We show that local classical gravity probes can only measure orbit invariant quantities. Details of the Virasoro charges associated with each geometry is only available to semiclassical or non-local observables. In particular, we also elaborate on multi-BTZ geometries which have some number of disconnected pieces at the horizon bifurcation curve.

We study multi-BTZ black hole thermodynamics and discuss that the thermodynamic quantities are orbit invariants. Our analysis sheds further light on the picture that a multi- BTZ black hole at the classical gravity level is specified by orbit invariant quantities mass, angular momentum, and number of pieces at the horizon and boundary , while black hole microstates may be identified with Virasoro charges within a given orbit.

The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory.

Harvey University of Chicago Z. Komargodski Weizmann Institute M. Lisanti Princeton University S. As a result, important changes of the structural, dynamical and chemical properties can be induced even in relatively low pressure regimes. After a general introduction directed to outline the importance of high pressure in nature and the instruments necessary to create high pressure conditions in laboratory, the attention will be focused on two different, although connected, problems: the chemical transformations of simple model systems under pressure and recent challenging experiments directed to understand the dynamics of ultrafast processes driven by pressure.

As the reactivity is concerned, the complex interplay of structural properties, lattice dynamical processes and electronic arrangement will be discussed through several examples pointing to the importance of disentangling the effects of pressure, temperature and laser or x-ray radiation on the reaction activation to understand the reactivity at the molecular level. The second part of part will be devoted to the application of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques to samples compressed in high-pressure devices. These experiments are extremely challenging having so far precluded the studies of ultrafast dynamics reaction intermediates, phase changes, structural rearrangements driven by pressure.

Recent results on the dynamics of liquid water, water solutions and ices demonstrate the feasibility and potentiality of this approach in monitoring non equilibrium states under high pressure conditions. In this seminar, as an example of materials design driven by ab initio methods, I will describe the application of density functional theory DFT , and its corrections and extensions, to predict new p-type transparent conducting materials TCMs. While TCMs are crucial in optoelectronics, transparency and p-type conductivity rarely coexist in the same material.

In these oxides, the Ag vacancies act as intrinsic hole-generating defects, and the hole effective mass is lighter than in CuAlO2, the prototypical p-type transparent conducting oxide. However, ab initio methods require the crystal structure as input information to predict materials properties. Therefore, the ability to predict the crystal structure of hypothetical compounds without constraints or assumptions on the lattice symmetry is essential in order to discover new functional materials beyond the repertoires of known solids.

Here, I will describe a crystal structure prediction method based on an evolutionary algorithm to search for the global total-energy minimum of a solid calculated by DFT as a function of the lattice vectors and atom positions. I will illustrate the application of this global space-group optimization GSGO algorithm to selected binary and ternary solids. Finally, I will discuss an extension of the GSGO algorithm in which the stoichiometry is also optimized so as to predict at the same time the composition and crystal structure of the thermodynamically stable phases of a solid system.

This gives rise to new non-equilibrium scenarios even in stationary state, where coherent and dissipative dynamics appear on an equal footing. Oftentimes however, in the transition from microscopic scales to macroscopic distances, much of the underlying quantum dynamics is washed out, and the long distance many-body physics is semi- classical. Here we present two instances which do not follow this generic pattern. The first addresses the critical dynamics in a driven open system with a dark state realizable in microcavity arrays.

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We find it governed by a new non-equilibrium universality class, characterized by the absence of decoherence and thermalization. The second focuses on an ensemble of driven Rydberg atoms, in which the interplay of constrained coherent quantum dynamics and dissipation leads to a new variant of a non-equilibrium absorbing state transition beyond the classical paradigm of directed percolation.

Their measurement in solids is subject of an intense scientific debate focused on the research of a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the ionic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. In this presentation I will introduce our new approach to address fluctuation by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise limited regime.

The variance of the time dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light. A fully quantum description of the non-linear interactions between photonic and phononic fields pave the way for a direct measurement of fluctuation in complex systems. References Nature Comm. As a counterpart of this fact, we will see that, beside the characterization of the rigidity case, our methods can be used to produce new monotonicity formulas, which imply in turn the inequality under consideration in its full generality.

The results presented are obtained in collaboration with V. A tarball of the entire repository is also available here. The Deal. It takes the deal. II finite element library as an example and provides specialized training for computational scientists that already are or want to become deal.

II developers. The training will consist of lectures on the deal. II experts and developers. There is no financial support for attending at the "Deal. II Users and Developers Training" only. High Performance Computing Deal. Such phenotypes measure molecular functions and are important targets of natural selection. However, the map between encoding DNA sequences and molecular phenotypes is often too difficult to quantify.

This lack of knowledge raises an obvious question: which evolutionary properties of a phenotype are universal, that is, independent of the molecular details? In this talk, I will show that universality is an emerging property of complex phenotypes, which are encoded by multiple genomic loci. In time-dependent environments, changes in the environment drive the evolution of the species, but not vice versa. As an example, I will present strong evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in Drosophila.

Co-evolving populations reciprocally affect the fitness of each other, acting as time-dependent environments with feedback. As an example, I will show evidence of co-adaptation between interacting cellular populations of HIV viruses and the antibody repertoire of a patient over the course of an infection.

In particular, I will discuss the conditions for emergence of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, which are now recognized as critical for designing an effective vaccine against HIV. The simplest version of QG is based on General Relativity and is non-renormalizable. One can construct renormalizable and even superrenormalizable versions of QG by introducing higher derivatives, but then one has to deal with the unphysical higher derivative massive ghosts.

At the same time polynomial superrenormalizable versions of QG have certain attractive features, such as unambiguous and exactly calculable beta-functions and possible Lee-Wick type unitarity in case when all extra poles are complex. The non-polynomial models of QG have no ghosts at the tree level, but taking loop corrections into account one meets infinite amount of ghost-like complex states.

In the IR one can prove that the modified Newton limit in all these models is singularity-free. After a survey of all these issues some list of unsolved interesting problems will be discussed.

## Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics. In Honor of Isaac M. Daniel | Archambault

A one-week intensive Workshop for physicists and engineers from developing countries interested in learning entrepreneurial skills to commercialize their scientific inventions. In this talk, I will present a novel statistical mechanical model of natural images rooted in the theory of critical phenomena that sheds light on this hierarchy of length scales, paving the road for a nonequilibrium statistical model of natural images with few parameters.

Studies of natural image statistics were first done in neuroscience but have since become of immense interest in machine learning due to the recent advances in deep learning. My research on natural images fits into a bigger picture: the general and common problem of "many scales of length" in physics, machine learning and neural coding. Rotation Measures can teach us a lot about extra-Galactic Magnetic Fields. After a brief overview of magnetic observations and magnetogenesis mechanisms in the early Universe, I will show how to obtain the very best limits cosmological magnetic fields.

The 3rd and 4th generation light-source facilities, where electrons in storage rings or linear accelerators generate intense, tunable, multiply polarized, coherent, and pulsed radiation in the X-ray, VUV and IR region, have been the prerequisites for the development of advanced experimental techniques for multidisciplinary applications, with unprecedented spatial, spectral, and time resolution. The goal of this school, addressed to young researchers with a PhD or at least several years of research activity, is to disseminate knowledge about synchrotron and Free-electron-Laser FEL based methods, applications, and on-going innovations that will help the participants to identify the techniques relevant to their research interests.

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The programme will include introductory lectures on the principles and present status of photon productions and lectures on the various methods based on photon-matter interactions, namely absorption, scattering, diffraction, imaging, spectroscopy, microscopy, and related theoretical approaches for the interpretation of synchrotron and FEL experiments. Emphasis will be given to the latest developments and related new scientific opportunities.

A wide range of applications will be presented in various fields, including physical and material sciences, chemistry, biology, nanotechnology, environmental sciences, geology, and medicine. The lectures will be complemented by demonstrations at the synchrotron and FEL facilities at Elettra, Trieste. The main purpose of the Centre is to help researchers from developing countries through a programme of training activities within a framework of international co-operation. A limited number of scientists from developed countries are also welcome to attend.

In particular this School is intended for strongly motivated graduate students and young post-doctoral scientists. Logistics limit the number of participants to Limited funds are available for some applicants from developing countries, to be selected by the organizers. Such financial support is available only to those who attend the entire school. Every effort should be made by candidates to secure support for their fares or at least half-fare from their home country before applying to this School.

There is no registration fee for attending the School. Away from the well-known small-drive regime, the important role played by transverse nuclear fluctuations leads to a gaussian decay of spin coherence with characteristic dependence on drive strength and detuning. A characterization of spin-flip gate fidelity, in the presence of such additional drive-dependent dephasing, shows that vanishingly small errors can still be achieved at sufficiently large amplitudes. Based on our theory, we analyze recent EDSR experiments relying on spin-orbit interactions or the slanting field of a micromagnet.

We find that such experiments are already in a regime with significant effects of transverse nuclear fluctuations and the form of decay of the Rabi oscillations can be reproduced well by our theory. We will also briefly discuss other aspects of our research on single and double quantum dots, regarding the controlled generation of Dicke states in the nuclear spin bath and fast electron spin manipulation.

Indeed, it is often tightly regulated in order for the cells to adapt to the surrounding environment. I will discuss different aspects of the relationship between proteome composition and metabolism using different theoretical tools, ranging from flux balance analysis, to coarse grained proteome kinetics, to kinetic modelling of single reactions. In the context of the Banks-Fischler-Shenker-Susskind Matrix model of M-theory, black holes and geometry are encoded in matrix degrees of freedom.

I elaborate on this map by demonstrating that the relevant dynamics is realized through a system of qubits with a dense network of interactions. Using methods from quantum information theory, I compute the information scrambling time in Matrix black holes; and I present evidence that geometry is encoded in qubit entanglement entropy. However, the study of high order correlation functions of interacting many-body systems is a notoriously difficult problem. We also express the leading order of the short distance nonlocal correlation functions of the strongly repulsive Bose gas in terms of the wave function of M bosons at zero collision energy and zero total momentum.

The analysis and interpretation of large cosmological surveys increasingly relies on the use of large volume simulations of collisionless dynamics. Since these simulations routinely use Newtonian equations, one must be careful in interpreting their output, particularly when considering statistics on length scales comparable to the Hubble radius where general relativistic GR effects are expected to become important. The standard solution to the problem involves a clever use of gauge degrees of freedom in GR to map the variables evolved by standard Newtonian simulations to variables in multiple gauges in GR.

We will discuss an alternate approach to this problem in which the Poisson equation for the gravitational potential is replaced with a Helmholtz equation, using a simple but accurate approximation valid in the so-called conformal Newtonian gauge. Length scales smaller than the screening scale evolve according to Newtonian dynamics, while larger scales pick up relativistic corrections that accurately reproduce known results from perturbation theory in the Newtonian gauge.

Finally, the simplicity of our modification Poisson to Helmholtz also leads to an accurate post-processing prescription to convert the outputs of standard simulations into the correctly screened relativistic outputs in the Newtonian gauge. We will discuss how our results might be applied in studying the large scale clustering of biased tracers of matter, as well as extended to the case of multiple fluids.

The different identities of cells are determined by sequentially expressing particular subsets of genes in different parts of the embryo. Bicoid activated Hunchback is essential for Antero-Posterior patterning among others. The precision of the timing and spatial expression of the hunchback gene is regulated at the level of gene expression.

This process involves the assembly of the transcription machinery and depends on the concentrations of the maternal gradients. Using recent live imaging experiments that span several cell cycles we can access information on the dynamics of transcription initiation and gain insight into the dynamics of transcription. We develop an analysis approach based on a tailor made time dependent autocorrelation function that overcomes all experimental and computational problems to quantify the dynamics of transcription initiation. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription can involve more than just switching between an active and inactive state, so we extend our analysis to increasing complexity that allows us to infer the effective number of transcription initiation steps and the rates for progressing through them.

We first discuss the accuracy and potential of our method on simulated data and then analyse live MS2-MCP traces from developing fruit fly embryos. We identify the bursty nature of transcription initiation from the hunchback promoter. We show that in the anterior region where Bicoid levels saturate the promoter transcription dynamics is extremely reproducible from cell cycle 11 to We give a new method for computing the limiting accuracy of the antero-posterior boundary sharpness using only the parameters of our model.

Candidates should have a specific career interest in, or knowledge of nuclear security, although their academic and technical background may vary. Selection results have been communicated by email to each applicant. The preliminary list of participants can be found here below. Delconte Organizer s : D. The results obtained from the CFT approach include, for instance, exact scaling exponents, solutions of the Kondo and other quantum impurity problems, and the many results on entanglement measures and quantum quenches obtained in the past decade.

Yet, in spite of the many successes of CFT, there is a large class of one-dimensional systems that seems out of reach: inhomogeneous systems. For instance, a quantum gas in a trapping potential is inhomogeneous, because the density usually varies with position. The same is true about various out-of-equilibrium situations, for example if particles are released from a trap. I will sketch how the standard CFT framework can be adapted to accomodate such situations, by relying on a few elementary, yet illustrative, examples based on free fermions.

Though the first models for interacting populations date to almost a century ago, the role of species interactions in regulating the response to perturbations, and in shaping community composition, is yet not well understood. Models for ecological communities have so far concentrated on small systems. Here I show that, on the other hand, large ecological communities display simple and consistent patterns that can be understood as the result of elementary stochastic processes. Using random matrix techniques, I study how the properties of the interaction networks influence the stability of ecological communities and the persistence of the populations.

I conclude with a list of challenges that need to be overcome to have a more complete understanding of statical and dynamical properties of large ecosystems. Their typical dimensions of about 1 nm would allow to design the smallest possible transistor units. However, contrary to solid state circuitry their conductance properties can be decisively influenced by the harmonic degrees of freedom local phonons.

Surprisingly, there are parameter regimes, in which the presence of such seemingly disturbing effects might in fact become an advantage making such a device intrinsically bistable. We discuss these possibilities using analytical as well as numerical techniques and make predictions for the transport properties of contacted molecules in the relevant regimes and make contact to such fundamental multi-particle phenomena as Kondo effect.

Klatt, L. Komnik, Phys. Albrecht, H. Wang, L. Thoss, and A. Maier, T. Schmidt, and A. B 83, ICTP pio ictp. The aim is to make analytical predictions regarding the behavior of correlations as well as the entanglement spreading after such a quench. I will discuss attempts at understanding such problems using field theory. A possible strategy is to study the behavior of the system in imaginary time, the real time dynamics being recovered by performing the Wick rotation.

This is analogous to the celebrated "arctic circle" phenomenon found in the study of two-dimensional classical dimer or vertex models. I will also show that the fluctuating region is described by a massless field theory with a position-dependent metric, a field theory in curved space. What they have in common is that they are all large containing thousands of nodes and possess definite structure, deviating considerably from simple random graphs. In these networks the nodes interact with one another, but also with themselves: when the nodes represent species, a negative self-effect self-regulation generally arises from intraspecific competition for limited resources.

One important question concerns the role of self-effects in stabilizing network dynamics. While it is easy to construct networks which can be stabilized by only a handful of nodes exhibiting self-regulation, their structure is highly special, and quite different from what is observed empirically. Here I show that, in general, the vast majority of nodes must exhibit substantial self-regulation in order to stabilize dynamics. The argument holds for both random and highly structured empirical networks. Pair production is ubiquitous in quantum field theory coupled to a background.

One way to account for pair production is by computing the overlap, between the states with no particles in the past and in the future. This vacuum decay rate appears first in the work of Schwinger, on pair production in an electric field. It was later generalized to curved spacetimes, notably de Sitter space and black hole geometries. Most of the results available in the literature rely on the symmetry of the background to which the quanta are coupled.

I will show that, for two dimensional conformal field theories coupled to an arbitrary background profile, there is a formal exact result for the vacuum decay rate. This vacuum decay rate is a generalization of a result in dissipative quantum mechanics, due to Caldeira and Leggett. Polyakov and G. Above liquid nitrogen temperatures, these electron liquids are expected to display local equilibrium, enabled by strong electron-electron interactions [5]. Under these conditions, electrons in doped samples are expected to behave as a viscous liquid and may exhibit hydrodynamic phenomena akin to those observed in classical and quantum liquids.

In this talk I will report on results of combined theoretical and experimental work [6,7] showing unambiguous evidence for this long-sought transport regime. In particular, I will discuss how high-quality graphene sheets in the Fermi liquid regime exhibit an anomalous negative voltage drop near current injection points, which is attributed to the formation of whirlpools in the electron flow.

Measurements of these quasi-local electrical signals enable to extract the value of the kinematic viscosity of the two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion liquid in graphene, which is found to be an order of magnitude larger than that of honey, in quantitative agreement with many-body theory [8]. Our work represents the first step towards the observation of nearly perfect fluidity and quantum turbulence in solid-state devices. Mayorov et al. Wang et al. Taychatanapat et al. Woessner et al. Polini and G. Vignale, The quasiparticle lifetime in a doped graphene sheet. In No-nonsense physicist: an overview of Gabriele Giuliani's work and life eds.

Polini, G. Vignale, V. Pellegrini, and J. Jain Edizioni della Normale, Pisa, Bandurin, I. Torre, R. Kumar, M. Ben Shalom, A. Tomadin, A. Principi, G. Auton, E. Khestanova, K. NovoseIov, I. Grigorieva, L. Ponomarenko, A. Geim, and M. Polini, Science , Torre, A. Polini, Phys. B 92, Vignale, M. Carrega, and M. B 93, Kovtun, D. Son, and A. Starinets, Phys. Schmalian, and L. Fritz, Phys. In this talk, I will talk about a single field axion inflation model in the presence of an SU 2 gauge field with a small vev. The gauge field is coupled to the axion with a Chern-Simons interaction and has a negligible effect on the background evolution.

However, its quantum fluctuations make a significant contribution to the cosmic perturbation. In particular, the gauge field has a spin-2 fluctuation which explicitly breaks the parity between the left- and right-handed polarization states. The chiral tensor modes are linearly coupled to the gravitational waves and generates a circularly polarized tensor power spectrum compatible with the unpolarized vacuum fluctuations.

Moreover, the scalar sector is modified by the linear scalar fluctuations of the gauge field. Since the spin-0 and spin-2 fluctuations of the SU 2 gauge field are independent, the gauge field can, at the same time, generate a detectable chiral gravitational wave signal and have a negligible contribution to the scalar fluctuations, in agreement with the current CMB observations. Many complex systems in physics, biology, engineering and economics are characterized by a large number of interacting degrees of freedom giving rise to a non-trivial collective behavior.

The theoretical and computational tools for a quantitative analysis of complex systems are often rooted in modern statistical, quantum physics. The Spring College on the Physics of Complex Systems aims to give students the opportunity to get in touch with a selection of topics at the forefront of research, during an intensive 4-week program. It consists of 5 courses of 9 lectures each, followed by final written tests.

Courses and Lecturers: Aaron King Univ. Is there a common law that describes the connection between size at birth and growth rate for all balanced-growing cells? How exponential growth at all possible? In this talk I will offer a novel systems analysis perspective on these biological questions. I will explain two generic methods to accelerate a complex assembly process beyond its critical path duration - the duration of the longest serial process that is bound to occur.

I will then apply these ideas to the process of cellular self-replication and derive a novel type of growth law relating the doubling rate of a cell with the number of progenies concurrently under production, and the critical path duration. Central to these discoveries has been the development of new ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, in particular two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy 2DES , which is now the primary tool to obtain clear and definitive experimental proof of such effects [1].

A crucial point now is to understand the origin and the relevance of such long-lived quantum coherences in transport processes that seem to be strongly related to the complex interplay between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom [2]. With the aim of clarifying how different vibrational modes influence the mechanisms and the dynamics of energy migration, we focused our attention on simplified bio-mimetic model systems.

We suitably designed, prepared and spectroscopically characterized different multi-chromophoric systems characterized by different interpigment distance and electronic coupling. The results obtained applying 2DES to these three samples and the comparison with the ones obtained on the corresponding monomeric forms allowed isolating and identifying contributions to the nonlinear signal associated with inter-exciton dynamics electronic coherences from vibrational dynamics.

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The results allow suggesting possible future guidelines for the design of artificial light-harvesting systems where energy migration is effectively driven by quantum mechanics. Collini, Chem Soc Rev 42, Chin, et al. The prominent failure mode in generic quantum systems is called Many-Body Localization or MBL and it is at the core of the current research on the foundations of statistical mechanics.

Paris Sud - Univ. The optimization strategies, aiming to achieve diagnostic image quality at lower radiation dose, will be also extensively discussed. Achieving good image quality at lower patient dose became of high importance in the last decades with the new technological development and especially when new generations of multi-detector CT became widely available. The improved diagnostic accuracy and shortened scanning time in CT lead to the global increase of the number of CT examinations, both for adults and children.

CT imaging is currently an important component, not only in diagnostic radiology, but in all disciplines of radiation medicine. CT has evolved from standalone techniques to combined imaging, used together with single photon emission computed tomography SPECT and positron emission tomography PET in hybrid systems. In radiation therapy, CT imaging is an indispensable tool for the accurate treatment planning. While CT is an established technology and modern CT systems are being installed worldwide, there is a significant shortage of clinical medical physicists specialized in the field of diagnostic radiology that are able to adequately support this technology.

Because of the rapid technological development in CT, keeping up to date knowledge of clinical specialists is a challenging task. Optimization of CT is a complex and multidisciplinary task, requiring deep knowledge of technology, technical factors affecting image quality and patient dose, clinical purpose and required image quality. Medical physicists are responsible for quality control and dosimetry, and have an important role in optimization of clinical protocols.

The workshop will assist in the development of networks of professionals working in CT from different regions. This field, at the intersection between statistical mechanics, turbulence, and climate applications is a wonderful new playground for theoretical and mathematical physicists. Path integrals, instanton theory, semiclassical approximations, large deviation theory, and diffusion Monte-Carlo algorithms are at the core of our approach. We will first discuss new theoretical results for the computation from path integrals of the transition rates between attractors for irreversible dynamics the non-equilibrium Eyring-Kramers law.

We will then consider two classes of applications in climate dynamics for which, rare dynamical events play a key role, and large deviation theory proves useful. A first class of problems are extreme events that have huge impacts, for instance extreme heat waves. We will apply large deviation algorithms to compute the probability of extreme heat waves. A second class of problems are rare trajectories that suddenly drive the complex dynamical system from one attractor to a completely different one, for instance abrupt climate changes.

We will treat the example of the disappearance of one of Jupiter's jets during the period , as a paradigmatic example of a drastic climate change related to internal variability. We will demonstrate that quasi geostrophic turbulent models show this kind of ultra rare transitions, where turbulent jets suddenly appear or disappear on times scales tens of thousands times larger than the typical dynamical time scale. Those transitions will be studied using large deviation theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

In condensed matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, the most prominent examples being the Quantum Hall Effect and Topological Insulators, which are governed by the Berry curvature of isolated bands. For general multi-band systems, the geometry of Hilbert space is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line, giving rise to more intricate transport phenomena and holding the potential for holonomic quantum computing.

I will start with an introduction into these concepts and then present interferometric measurements of Bloch band geometry using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. In analogy to an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer that measures magnetic flux, we realized an atomic interferometer measureing Berry curvature in momentum space. For our graphene-type hexagonal optical lattice, this interferometer enabled us to directly observe the singular pi-Berry flux localized at each Dirac point. We furthermore engineered strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observed an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals band geometry.

Our techniques enable a full determination of the dispersion relations, band eigenstates, Berry curvature distributions, and topological invariants, including single- and multi-band Chern and Z2 numbers. I will discuss how certain noncommutative algebras are linked to minimal resolutions of rational surface singularities. In particular, the mechanisms that ensure size homeostasis and, at the same time, adapt cell growth and size to the environment have been the subject of intense research. However, the answers were traditionally hindered by limited statistics on single cells. Contemporary experimental techniques overcome this problem, but this progress must be combined with new theoretical tools to approach the data.

Focusing on E. Combining this method with large-scale microscopy experiments, classic quantitative laws relating cell size, doubling time and growth rate of bacterial populations in different nutrient conditions can be revisited at the single cell level. The main result is the emergence of a combination of universality and individuality in the growth-division laws of single E. These two apparently contrasting behaviors emerge naturally from the condition-dependent modulation of the division control mechanism, thus actually representing two sides of the same coin. Finally, the simultaneous observation of cell growth and DNA replication dynamics allowed us to pinpoint replication initiation and cell division as the two main "checkpoints" for size control.

This opens the way to more detailed models of the process, and to rigorous tests of molecular cell-cycle descriptions. The school is centred on Active Matter and Chemotaxis. Chemotaxis is movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus. Somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. Topics will cover both experiment and theory. In addition to about 50 hours of invited lectures and seminars, there will be tutorials and discussions.

Participants should have an adequate working knowledge of English. Although the main purpose of ICTP is to help research workers from developing countries through a programme of training activities within a framework of international cooperation, a limited number of students and post-doctoral scientists from developed countries are also welcome to attend.

Salient features are the persistence of both non-equilibrium conditions as well as quantum coherence close to the critical point. This provides a non-equilibrium analogue of quantum criticality, sharply distinct from more generic driven systems where both effective thermalisation as well as asymptotic decoherence ensue, paralleling classical dynamical criticality. The novel critical point is characterised by the full set of independent critical exponents, which are extracted from a functional renormalisation group suited for the Keldysh action.

I will discuss the motivation, the advantages and the problems of using simplified models as a tool to interpret LHC searches for dark matter. I will present a few examples for how this approach can be used to understand the complementarity of different dark matter search strategies.

Finally, I will focus on various consistency conditions that should be imposed even on the most simplified models. These conditions can imply the presence of additional new particles and interactions that may change the phenomenology of the model in important ways. Liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma have very strong link to liver viruses B and C. Sofosbuvir is a newly FDA approved drug Dec.

Sofosbuvir is an anti-HCV drug among different compounds e. IDX, R, etc. These studies among many other studies on MERS CoV and Zika virus proteins would accelerate the rate of antiviral approval in pharmaceutical research and development. The aim of this lecture is to give an idea of what the theorem says and give some elementary examples. Makers will instead share their ideas with the general public on Saturday 21 and Sunday 22 May. I Maker saranno invece i protagonisti della terza edizione della Trieste Mini Maker Faire nelle giornate di sabato 21 e domenica 22 maggio.

The deadline expired on 31 March Its latest version, RegCM4, has been recently augmented in several aspects, in particular towards the application of the model to very high resolution, convection permitting, simulations. Among the main model improvements in this direction are the implementation of non-hydrostatic dynamics, the refinement of an advanced explicit cloud microphysics scheme and the full coupling with the MIT ocean model, the CHYM hydrological model, the CLM4. As in previous workshops of this series, this event will provide lectures and extensive hands-on sessions on the theory of regional climate change and regional climate modeling as well as on the use of the RegCM4 modeling system.

During the workshop, the new features of the model will be described and tested, and a new version of the model will be released. The workshop will also include a special session on the interactions between air quality, climate processes and climate change in diverse region of the world under the framework of the EU REQUA Regional climate-air quality interactions project. This Hands-on Workshop focuses on disseminating best practices and building fundamental skills in creating, extending and collaborating on modular and reusable software frameworks with a scripting language interface.

The curriculum also covers using modern collaborative software management tools, testing frameworks, and embedding structured documentation into software packages. II Users and Developers Training". Application for the extended part of the activity is available with the on-line form. Application for the "Deal. More information are available within the activity poster. We show that, in the weak inhomogeneity limit, the rainbow state is a thermofield double of a conformal field theory with a temperature proportional to the inhomogeneity parameter.

This result suggests some relation of the CSP with black holes. Finally, we propose an extension of the model to higher dimensions. In this talk, expanding upon [arXiv We analyze in some detail the causal, horizon and boundary structure, and geodesic motion on these geometries. We elaborate further and establish the one-to-one relation between representations of two copies of Virasoro group and Banados geometries.

We show that local classical gravity probes can only measure orbit invariant quantities. Details of the Virasoro charges associated with each geometry is only available to semiclassical or non-local observables. In particular, we also elaborate on multi-BTZ geometries which have some number of disconnected pieces at the horizon bifurcation curve.

We study multi-BTZ black hole thermodynamics and discuss that the thermodynamic quantities are orbit invariants. Our analysis sheds further light on the picture that a multi- BTZ black hole at the classical gravity level is specified by orbit invariant quantities mass, angular momentum, and number of pieces at the horizon and boundary , while black hole microstates may be identified with Virasoro charges within a given orbit.

The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory. Harvey University of Chicago Z. Komargodski Weizmann Institute M. Lisanti Princeton University S. As a result, important changes of the structural, dynamical and chemical properties can be induced even in relatively low pressure regimes. After a general introduction directed to outline the importance of high pressure in nature and the instruments necessary to create high pressure conditions in laboratory, the attention will be focused on two different, although connected, problems: the chemical transformations of simple model systems under pressure and recent challenging experiments directed to understand the dynamics of ultrafast processes driven by pressure.

As the reactivity is concerned, the complex interplay of structural properties, lattice dynamical processes and electronic arrangement will be discussed through several examples pointing to the importance of disentangling the effects of pressure, temperature and laser or x-ray radiation on the reaction activation to understand the reactivity at the molecular level.

The second part of part will be devoted to the application of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques to samples compressed in high-pressure devices. These experiments are extremely challenging having so far precluded the studies of ultrafast dynamics reaction intermediates, phase changes, structural rearrangements driven by pressure. Recent results on the dynamics of liquid water, water solutions and ices demonstrate the feasibility and potentiality of this approach in monitoring non equilibrium states under high pressure conditions. In this seminar, as an example of materials design driven by ab initio methods, I will describe the application of density functional theory DFT , and its corrections and extensions, to predict new p-type transparent conducting materials TCMs.

While TCMs are crucial in optoelectronics, transparency and p-type conductivity rarely coexist in the same material. In these oxides, the Ag vacancies act as intrinsic hole-generating defects, and the hole effective mass is lighter than in CuAlO2, the prototypical p-type transparent conducting oxide. However, ab initio methods require the crystal structure as input information to predict materials properties.

Therefore, the ability to predict the crystal structure of hypothetical compounds without constraints or assumptions on the lattice symmetry is essential in order to discover new functional materials beyond the repertoires of known solids. Here, I will describe a crystal structure prediction method based on an evolutionary algorithm to search for the global total-energy minimum of a solid calculated by DFT as a function of the lattice vectors and atom positions.

I will illustrate the application of this global space-group optimization GSGO algorithm to selected binary and ternary solids. Finally, I will discuss an extension of the GSGO algorithm in which the stoichiometry is also optimized so as to predict at the same time the composition and crystal structure of the thermodynamically stable phases of a solid system. This gives rise to new non-equilibrium scenarios even in stationary state, where coherent and dissipative dynamics appear on an equal footing. Oftentimes however, in the transition from microscopic scales to macroscopic distances, much of the underlying quantum dynamics is washed out, and the long distance many-body physics is semi- classical.

Here we present two instances which do not follow this generic pattern. The first addresses the critical dynamics in a driven open system with a dark state realizable in microcavity arrays. We find it governed by a new non-equilibrium universality class, characterized by the absence of decoherence and thermalization. The second focuses on an ensemble of driven Rydberg atoms, in which the interplay of constrained coherent quantum dynamics and dissipation leads to a new variant of a non-equilibrium absorbing state transition beyond the classical paradigm of directed percolation.

Their measurement in solids is subject of an intense scientific debate focused on the research of a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the ionic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. In this presentation I will introduce our new approach to address fluctuation by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise limited regime. The variance of the time dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light.

A fully quantum description of the non-linear interactions between photonic and phononic fields pave the way for a direct measurement of fluctuation in complex systems. References Nature Comm. As a counterpart of this fact, we will see that, beside the characterization of the rigidity case, our methods can be used to produce new monotonicity formulas, which imply in turn the inequality under consideration in its full generality.

The results presented are obtained in collaboration with V. A tarball of the entire repository is also available here. The Deal. It takes the deal. II finite element library as an example and provides specialized training for computational scientists that already are or want to become deal. II developers. The training will consist of lectures on the deal. II experts and developers. There is no financial support for attending at the "Deal. II Users and Developers Training" only. High Performance Computing Deal. Such phenotypes measure molecular functions and are important targets of natural selection.

However, the map between encoding DNA sequences and molecular phenotypes is often too difficult to quantify. This lack of knowledge raises an obvious question: which evolutionary properties of a phenotype are universal, that is, independent of the molecular details? In this talk, I will show that universality is an emerging property of complex phenotypes, which are encoded by multiple genomic loci. In time-dependent environments, changes in the environment drive the evolution of the species, but not vice versa.

As an example, I will present strong evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in Drosophila. Co-evolving populations reciprocally affect the fitness of each other, acting as time-dependent environments with feedback. As an example, I will show evidence of co-adaptation between interacting cellular populations of HIV viruses and the antibody repertoire of a patient over the course of an infection.

In particular, I will discuss the conditions for emergence of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, which are now recognized as critical for designing an effective vaccine against HIV. The simplest version of QG is based on General Relativity and is non-renormalizable. One can construct renormalizable and even superrenormalizable versions of QG by introducing higher derivatives, but then one has to deal with the unphysical higher derivative massive ghosts. At the same time polynomial superrenormalizable versions of QG have certain attractive features, such as unambiguous and exactly calculable beta-functions and possible Lee-Wick type unitarity in case when all extra poles are complex.

The non-polynomial models of QG have no ghosts at the tree level, but taking loop corrections into account one meets infinite amount of ghost-like complex states. In the IR one can prove that the modified Newton limit in all these models is singularity-free. After a survey of all these issues some list of unsolved interesting problems will be discussed. A one-week intensive Workshop for physicists and engineers from developing countries interested in learning entrepreneurial skills to commercialize their scientific inventions. In this talk, I will present a novel statistical mechanical model of natural images rooted in the theory of critical phenomena that sheds light on this hierarchy of length scales, paving the road for a nonequilibrium statistical model of natural images with few parameters.

Studies of natural image statistics were first done in neuroscience but have since become of immense interest in machine learning due to the recent advances in deep learning. My research on natural images fits into a bigger picture: the general and common problem of "many scales of length" in physics, machine learning and neural coding. Rotation Measures can teach us a lot about extra-Galactic Magnetic Fields. After a brief overview of magnetic observations and magnetogenesis mechanisms in the early Universe, I will show how to obtain the very best limits cosmological magnetic fields.

The 3rd and 4th generation light-source facilities, where electrons in storage rings or linear accelerators generate intense, tunable, multiply polarized, coherent, and pulsed radiation in the X-ray, VUV and IR region, have been the prerequisites for the development of advanced experimental techniques for multidisciplinary applications, with unprecedented spatial, spectral, and time resolution.

The goal of this school, addressed to young researchers with a PhD or at least several years of research activity, is to disseminate knowledge about synchrotron and Free-electron-Laser FEL based methods, applications, and on-going innovations that will help the participants to identify the techniques relevant to their research interests. The programme will include introductory lectures on the principles and present status of photon productions and lectures on the various methods based on photon-matter interactions, namely absorption, scattering, diffraction, imaging, spectroscopy, microscopy, and related theoretical approaches for the interpretation of synchrotron and FEL experiments.

Emphasis will be given to the latest developments and related new scientific opportunities. A wide range of applications will be presented in various fields, including physical and material sciences, chemistry, biology, nanotechnology, environmental sciences, geology, and medicine. The lectures will be complemented by demonstrations at the synchrotron and FEL facilities at Elettra, Trieste. The main purpose of the Centre is to help researchers from developing countries through a programme of training activities within a framework of international co-operation.

A limited number of scientists from developed countries are also welcome to attend. In particular this School is intended for strongly motivated graduate students and young post-doctoral scientists. Logistics limit the number of participants to Limited funds are available for some applicants from developing countries, to be selected by the organizers. Such financial support is available only to those who attend the entire school. Every effort should be made by candidates to secure support for their fares or at least half-fare from their home country before applying to this School.

There is no registration fee for attending the School.

- Smart Nanoparticles Technology.
- Recent advances in experimental mechanics. in honor of isaac m. daniel!
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Away from the well-known small-drive regime, the important role played by transverse nuclear fluctuations leads to a gaussian decay of spin coherence with characteristic dependence on drive strength and detuning. A characterization of spin-flip gate fidelity, in the presence of such additional drive-dependent dephasing, shows that vanishingly small errors can still be achieved at sufficiently large amplitudes.

Based on our theory, we analyze recent EDSR experiments relying on spin-orbit interactions or the slanting field of a micromagnet. We find that such experiments are already in a regime with significant effects of transverse nuclear fluctuations and the form of decay of the Rabi oscillations can be reproduced well by our theory. We will also briefly discuss other aspects of our research on single and double quantum dots, regarding the controlled generation of Dicke states in the nuclear spin bath and fast electron spin manipulation. Indeed, it is often tightly regulated in order for the cells to adapt to the surrounding environment.

I will discuss different aspects of the relationship between proteome composition and metabolism using different theoretical tools, ranging from flux balance analysis, to coarse grained proteome kinetics, to kinetic modelling of single reactions. In the context of the Banks-Fischler-Shenker-Susskind Matrix model of M-theory, black holes and geometry are encoded in matrix degrees of freedom. I elaborate on this map by demonstrating that the relevant dynamics is realized through a system of qubits with a dense network of interactions.

Using methods from quantum information theory, I compute the information scrambling time in Matrix black holes; and I present evidence that geometry is encoded in qubit entanglement entropy. However, the study of high order correlation functions of interacting many-body systems is a notoriously difficult problem. We also express the leading order of the short distance nonlocal correlation functions of the strongly repulsive Bose gas in terms of the wave function of M bosons at zero collision energy and zero total momentum.

The analysis and interpretation of large cosmological surveys increasingly relies on the use of large volume simulations of collisionless dynamics. Since these simulations routinely use Newtonian equations, one must be careful in interpreting their output, particularly when considering statistics on length scales comparable to the Hubble radius where general relativistic GR effects are expected to become important.

The standard solution to the problem involves a clever use of gauge degrees of freedom in GR to map the variables evolved by standard Newtonian simulations to variables in multiple gauges in GR. We will discuss an alternate approach to this problem in which the Poisson equation for the gravitational potential is replaced with a Helmholtz equation, using a simple but accurate approximation valid in the so-called conformal Newtonian gauge.

Length scales smaller than the screening scale evolve according to Newtonian dynamics, while larger scales pick up relativistic corrections that accurately reproduce known results from perturbation theory in the Newtonian gauge. Finally, the simplicity of our modification Poisson to Helmholtz also leads to an accurate post-processing prescription to convert the outputs of standard simulations into the correctly screened relativistic outputs in the Newtonian gauge.

We will discuss how our results might be applied in studying the large scale clustering of biased tracers of matter, as well as extended to the case of multiple fluids. The different identities of cells are determined by sequentially expressing particular subsets of genes in different parts of the embryo. Bicoid activated Hunchback is essential for Antero-Posterior patterning among others. The precision of the timing and spatial expression of the hunchback gene is regulated at the level of gene expression. This process involves the assembly of the transcription machinery and depends on the concentrations of the maternal gradients.

Using recent live imaging experiments that span several cell cycles we can access information on the dynamics of transcription initiation and gain insight into the dynamics of transcription. We develop an analysis approach based on a tailor made time dependent autocorrelation function that overcomes all experimental and computational problems to quantify the dynamics of transcription initiation. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription can involve more than just switching between an active and inactive state, so we extend our analysis to increasing complexity that allows us to infer the effective number of transcription initiation steps and the rates for progressing through them.

We first discuss the accuracy and potential of our method on simulated data and then analyse live MS2-MCP traces from developing fruit fly embryos. We identify the bursty nature of transcription initiation from the hunchback promoter. We show that in the anterior region where Bicoid levels saturate the promoter transcription dynamics is extremely reproducible from cell cycle 11 to We give a new method for computing the limiting accuracy of the antero-posterior boundary sharpness using only the parameters of our model.

Candidates should have a specific career interest in, or knowledge of nuclear security, although their academic and technical background may vary. Selection results have been communicated by email to each applicant. The preliminary list of participants can be found here below. Delconte Organizer s : D. The results obtained from the CFT approach include, for instance, exact scaling exponents, solutions of the Kondo and other quantum impurity problems, and the many results on entanglement measures and quantum quenches obtained in the past decade.

Yet, in spite of the many successes of CFT, there is a large class of one-dimensional systems that seems out of reach: inhomogeneous systems. For instance, a quantum gas in a trapping potential is inhomogeneous, because the density usually varies with position. The same is true about various out-of-equilibrium situations, for example if particles are released from a trap.

I will sketch how the standard CFT framework can be adapted to accomodate such situations, by relying on a few elementary, yet illustrative, examples based on free fermions. Though the first models for interacting populations date to almost a century ago, the role of species interactions in regulating the response to perturbations, and in shaping community composition, is yet not well understood.

Models for ecological communities have so far concentrated on small systems. Here I show that, on the other hand, large ecological communities display simple and consistent patterns that can be understood as the result of elementary stochastic processes. Using random matrix techniques, I study how the properties of the interaction networks influence the stability of ecological communities and the persistence of the populations. I conclude with a list of challenges that need to be overcome to have a more complete understanding of statical and dynamical properties of large ecosystems.

Their typical dimensions of about 1 nm would allow to design the smallest possible transistor units. However, contrary to solid state circuitry their conductance properties can be decisively influenced by the harmonic degrees of freedom local phonons. Surprisingly, there are parameter regimes, in which the presence of such seemingly disturbing effects might in fact become an advantage making such a device intrinsically bistable. We discuss these possibilities using analytical as well as numerical techniques and make predictions for the transport properties of contacted molecules in the relevant regimes and make contact to such fundamental multi-particle phenomena as Kondo effect.

Klatt, L. Komnik, Phys. Albrecht, H. Wang, L. Thoss, and A. Maier, T. Schmidt, and A. B 83, ICTP pio ictp. The aim is to make analytical predictions regarding the behavior of correlations as well as the entanglement spreading after such a quench. I will discuss attempts at understanding such problems using field theory.

A possible strategy is to study the behavior of the system in imaginary time, the real time dynamics being recovered by performing the Wick rotation. This is analogous to the celebrated "arctic circle" phenomenon found in the study of two-dimensional classical dimer or vertex models. I will also show that the fluctuating region is described by a massless field theory with a position-dependent metric, a field theory in curved space. What they have in common is that they are all large containing thousands of nodes and possess definite structure, deviating considerably from simple random graphs.

In these networks the nodes interact with one another, but also with themselves: when the nodes represent species, a negative self-effect self-regulation generally arises from intraspecific competition for limited resources. One important question concerns the role of self-effects in stabilizing network dynamics. While it is easy to construct networks which can be stabilized by only a handful of nodes exhibiting self-regulation, their structure is highly special, and quite different from what is observed empirically.

Here I show that, in general, the vast majority of nodes must exhibit substantial self-regulation in order to stabilize dynamics. The argument holds for both random and highly structured empirical networks. Pair production is ubiquitous in quantum field theory coupled to a background. One way to account for pair production is by computing the overlap, between the states with no particles in the past and in the future.

This vacuum decay rate appears first in the work of Schwinger, on pair production in an electric field. It was later generalized to curved spacetimes, notably de Sitter space and black hole geometries. Most of the results available in the literature rely on the symmetry of the background to which the quanta are coupled.

I will show that, for two dimensional conformal field theories coupled to an arbitrary background profile, there is a formal exact result for the vacuum decay rate. This vacuum decay rate is a generalization of a result in dissipative quantum mechanics, due to Caldeira and Leggett. Polyakov and G. Above liquid nitrogen temperatures, these electron liquids are expected to display local equilibrium, enabled by strong electron-electron interactions [5].

Under these conditions, electrons in doped samples are expected to behave as a viscous liquid and may exhibit hydrodynamic phenomena akin to those observed in classical and quantum liquids. In this talk I will report on results of combined theoretical and experimental work [6,7] showing unambiguous evidence for this long-sought transport regime. In particular, I will discuss how high-quality graphene sheets in the Fermi liquid regime exhibit an anomalous negative voltage drop near current injection points, which is attributed to the formation of whirlpools in the electron flow.

Measurements of these quasi-local electrical signals enable to extract the value of the kinematic viscosity of the two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion liquid in graphene, which is found to be an order of magnitude larger than that of honey, in quantitative agreement with many-body theory [8]. Our work represents the first step towards the observation of nearly perfect fluidity and quantum turbulence in solid-state devices. Mayorov et al. Wang et al. Taychatanapat et al. Woessner et al. Polini and G. Vignale, The quasiparticle lifetime in a doped graphene sheet. In No-nonsense physicist: an overview of Gabriele Giuliani's work and life eds.

Polini, G. Vignale, V. Pellegrini, and J. Jain Edizioni della Normale, Pisa, Bandurin, I. Torre, R. Kumar, M. Ben Shalom, A. Tomadin, A. Principi, G. Auton, E. Khestanova, K. NovoseIov, I. Grigorieva, L. Ponomarenko, A. Geim, and M. Polini, Science , Torre, A. Polini, Phys. B 92, Vignale, M. Carrega, and M. B 93, Kovtun, D. Son, and A. Starinets, Phys. Schmalian, and L. Fritz, Phys. In this talk, I will talk about a single field axion inflation model in the presence of an SU 2 gauge field with a small vev. The gauge field is coupled to the axion with a Chern-Simons interaction and has a negligible effect on the background evolution.

However, its quantum fluctuations make a significant contribution to the cosmic perturbation. In particular, the gauge field has a spin-2 fluctuation which explicitly breaks the parity between the left- and right-handed polarization states. The chiral tensor modes are linearly coupled to the gravitational waves and generates a circularly polarized tensor power spectrum compatible with the unpolarized vacuum fluctuations. Moreover, the scalar sector is modified by the linear scalar fluctuations of the gauge field.

Since the spin-0 and spin-2 fluctuations of the SU 2 gauge field are independent, the gauge field can, at the same time, generate a detectable chiral gravitational wave signal and have a negligible contribution to the scalar fluctuations, in agreement with the current CMB observations. Many complex systems in physics, biology, engineering and economics are characterized by a large number of interacting degrees of freedom giving rise to a non-trivial collective behavior.

The theoretical and computational tools for a quantitative analysis of complex systems are often rooted in modern statistical, quantum physics. The Spring College on the Physics of Complex Systems aims to give students the opportunity to get in touch with a selection of topics at the forefront of research, during an intensive 4-week program.

It consists of 5 courses of 9 lectures each, followed by final written tests. Courses and Lecturers: Aaron King Univ. Is there a common law that describes the connection between size at birth and growth rate for all balanced-growing cells? How exponential growth at all possible? In this talk I will offer a novel systems analysis perspective on these biological questions. I will explain two generic methods to accelerate a complex assembly process beyond its critical path duration - the duration of the longest serial process that is bound to occur.

I will then apply these ideas to the process of cellular self-replication and derive a novel type of growth law relating the doubling rate of a cell with the number of progenies concurrently under production, and the critical path duration. Central to these discoveries has been the development of new ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, in particular two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy 2DES , which is now the primary tool to obtain clear and definitive experimental proof of such effects [1].

A crucial point now is to understand the origin and the relevance of such long-lived quantum coherences in transport processes that seem to be strongly related to the complex interplay between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom [2]. With the aim of clarifying how different vibrational modes influence the mechanisms and the dynamics of energy migration, we focused our attention on simplified bio-mimetic model systems. We suitably designed, prepared and spectroscopically characterized different multi-chromophoric systems characterized by different interpigment distance and electronic coupling.

The results obtained applying 2DES to these three samples and the comparison with the ones obtained on the corresponding monomeric forms allowed isolating and identifying contributions to the nonlinear signal associated with inter-exciton dynamics electronic coherences from vibrational dynamics. The results allow suggesting possible future guidelines for the design of artificial light-harvesting systems where energy migration is effectively driven by quantum mechanics. Collini, Chem Soc Rev 42, Chin, et al. The prominent failure mode in generic quantum systems is called Many-Body Localization or MBL and it is at the core of the current research on the foundations of statistical mechanics.

Paris Sud - Univ. The optimization strategies, aiming to achieve diagnostic image quality at lower radiation dose, will be also extensively discussed. Achieving good image quality at lower patient dose became of high importance in the last decades with the new technological development and especially when new generations of multi-detector CT became widely available. The improved diagnostic accuracy and shortened scanning time in CT lead to the global increase of the number of CT examinations, both for adults and children. CT imaging is currently an important component, not only in diagnostic radiology, but in all disciplines of radiation medicine.

CT has evolved from standalone techniques to combined imaging, used together with single photon emission computed tomography SPECT and positron emission tomography PET in hybrid systems. In radiation therapy, CT imaging is an indispensable tool for the accurate treatment planning. While CT is an established technology and modern CT systems are being installed worldwide, there is a significant shortage of clinical medical physicists specialized in the field of diagnostic radiology that are able to adequately support this technology.

Because of the rapid technological development in CT, keeping up to date knowledge of clinical specialists is a challenging task. Optimization of CT is a complex and multidisciplinary task, requiring deep knowledge of technology, technical factors affecting image quality and patient dose, clinical purpose and required image quality.

Medical physicists are responsible for quality control and dosimetry, and have an important role in optimization of clinical protocols. The workshop will assist in the development of networks of professionals working in CT from different regions. This field, at the intersection between statistical mechanics, turbulence, and climate applications is a wonderful new playground for theoretical and mathematical physicists. Path integrals, instanton theory, semiclassical approximations, large deviation theory, and diffusion Monte-Carlo algorithms are at the core of our approach.

We will first discuss new theoretical results for the computation from path integrals of the transition rates between attractors for irreversible dynamics the non-equilibrium Eyring-Kramers law. We will then consider two classes of applications in climate dynamics for which, rare dynamical events play a key role, and large deviation theory proves useful.

A first class of problems are extreme events that have huge impacts, for instance extreme heat waves. We will apply large deviation algorithms to compute the probability of extreme heat waves. A second class of problems are rare trajectories that suddenly drive the complex dynamical system from one attractor to a completely different one, for instance abrupt climate changes. We will treat the example of the disappearance of one of Jupiter's jets during the period , as a paradigmatic example of a drastic climate change related to internal variability.

We will demonstrate that quasi geostrophic turbulent models show this kind of ultra rare transitions, where turbulent jets suddenly appear or disappear on times scales tens of thousands times larger than the typical dynamical time scale. Those transitions will be studied using large deviation theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

In condensed matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, the most prominent examples being the Quantum Hall Effect and Topological Insulators, which are governed by the Berry curvature of isolated bands. For general multi-band systems, the geometry of Hilbert space is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line, giving rise to more intricate transport phenomena and holding the potential for holonomic quantum computing.

I will start with an introduction into these concepts and then present interferometric measurements of Bloch band geometry using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. In analogy to an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer that measures magnetic flux, we realized an atomic interferometer measureing Berry curvature in momentum space. For our graphene-type hexagonal optical lattice, this interferometer enabled us to directly observe the singular pi-Berry flux localized at each Dirac point. We furthermore engineered strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observed an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals band geometry.

Our techniques enable a full determination of the dispersion relations, band eigenstates, Berry curvature distributions, and topological invariants, including single- and multi-band Chern and Z2 numbers. I will discuss how certain noncommutative algebras are linked to minimal resolutions of rational surface singularities. In particular, the mechanisms that ensure size homeostasis and, at the same time, adapt cell growth and size to the environment have been the subject of intense research.

However, the answers were traditionally hindered by limited statistics on single cells. Contemporary experimental techniques overcome this problem, but this progress must be combined with new theoretical tools to approach the data. Focusing on E. Combining this method with large-scale microscopy experiments, classic quantitative laws relating cell size, doubling time and growth rate of bacterial populations in different nutrient conditions can be revisited at the single cell level.

The main result is the emergence of a combination of universality and individuality in the growth-division laws of single E.

These two apparently contrasting behaviors emerge naturally from the condition-dependent modulation of the division control mechanism, thus actually representing two sides of the same coin. Finally, the simultaneous observation of cell growth and DNA replication dynamics allowed us to pinpoint replication initiation and cell division as the two main "checkpoints" for size control. This opens the way to more detailed models of the process, and to rigorous tests of molecular cell-cycle descriptions.

The school is centred on Active Matter and Chemotaxis. Chemotaxis is movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus. Somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. Topics will cover both experiment and theory. In addition to about 50 hours of invited lectures and seminars, there will be tutorials and discussions.

Participants should have an adequate working knowledge of English. Although the main purpose of ICTP is to help research workers from developing countries through a programme of training activities within a framework of international cooperation, a limited number of students and post-doctoral scientists from developed countries are also welcome to attend. Salient features are the persistence of both non-equilibrium conditions as well as quantum coherence close to the critical point.

This provides a non-equilibrium analogue of quantum criticality, sharply distinct from more generic driven systems where both effective thermalisation as well as asymptotic decoherence ensue, paralleling classical dynamical criticality. The novel critical point is characterised by the full set of independent critical exponents, which are extracted from a functional renormalisation group suited for the Keldysh action.

I will discuss the motivation, the advantages and the problems of using simplified models as a tool to interpret LHC searches for dark matter. I will present a few examples for how this approach can be used to understand the complementarity of different dark matter search strategies.

Finally, I will focus on various consistency conditions that should be imposed even on the most simplified models. These conditions can imply the presence of additional new particles and interactions that may change the phenomenology of the model in important ways. Liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma have very strong link to liver viruses B and C. Sofosbuvir is a newly FDA approved drug Dec. Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. Please enter a valid email address. Walmart Services.

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