Main article: Theories and sociology of the history of science. Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 20 February Mathematics finds a place in science only as one of the symbolical languages in which scientific explanations may be expressed.

University of Chicago Press. When [history of science] began, during the eighteenth century, it was practiced by scientists or "natural philosophers" with an interest in validating and defending their enterprise. They wrote histories in which Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS Astronomy in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland. New Haven: Yale University Press. Witchcraft, Magic, and Divination in Ancient Mesopotamia. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Retrieved 12 May Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Israel's Divine Healer. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.

Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives. Biggs Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. In Horstmanshoff, H. Studies in Ancient Medicine. Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief History. Pythagoras: His Life, Teachings, and Influence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

The Odyssey. Translated by Walter Shewring. Oxford University Press. In Egypt, more than in other lands, the bounteous earth yields a wealth of drugs, healthful and baneful side by side; and every man there is a physician; the rest of the world has no such skill, for these are all of the family of Paeon.

Archived from the original PDF on 7 April Retrieved 9 March Philosophy in the ancient world: an introduction , p. Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle. Cornell University Press. How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Spring ed. Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction. Norton, , pp. Copyrights in , , , , The first quote above comes from Part 1, Chapter 1; the second, from Part 2, Chapter 4.

Bibcode : Natur. University of British Columbia. Retrieved 26 September A History of Mathematics. The Elements of Euclid not only was the earliest major Greek mathematical work to come down to us, but also the most influential textbook of all times. Perhaps no book other than the Bible can boast so many editions, and certainly no mathematical work has had an influence comparable with that of Euclid's Elements. A Contextual History of Mathematics. Shortly after Euclid, compiler of the definitive textbook, came Archimedes of Syracuse c.

February University of St Andrews. Retrieved 7 August In Possehl, Gregory L. Harappan Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. Archimedes to Hawking: laws of science and the great minds behind them. Oxford University Press US. Andrews, Scotland. Joseph The crest of the peacock. Eugene T. Caley D. Personal Data in Cybersecurity Information Sharing. Elise K. Jay D. Aging, Mobility, and the Transformation of Later Life. David A. Michael Aaron Dennis U. Susanne E. John P. Anna M. Foodborne Salmonellosis and Distributed Responsibility. Dis assembling clinical research in post-genomic oncology.

Harmonizing the Sustainability of European Biofuels. Towards a Sociology of Technology and Time. Articulating and Realizing the Value of Synthetic Biology. Impacts of Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries. Cartography and the History of Geographic Space.

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