Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards


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A practical guide with expert advice

Hasan Abla , Elec. Eng at Delta for electrical and Mechanical Contracting at Elec. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Electrical installation guide According to IEC international standards 2. This technical guide is the result of a collective effort. This Technical Guide is aimed at professional users and is only intended to provide them guidelines for the definition of an industrial, tertiary or domestic electrical installation. Schneider Electric makes no warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, such as but not limited to the warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, nor assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this Guide, nor represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

We thank all the readers of the previous edition of this guide for their comments that have helped improve the current edition. We also thank the many people and organisations, too numerous to name here, who have contributed in one way or another to the preparation of this guide. As the Standard must be extensive, and has to be applicable to all types of equipment and the technical solutions in use worldwide, the text of the IEC rules is complex, and not presented in a ready-to-use order.

The Standard cannot therefore be considered as a working handbook, but only as a reference document. The aim of the present guide is to provide a clear, practical and step- by-step explanation for the complete study of an electrical installation, according to IEC series and other relevant IEC Standards.

The first chapter A presents the methodology to be used, and refers to all chapters of the guide according to the different steps of the study. We all hope that you, the reader, will find this handbook genuinely helpful. Schneider Electric S. Acknowlegements This guide has been realized by a team of experienced international experts, on the base of IEC series of standard, and include the latest developments in electrical standardization.

Industry and academic professionals can collaborate too! Power Management Blog In the Schneider Electric blog, you will find the best tips about standards, tools, software, safety and latest technical news shared by our experts. You will find even more information about innovations and business opportunities. This is your place to leave us your comments and to engage discussion about your expertise. You might want to sharewith your Twitter or LinkedIn followers.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide Ecodial Advanced Calculation 4 The new Ecodial Advanced Calculation 4 software is dedicated to electrical installation calculation in accordance with IEC international standard or national standards. The task of the IEC Technical Committee 64 is to develop and keep up-to- date requirements - for the protection of persons against electrical shock, and - for the design, verification and implementation of low voltage electrical installations.

Series of standard such as IEC developed by IEC TC64 is considered by the international community as the basis of the majority of national low-voltage wiring rules. IEC series is mainly focussed on safety due the use of electricity by people who may not be aware of risk resulting from the use of electricity. But modern electrical installations are increasingly complex, due to external input such as - electromagnetic disturbances - energy efficiency Consequently, designers, installers and consumers need guidance on the selection and installation of electrical equipment.

Schneider Electric has developed this Electrical Installation Guide dedicated to low voltage electrical installations. It is based on IEC TC64 standards such as IEC series and provides additional information in order to help designers, contractors and controllers for implementing correct low-voltage electrical installations. As TC64 Chairman, it is my great pleasure and honour to introduce this guide. I am sure it will be used fruitfully by all persons involved in the implementation of all low-voltage electrical installations.

He has been always involved is various activities in low voltage field. Electrical installation guide 7. L6 3 How to improve the power factor? L8 4 Where to install power correction capacitors? L11 5 How to determine the optimum level of compensation? L13 6 Compensation at the terminals of a transformer L16 7 Power factor correction of induction motors L19 8 Example of an installation before and after power-factor correction L21 9 The effects of harmonics L22 10 Implementation of capacitor banks L26 Harmonic management 1 The problem: why is it necessary to manage harmonics?

Electrical Installation Guide | Engineering Books

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide Residential and other special locations 1 Residential and similar premises Q2 2 Bathrooms and showers Q8 3 Recommendations applicable to special installations and locations Q12 EMC guidelines 1 Electrical distribution R2 2 Earthing principles and structures R3 3 Implementation R5 4 Coupling mechanisms and counter-measures R20 5 Wiring recommendations R26 Q R General contents Rules and statutory regulations Range of low-voltage extends from 0 V to V in a.

One of the first decision id the selection of type of current between the alternative current which corresponds to the most common type of current through out the world and the direct current. Then designers have to select the most appropriate rated voltage within these ranges of voltages.

When connected to a LV public network, the type of current and the rated voltage are already selected and imposed by the Utility.

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Compliance with national regulations is then the second priority of the designers of electrical installation. Regulations may be based on national or international standards such as the IEC series. Selection of equipment complying with national or international product standards and appropriate verification of the completed installation is a powerful mean for providing a safe installation with the expected quality. Defining and complying with the verification and testing of the electrical installation at its completion as well as periodic time will guarantee the safety and the quality of this installation all along its life cycle.

Conformity of equipment according to the appropriate product standards used within the installation is also of prime importance for the level of safety and quality. Environmental conditions will become more and more stringent and will need to be considered at the design stage of the installation.

This may include national or regional regulations considering the material used in the equipment as well as the dismantling of the installation at its end of life. Installed power loads - Characteristics A review of all applications needing to be supplied with electricity is to be done. Any possible extensions or modifications during the whole life of the electrical installation are to be considered. Such a review aimed to estimate the current flowing in each circuit of the installation and the power supplies needed.

The total current or power demand can be calculated from the data relative to the location and power of each load, together with the knowledge of the operating modes steady state demand, starting conditions, non simultaneous operation, etc. Estimation of the maximum power demand may use various factors depending on the type of application; type of equipment and type of circuits used within the electrical installation. From these data, the power required from the supply source and where appropriate the number of sources necessary for an adequate supply to the installation is readily obtained.

Local information regarding tariff structures is also required to allow the best choice of connection arrangement to the power-supply network, e. Connection to the MV public distribution network Where this connection is made at the Medium Voltage level a consumer-type substation will have to be studied, built and equipped. This substation may be an outdoor or indoor installation conforming to relevant standards and regulations the low-voltage section may be studied separately if necessary. Metering at medium-voltage or low-voltage is possible in this case.

Connection to the LV utility distribution network Where the connection is made at the Low Voltage level the installation will be connected to the local power network and will necessarily be metered according to LV tariffs. The customer expectations and technical parameters will impact the architecture of the system as well as the electrical installation characteristics.

Neutral earthing arrangements are chosen according to local regulations, constraints related to the power-supply, and to the type of loads. The type of premises and allocation can influence their immunity to external disturbances. LV distribution The system earthing is one protective measures commonly used for the protection against electric shocks. These systems earthings have a major impact on the LV electrical installation architecture and they need to be analysed as early as possible. Advantages and drawbacks are to be analysed for a correct selection.

Another aspect needing to be considered at the earlier stage is the external influences. In large electrical installation, different external influences may be encountered and need to be considered independently. As a result of these external influences proper selection of equipment according to their IP or IK codes has to be made. Protection against electric shocks Protection against electric shock consists in providing provision for basic protection protection against direct contact with provision for fault protection protection against indirect contact.

Coordinated provisions result in a protective measure. Sizing and protection of conductors Selection of cross-sectional-areas of cables or isolated conductors for line conductors is certainly one of the most important tasks of the designing process of an electrical installation as this greatly influences the selection of overcurrent protective devices, the voltage drop along these conductors and the estimation of the prospective short-circuits currents: the maximum value relates to the overcurrent protection and the minimum value relates to the fault protection by automatic disconnection of supply.

This has to be done for each circuit of the installation. Similar task is to be done for the neutral conductors and for the Protective Earth PE conductor. Circuit breakers have also other possible functions such as switching and isolation. A complete understanding of the functionalities offered by all switchgear and controlgear within the installation is necessary. Correct selection of all devices can now be done. A comprehensive understanding of all functionalities offered by the circuit breakers is of prime importance as this is the device offering the largest variety of functions.

Overvoltage protection Direct or indirect lightning strokes can damage electrical equipment at a distance of several kilometres. Operating voltage surges, transient and industrial frequency over-voltage can also produce the same consequences. All protective measures against overvoltage need to be assessed. Their selection; installation and protection within the electrical installation request some particular attention.

Energy efficiency in electrical distribution Implementation of active energy efficiency measures within the electrical installation can produce high benefits for the user or owner: reduced power consumption, reduced cost of energy, better use of electrical equipment. These measures will most of the time request specific design for the installation as measuring electricity consumption either per application lighting, heating, process… or per area floor, workshop present particular interest for reducing the electricity consumption still keeping the same level of service provided to the user.

Reactive energy The power factor correction within electrical installations is carried out locally, globally or as a combination of both methods. Improving the power factor has a direct impact on the billing of consumed electricity and may also have an impact on the energy efiiciency. This chapter deals with the origins and the effects of harmonics and explain how to measure them and present the solutions.

A green and economical energy The solar energy development has to respect specific installation rules. Generic applications Certain premises and locations are subject to particularly strict regulations: the most common example being residential dwellings. Non observance of these rules may have serious consequences in the operation of the electrical installation: disturbance of communication systems, nuisance tripping of protection devices, and even destruction of sensitive devices.

Ecodial software Ecodial software 1 provides a complete design package for LV installations, in accordance with IEC standards and recommendations. The following features are included: b Construction of one-line diagrams b Calculation of short-circuit currents according to several operating modes normal, back-up, load shedding b Calculation of voltage drops b Optimization of cable sizes b Required ratings and settings of switchgear and fusegear b Discrimination of protective devices b Optimization of switchgear using cascading b Verification of the protection of people and circuits b Comprehensive print-out of the foregoing calculated design data There is a number of tools which can help to speed-up the design process.

As an example, to choose a combination of components to protect and control an asynchronous motor, with proper coordination type 1, 2 or total, as defined in international standard IEC , rather than selecting this combination using paper tables, it is much faster to use tools such as the Low Voltage Motor Starter Solution Guide. The values indicated are voltages between phases. The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values. It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be constructed in future. The voltage to neutral is equal to the indicated value divided by 1.

These regulations may be based on national standards derived from the IEC Low-voltage electrical installations. IEC has been established by engineering experts of all countries in the world comparing their experience at an international level.

Standardized mounting on rails for mechanical support of electrical devices in switchgear and controlgear installations. The principles of all such regulations however, are common, and are based on the observance of rigorous safety rules in the design and realization of the installation. IEC and related standards included in this guide are based on an international consensus for such tests, intended to cover all the safety measures and approved installation practices normally required for residential, commercial and the majority of industrial buildings. Many industries however have additional regulations related to a particular product petroleum, coal, natural gas, etc.

Such additional requirements are beyond the scope of this guide. The aim of this guide is to draw attention to the particular features of different types of installation, and to indicate the essential rules to be observed in order to achieve a satisfactory level of quality, which will ensure safe and trouble-free performance. The methods recommended in this guide, modified if necessary to comply with any possible variation imposed by a utility, are intended to satisfy all precommissioning test and inspection requirements.

After verification and testing an initial report must be provided including records of inspection, records of circuits tested together with the test result and possible repairs or improvements of the installation. The following tests should be performed b Verification of RCD effectiveness and adjustments b Appropriate measurements for providing safety of persons against effects of electric shock and protection against damage to property against fire and heat b Confirmation that the installation is not damaged b Identification of installation defects Figure A3 shows the frequency of testing commonly prescribed according to the kind of installation concerned.

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Conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested in several ways Fig A3: Frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation As for the initial verification, a reporting of periodic verification is to be provided. Declaration of conformity As business, the declaration of conformity, including the technical documentation, is generally used in for high voltage equipments or for specific products.

In Europe, the CE declaration is a mandatory declaration of conformity. Note: CE marking In Europe, the European directives require the manufacturer or his authorized representative to affix the CE marking on his own responsibility. It means that: b The product meets the legal requirements b It is presumed to be marketable in Europe. The CE marking is neither a mark of origin nor a mark of conformity, it completes the declaration of conformity and the technical documents of the equipments.

Certificate of conformity A certificate of conformity can reinforce the manufacturer's declaration and the customer's confidence. It could be requested by the regulation of the countries, imposed by the customers Marine, Nuclear,.. Mark of conformity Marks of conformity are strong strategic tools to validate a durable conformity. It consolidates the confidence with the brand of the manufacturer. A mark of Type of installation Testing frequency Installations b Locations at which a risk of degradation, Annually which require fire or explosion exists the protection b Temporary installations at worksites of employees b Locations at which MV installations exist b Restrictive conducting locations where mobile equipment is used Other cases Every 3 years Installations in buildings According to the type of establishment From one to used for public gatherings, and its capacity for receiving the public three years where protection against the risks of fire and panic are required Residential According to local regulations Example : the REBT in Belgium which imposes a periodic control each 20 years.

Audit on the production and follow up on the equipments are made globally each year. Quality assurance A laboratory for testing samples cannot certify the conformity of an entire production run: these tests are called type tests. Quality assurance certification is intended to complete the initial declaration or certification of conformity.

As proof that all the necessary measures have been taken for assuring the quality of production, the manufacturer obtains certification of the quality control system which monitors the fabrication of the product concerned. These certificates are issued by organizations specializing in quality control, and are based on the international standard ISO These standards define three model systems of quality assurance control corresponding to different situations rather than to different levels of quality: b Model 3 defines assurance of quality by inspection and checking of final products b Model 2 includes, in addition to checking of the final product, verification of the manufacturing process.

The following features are included: b Construction of one-line diagrams b Calculation of short-circuit currents according to several operating modes normal, back-up, load shedding b Calculation of voltage drops b Optimization of cable sizes b Required ratings and settings of switchgear and fusegear b Discrimination of protective devices b Optimization of switchgear using cascading b Verification of the protection of people and circuits b Comprehensive print-out of the foregoing calculated design data There is a number of tools which can help to speed-up the design process.

As an example, to choose a combination of components to protect and control an asynchronous motor, with proper coordination type 1, 2 or total, as defined in international standard IEC , rather than selecting this combination using paper tables, it is much faster to use tools such as the Low Voltage Motor Starter Solution Guide. The values indicated are voltages between phases.


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The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values. It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be constructed in future. The voltage to neutral is equal to the indicated value divided by 1. These regulations may be based on national standards derived from the IEC Low-voltage electrical installations.

IEC has been established by engineering experts of all countries in the world comparing their experience at an international level. Standardized mounting on rails for mechanical support of electrical devices in switchgear and controlgear installations. The principles of all such regulations however, are common, and are based on the observance of rigorous safety rules in the design and realization of the installation.

IEC and related standards included in this guide are based on an international consensus for such tests, intended to cover all the safety measures and approved installation practices normally required for residential, commercial and the majority of industrial buildings. Many industries however have additional regulations related to a particular product petroleum, coal, natural gas, etc. Such additional requirements are beyond the scope of this guide. The aim of this guide is to draw attention to the particular features of different types of installation, and to indicate the essential rules to be observed in order to achieve a satisfactory level of quality, which will ensure safe and trouble-free performance.

The methods recommended in this guide, modified if necessary to comply with any possible variation imposed by a utility, are intended to satisfy all precommissioning test and inspection requirements. After verification and testing an initial report must be provided including records of inspection, records of circuits tested together with the test result and possible repairs or improvements of the installation.

The following tests should be performed b Verification of RCD effectiveness and adjustments b Appropriate measurements for providing safety of persons against effects of electric shock and protection against damage to property against fire and heat b Confirmation that the installation is not damaged b Identification of installation defects Figure A3 shows the frequency of testing commonly prescribed according to the kind of installation concerned. Conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested in several ways Fig A3: Frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation As for the initial verification, a reporting of periodic verification is to be provided.

Declaration of conformity As business, the declaration of conformity, including the technical documentation, is generally used in for high voltage equipments or for specific products. In Europe, the CE declaration is a mandatory declaration of conformity. Note: CE marking In Europe, the European directives require the manufacturer or his authorized representative to affix the CE marking on his own responsibility.

It means that: b The product meets the legal requirements b It is presumed to be marketable in Europe. The CE marking is neither a mark of origin nor a mark of conformity, it completes the declaration of conformity and the technical documents of the equipments. Certificate of conformity A certificate of conformity can reinforce the manufacturer's declaration and the customer's confidence.

It could be requested by the regulation of the countries, imposed by the customers Marine, Nuclear,.. Mark of conformity Marks of conformity are strong strategic tools to validate a durable conformity. It consolidates the confidence with the brand of the manufacturer. A mark of Type of installation Testing frequency Installations b Locations at which a risk of degradation, Annually which require fire or explosion exists the protection b Temporary installations at worksites of employees b Locations at which MV installations exist b Restrictive conducting locations where mobile equipment is used Other cases Every 3 years Installations in buildings According to the type of establishment From one to used for public gatherings, and its capacity for receiving the public three years where protection against the risks of fire and panic are required Residential According to local regulations Example : the REBT in Belgium which imposes a periodic control each 20 years.

Audit on the production and follow up on the equipments are made globally each year. Quality assurance A laboratory for testing samples cannot certify the conformity of an entire production run: these tests are called type tests. Quality assurance certification is intended to complete the initial declaration or certification of conformity. As proof that all the necessary measures have been taken for assuring the quality of production, the manufacturer obtains certification of the quality control system which monitors the fabrication of the product concerned.

These certificates are issued by organizations specializing in quality control, and are based on the international standard ISO These standards define three model systems of quality assurance control corresponding to different situations rather than to different levels of quality: b Model 3 defines assurance of quality by inspection and checking of final products b Model 2 includes, in addition to checking of the final product, verification of the manufacturing process.

For example, this method is applied, to the manufacturer of fuses where performance characteristics cannot be checked without destroying the fuse b Model 1 corresponds to model 2, but with the additional requirement that the quality of the design process must be rigorously scrutinized; for example, where it is not intended to fabricate and test a prototype case of a custom-built product made to specification.

Beside its architecture, environmental specification of the electrical component and equipment is a fundamental step for an eco-friendly installation. In particular to ensure proper environmental information and anticipate regulation. In Europe several Directives concerning electrical equipments have been published, leading the worldwide move to more environment safe products. It aims to eliminate from products six hazardous substances: lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls PBB or polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDE from most of end user electrical products..

Its purpose is to improve the end of life treatments for household and non household equipment, under the responsibility of the manufacturers. As for RoHS, electrical installations are not in the scope of this directive. However, End of Life Product information is recommended to optimise recycling process and cost. Apart for some equipments like lighting or motors for which implementing measures are compulsory, there are no legal requirements that directly apply to installation. However, trend is to provide electrical equipments with their Environmental Product Declarattion, as it is becoming for Construction Products, to anticipate Building Market coming requirements.

In force since , it aims to control chemical use and restrict application when necessary to reduce hazards to people and environment. With regards to EE and installations, it implies any supplier shall, upon request, communicate to its customer the hazardous substances content in its product so called SVHC. Then, an installer should ensure that its suppliers have the appropriate information available In other parts of the world new legislations will follow the same objectives.

A single-phase motor may be connected phase-to- neutral or phase-to-phase. As a result, some maximum switchgear withstands can be reached, life time can be reduced and even some devices can be destroyed. In order to avoid such a situation, oversizing of the switchgear must be considered. According to the risk, tables show the combination of circuit breaker, contactor and thermal relay to obtain type 1 or type 2 coordination see chapter N.

Motor starting current Although high efficiency motors can be found on the market, in practice their starting currents are roughly the same as some of standard motors. The use of start-delta starter, static soft start unit or variable speed drive allows to reduce the value of the starting current Example: 4 Ia instead of 7. Compensation of reactive-power kvar supplied to induction motors It is generally advantageous for technical and financial reasons to reduce the current supplied to induction motors.

This can be achieved by using capacitors without affecting the power output of the motors. As discussed in chapter L, the apparent power kVA supplied to an induction motor can be significantly reduced by the use of shunt-connected capacitors. Reduction of input kVA means a corresponding reduction of input current since the voltage remains constant.

Compensation of reactive-power is particularly advised for motors that operate for long periods at reduced power. Sometimes this value can reach 25 times Inm. As a result, some maximum switchgears withstands can be reach, life time can be reduce and even some devices can be destroyed.

According to the risk, tables show the combination of circuit breaker, contactor and thermal relay to obtain type 1 or type 2 coordination see chapter M. Motor starting current Although high efficiency motors can be find on the market, in practice their starting currents are roughly the same as some of standard motors.

The use of start-delta starter, static soft start unit or speed drive converter allows to reduce the value of the starting current Example : 4 Ia instead of 7. As discussed in chapter K, the apparent power kVA supplied to an induction motor can be significantly reduced by the use of shunt-connected capacitors. An examination of the actual apparent-power demands of different loads: a necessary preliminary step in the design of a LV installation The nominal power in kW Pn of a motor indicates its rated equivalent mechanical power output. The apparent power in kVA Pa supplied to the motor is a function of the output, the motor efficiency and the power factor.

180738420-Electrical-Installation-Guide-2013-Schneider-Electric-pdf.pdf

It should be noted that speed drive converter provides reactive energy compensation. Figure B4 below shows, in function of motor rated power, standard motor current values for several voltage supplies. Figure A4 below shows, in function of motor rated power, standard motor current values for several voltage supplies. A4: Rated operational power and currents continued on next page A4: Rated operational power and currents concluded 3.

A5: Current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting conventional or halogen appliances Nominal Current demand A power 1-phase 1-phase 3-phase 3-phase kW V V V V 0. For an incandescent lamp, the use of halogen gas allows a more concentrated light source. The light output is increased and the lifetime of the lamp is doubled. Note: At the instant of switching on, the cold filament gives rise to a very brief but intense peak of current. The current demand of a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is easily obtained from the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer i.

Fluorescent lamps and related equipment The power Pn watts indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast.

Standard tubular fluorescent lamps The power Pn watts indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast. Figure B6 gives these values for different arrangements of ballast. They are commonly used in public places which are permanently illuminated for example: corridors, hallways, bars, etc.

B7 next page. Figure A6 gives these values for different arrangements of ballast. If Pn is in kW, then multiply the equation by Fig. A7 next page. Note: these lamps are sensitive to voltage dips. Note: Sodium vapour low-pressure lamps have a light-output efficiency which is superior to that of all other sources. However, use of these lamps is restricted by the fact that the yellow-orange colour emitted makes colour recognition practically impossible.

These lamps depend on the luminous electrical discharge through a gas or vapour of a metallic compound, which is contained in a hermetically-sealed transparent envelope at a pre-determined pressure. These lamps have a long start-up time, during which the current Ia is greater than the nominal current In. Power and current demands are given for different types of lamp typical average values which may differ slightly from one manufacturer to another.

This technology has a very short start-up time. On the other hand, the inrush current at the powering is generally very higher than for fluorescent lamp with electronic ballast. To base the design simply on the arithmetic sum of all the loads existing in the installation would be extravagantly uneconomical, and bad engineering practice. The aim of this chapter is to show how some factors taking into account the diversity non simultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group and utilization e. The values given are based on experience and on records taken from actual installations.

This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice. Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominal power rating Pn. The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power-consuming devices in the installation. This is the case for electric motors, where the power rating refers to the output power at its driving shaft.

The input power consumption will evidently be greater. Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts, are other cases in which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the power consumed by the lamp and its ballast. Methods of assessing the actual power consumption of motors and lighting appliances are given in Section 3 of this Chapter.

The power demand kW is necessary to choose the rated power of a generating set or battery, and where the requirements of a prime mover have to be considered. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to the total installed kVA. The apparent-power demand of a load which might be a single appliance is obtained from its nominal power rating corrected if necessary, as noted above for motors, etc. The aim of this chapter is to show how some factors taking into account the diversity nonsimultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group and utilization e.

The input power consumption will evidently be greater Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts, are other cases in which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the power consumed by the lamp and its ballast. When some or all of the load characteristics are not known, the values shown in Figure B9 next page may be used to give a very approximate estimate of VA demands individual loads are generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW.

The estimates for lighting loads are based on floor areas of m2. The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVA of individual loads. Factors ku and ks allow the determination of the maximum power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation. Factor of maximum utilization ku In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is sometimes less than that indicated as its nominal power rating, a fairly common occurrence that justifies the application of an utilization factor ku in the estimation of realistic values.

This factor must be applied to each individual load, with particular attention to electric motors, which are very rarely operated at full load. In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated on an average at 0. For incandescent-lighting loads, the factor always equals 1. For socket-outlet circuits, the factors depend entirely on the type of appliances being supplied from the sockets concerned.

For Electric Vehicle the utilization factor will be systematically estimated to 1, as it takes a long time to load completely the batteries several hours and a dedicated circuit feeding the charging station or wall box will be required by standards. When some or all of the load characteristics are not known, the values shown in Figure A9 may be used to give a very approximate estimate of VA demands individual loads are generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW.

For this reason, it is not possible to give precise values for general application. Diversity factor - Coincidence factor ks It is a matter of common experience that the simultaneous operation of all installed loads of a given installation never occurs in practice, i. This factor is defined in IEC - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary, as follows: b Coincidence factor: the ratio, expressed as a numerical value or as a percentage, of the simultaneous maximum demand of a group of electrical appliances or consumers within a specified period, to the sum of their individual maximum demands within the same period.

As per this definition, the value is always y 1 and can be expressed as a percentage b Diversity factor: the reciprocal of the coincidence factor. It means it will always be u 1. The term "simultaneity factor" is another alternative that is sometimes used. The factor ks is applied to each group of loads e. The following tables are coming from local standards or guides, not from international standards. They should only be used as examples of determination of such factors. In the case of consumers using electrical heat-storage units for space heating, a factor of 0.

A Example of diversity factors for an apartment block as defined in French standard NFC, and applicable for apartments without electrical heating Number of downstream Diversity consumers factor ks 2 to 4 1 5 to 9 0. A11 : 5 storeys apartment building with 25 consumers, each having 6 kVA of installed load.

A11, it is possible to determine the magnitude of currents in different sections of the common main feeder supplying all floors. For vertical rising mains fed at ground level, the cross-sectional area of the conductors can evidently be progressively reduced from the lower floors towards the upper floors. These changes of conductor size are conventionally spaced by at least 3-floor intervals.

Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards
Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards
Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards
Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards
Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards
Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards Schneider Electric - Electrical Installation Guide According to IEC International Standards

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