Synthetic analogues of morphine have been prepared. Naloxone, C 19 H 21 NO 4 , and naltrexone, C 20 H 23 NO 4 , when administered with an opioid analgesic, promptly reverse the effects produced by the opioid agonist. The ability to antagonize opioids at all of the different opioid receptors makes naloxone useful for the treatment of opioid overdose. Naltrexone has a similar profile. The quest for compounds that combined the analgesic properties of morphine, were nonaddictive, and lacked side effects, led to the development of the drugs that have both agonist and antagonist activities.
Nalbuphine blocks the effects of the morphinelike drugs. Pharmacologically, the effects of these drugs resemble those of opioid agonists. Most of the time, powerful analgesia is not needed. Rather, a mild analgesic, such as aspirin, can be used for the treatment of simple pain.
Aspirin, the oldest of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs NSAIDs , is a member of the salicylate group. Aspirin's pain relief results through peripheral action.
- Managing Fever with Antipyretics.
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The action of endogenous pyrogens on the hypothalmus produces fever. Although it is no longer used therapeutically, its analogues, phenacetin and the active metabolite, acetaminophen, are effective alternatives to aspirin. They have analgesic and antipyretic effects that do not differ significantly from aspirin, but they do not cause the gastric irritation.
A more recently introduced, nonprescription analgesic is the aryl propionic acid, ibuprofen.
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A cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen displays good antiinflammatory activity. It is more potent than aspirin and has a lower incidence of gastrointestinal irritation. The adrenal cortex produces steroidal hormones that are associated with carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, electrolyte balance, and gonadal functions. One of these, cortisone, C 21 H 28 O 5 demonstrated a remarkable ability to relieve the symptoms of inflammatory conditions. Other glucocorticoid steroids, such as dexamethasone, C 22 H 29 FO 5 and prednisolone, C 21 H 28 O 5 , also have antiinflammatory properties.
These steroids are capable of preventing or suppressing the development of the swelling, redness, local heat, and tenderness which characterize inflammation. Unfortunately, while steroids merely suppress the inflammation the underlying cause of the disease remains.
Should We Reconsider Antipyretics For Fever?
Another serious concern is that of toxicity. Because of these problems, steroids are rarely the first line of treatment for any inflammatory condition, and their use in rheumatoid arthritis begins after more conservative therapies have failed. Analgesics and antiarthritics represent significant worldwide pharmaceutical markets. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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Richard A. Nugent Upjohn Company Search for more papers by this author. Charles M. Hall Upjohn Company Search for more papers by this author. Yeast induced pyrexia model was used to study antipyretic activity of Tamarindus indica. Aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica was found to have good anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation model.
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Antipyretic activity was observed only with higher doses and there was no analgesic activity observed in the experimental models used. Anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic effects of Tamarindus indica.
N2 - The present study was aimed at evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous extract of fruits of Tamarindus indica Linn. AB - The present study was aimed at evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous extract of fruits of Tamarindus indica Linn.
Udupa, U. Rathnakar, S. Abstract The present study was aimed at evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous extract of fruits of Tamarindus indica Linn. Fingerprint Tamarindus. Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents.
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