Kole, Chittaranjan. Krieger Publication Date: Norris Editor ; Kristin H.
General Medical resources Acid toxicity and aquatic animals [electronic resource] by Morris, R. Advances in Marine Biology by D. Advances in marine vertebrate research in Latin America: technological innovation and conservation by Marcos R. Rossi-Santos, Charles W. Finkl ISBN: Aquaculture by John S. Lucas; Paul C. Southgate ISBN: Aquatic Ecosystems by Stuart E. Findlay Volume Editor ; Robert L.
Bacteria and fungi from fish and other aquatic animals : a practical identification manual by Buller, Nicky B. Biology of Turtles by Jeanette Wyneken; V. Bels; Matthew H. Godfrey ISBN: Flatfishes [electronic resource] : biology and exploitation by Gibson, Robin N. Fluid mechanics for marine ecologists [electronic resource] by Massel, Stanislaw R. Fundamentals of Aquatic Ecology by R. Barnes Editor ; K. Mann Editor ; K. Loughlin ISBN: Marine Metapopulations by Jacob P. Kritzer; Peter F. Sale ISBN: Marking and tagging of aquatic animals [electronic resource] : an indexed bibliography by Emery, Lee Publication Date: Salmonid Fishes by Yuri P.
Altukhov; Elena A. Salmenkova; Vladimir T. Omelchenko ISBN: Nielsen ISBN: The Biology and Management of Lobsters by J. Stanley Cobb Publication Date: Tilapia Culture by Abdel-Fattah M. Waterfowl management handbook. Buller ISBN: Dierauf; Frances M. Gulland ISBN: It has also been suggested that the release of dissolved organic compounds together with other components of the diet such as vitamins could influence the growth or toxicity of particular species of phytoplankton Gowen and Bradbury, , and references cited therein.
There are examples of eutrophication of lacustrine waters as a result of fish farming, but few examples from coastal waters. At the present level of coastal fish farming, nutrient enrichment and eutrophication of open coastal waters is unlikely, but could occur in semi-enclosed coastal embayments fjords, inlets and lagoons which have restricted exchange of water with more open coastal waters.
One example of an increase in phytoplankton biomass attributed to nutrient enrichment by fish farming is from a sheltered archipelago in Finland Isotalo et al. Increasing eutrophication can lead to ecologically undesirable consequences and there is the possibility that waste released from fish farms could stimulate the growth of species harmful to farm stock Nishimura, During the last decade, there have been many instances of mass mortality of farmed fish caused by the occurrence of harmful algae see for example Tangen, ; Jones et al.
There, is however, no evidence that the occurrence of these harmful events was due to the release of waste-compounds from the fish farms. The equilibrium increase in dissolved nutrients can be estimated using a simple mass balance approach and relating the output of nutrients to the volume and flushing time dilution rate of the water body Gowen et al.
Such estimates must be regarded as approximate because the method assumes complete dispersal which is often not the case in large embayments and also fails to account for incomplete exchange for example, Gowen et al. The deposition of organic fish farm and bivalve waste has been shown to cause enrichment of the benthic ecosystem in the vicinity of the aquaculture operation.
The changes which take place include: the formation of anoxic sediments Brown et al. With respect to changes in the macrofauna the effects range from a reduction in diversity and increase in opportunistic, pollution tolerant species Weston, to the complete absence of macrofauna Brown et al.
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The release of hydrogen sulphide gas, together with hydrogen sulphide dissolved in the water has been held responsible for a deterioration in the health of farmed fish increased stress, reduced growth, gill damage and even mortality and loss of production Braaten et al. A high level of enrichment leading to what has been termed souring of sites has been reported from a number of fish farms in several countries.
These are clear examples of how production can exceed the capacity of the site to assimilate the amount of waste generated and how ecological change can limit the long-term viability of a site. Lumb provides guidelines on the siting of fish farms which can be used to gain a qualitative assessment of the impact of organic fish farm waste on the benthos. However, Hagino and Gowen et al. In a more general context GESAMP provide a discussion of the pathway for assessing the impact resulting from the discharge of sediment.
The large scale, extensive cultivation of bivalves can interact with the marine food web in two ways. Firstly, by the removal of phytoplankton and organic detritus and, secondly, by competing with other planktonic herbivores. It is therefore possible that the siting of bivalve farms in coastal embayments could reduce the natural productivity of the embayment. Bivalve grown by suspended culture methods will compete with other planktonic herbivores.
For example, Tenore et al. In addition, the culture structures provided a substrate for the crab Pisidia longicornis , the larvae of which also competed with copepods as a planktonic herbivore.
The carrying capacity of a natural ecosystem is the maximum production of a species which can be maintained by naturally available food resources Rosenthal et al. This particularly applies to the production of bivalves. Aquacuture production can be limited by the availability of oxygen Rosenthal et al. An assessment of this limit for an embayment can be obtained by establishing a mass balance.
That is, comparing the oxygen demand of the stock to the pool of available oxygen and the rate of supply. With respect to oxygen, there have been some attemps to model the production potential in relation to aquaculture development Black and Carswell, ; Aure and Stigebrandt, In addition to the oxygen demand by the cultured species, wastes and biodeposits released by a farm have a high biochemical oxygen demand. Deposition of organic waste increases the consumption of oxygen by the sediment and can result in oxygen depletion of the bottom water Tsutsumi and Kikuchi, A reduction in the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water passing through cage farms has also been reported Rosenthal, In general, however, large-scale depletion of oxygen in coastal waters is unlikely.
While the small, short term reduction in the concentration of oxygen in water passing through cage farms is important to the farmer, it is probably not ecologically significant. One possible exception to the above is in low energy coastal environments such as the deep basins of some fjords and inlets.
In such locations the retention of deep water within the basin for a period of time months to several years results in a natural depletion of oxygen Gade and Edwards, The deposition of waste would increase the oxygen deficit. This potential problem has been recognised in several countries.
In Norway for example, only a low level of aquaculture production is allowed in fjords with deep isolated basins and this is restricted to the shallow, relatively well flushed near shore areas. All forms of aquaculture have the potential to affect wildlife.
Human activity can be disruptive in the vicinity of important breeding colonies and feeding grounds, while the aquaculture facility itself can attract predatory species. For example, in Germany cormorant populations have increased as a result of pond farming. However, there have been few detailed studies of the ecological effects of aquaculture operations on wildlife. The impact of some forms of aquaculture on wildlife habitat is better documented Paw and Chua, in press. For example , hectares of mangrove have been destroyed in the Philippines Gomez et al.
Coastal wetlands are amongst the most productive ecosystems and are important in sustaining the ecological integrity and productivity of adjacent coastal waters. Mangrove areas, for example, are important nursery grounds for many commercial fish and shrimp species Linden, , and references cited therein. The rapid development of marine cage farming of salmonids in Europe has raised concerns about the impact of escaped fish on natural populations. It has been suggested that farmed fish have been selected for traits which make them suitable for farming for example, rapid growth and placid behaviour but less well adapted to the natural ecosystem.
Thus, escaped fish could initially outcompete native stocks, but then decline, or the progeny resulting from inter- breeding could be poorly adapted to the ecosystem. There is insufficient information available to judge whether the interaction discussed above is a serious ecological impact.
It is known that farmed fish do escape and that the numbers of escapees can be large. Some countries have initiated studies to address this issue and in recognition of the potential problem Norway prohibits the siting of salmon farms within 30 km of important salmon rivers. A number of fish, invertebrate and seaweed species have been transferred or introduced from one region to another for aquaculture purposes.
A distinction has been made between the two kinds of movements which differ in their purpose and potential effect Welcomme, Transfers take place within the present geographical range of a species and are intended to support stressed populations, enhance genetic characteristics or re-establish a species that has failed locally.
Introductions are movements beyond the present geographical range of a species and are intended to insert totally new taxa into the flora and fauna. The problems associated with transfers and introductions have been well studied and recorded Rosenthal, ; Hoffman and Schubert, ; Welcomme, a; Munro, ; Turner, These movements can pose risks to human health, the integrity of ecosystems, agriculture, aquaculture and related primary industries.
Transfers and introductions may alter or impoverish the biodiversity of the receiving ecosystem through interbreeding, predation, competition for food and space and habitat destruction Folke and Kautsky, Examples of the type of disease problem which have arisen in the past from such movements are illustrated by the transfer of salmon smolts from Sweden to Norway and Finland, the introduction of infected ova of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch from the USA and the introduction of Japanese oysters Crassostrea gigas to France Munro, Bioactive compounds should be considered as part of overall disease control strategies.
However, it is accepted that many bioactive compounds, including pesticides and antibiotics, are used extensively in coastal aquaculture as the sole means of disease or pest control see Austin and Austin, Indeed, the success or failure of aquaculture may in certain circumstances depend on the timely use of such bioactive compounds to combat infectious diseases and parasites.
In general, the use of such compounds in aquaculture is haphazard, often reflecting the whims of the aquaculturist or disease adviser. Environmental issues centre on:. There is an increasing literature indicating that bioactive compounds linger in animal tissues for greater periods than had hitherto been recognized. For example, McCracken et al. This period is much longer than normally practiced in aquaculture.
The widespread use of inhibitory compounds in aquaculture has generated fears about the potential release of the bioactive component into the aquatic environment. In the case of antibiotics, this could damage biological filters in recirculating systems. With oxytetracycline in seawater, it has been established that degradation proceeds rapidly Samuelsen, However, most oxytetracycline becomes bound to particulates, and is deposited at the bottom of or beneath the fish holding facilities in the case of marine cage sites.
Within the sediments, oxytetracycline may remain in concentrations capable of causing antibacterial effects for 12 weeks after the cessation of treatment Jacobsen and Berglind, Such antibiotic containing sediment affects the fauna. The problem with pesticides is incompletely understood. Certainly, large quantities of a diverse range of natural and synthetic chemicals, including dichlorvos, malachite green, derris root, and tea seed cake, are used in coastal aquaculture worldwide.
To illustrate the extent of the problem, it has been determined that during 3, kg of dichlorvos was used in Norwegian fish farms to control infestation by salmon lice. Evidence for some compounds, such as dichlorvos, has shown that some of these chemicals have adverse environmental effects, and, therefore their use in coastal aquaculture must be carefully assessed.
The fate of such compounds should be properly addressed. A problem is the development and spread of antibiotic resistance among members of the native aquatic microbial communities. It has been determined that the administration of medicated food has a dramatic effect on the microbial populations within the digestive tract of the aquatic animals e. Austin and Al-Zahrani, Workers have provided evidence of a widespread resistance to antimicrobial compounds including numerous cases of multiple resistance; see Aoki, among fish pathogens, notably Aeromonas hydrophila , Pasteurella piscicida , Streptococcus spp.
It is conceivable that plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance could be transferred to bacteria of human and veterinary significance.
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Initial unpublished work has suggested that antibiotic resistance may indeed be transferred between related bacterial groups. Fortunately, cessation of treatment appears to lead to a rapid decline in the levels of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the aquatic environment.
Some construction materials release substances into the aquatic environment e.
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Their presence is unknown to most of the farmers, although awareness is increasing. Frequently preservatives have been intentionally used assuming that they are relatively harmless to the cultured species. Plastics contain a wide variety of additives including stabilizers fatty acid salts , pigments chromates, cadmium sulphate , antioxidants e. Many of these compounds are toxic to aquatic life, although some protection is provided by their low water-solubility, slow rate of leaching and dilution.
Mortalities in coastal aquaculture have resulted from toxicant leaching from construction materials, and the environmental effects of these toxicants remain largely unresolved. At the present time there are few standards regulating the composition of materials used in aquaculture facilities. An increasing number of hormones and growth promoters are used to alter sex, productive viability and growth of culture organisms. Although many studies have been undertaken to describe their physiological effect in the target organism, studies of their wider ecological impact have not been undertaken.
The implications of aquaculture development for human health assume importance in some geographical areas, but may gain further significance in the future. Many outbreaks of human diseases have been associated with marine fishery products, especially those from wild stocks. Similar problems can result from aquaculture due to poor management. Much of aquaculture is practised in coastal waters which are subjected to organic pollution.
Toxic algal events blooms are common in many parts of the world. The consumption of raw or partially cooked fish and shellfish from affected areas is likely to cause diseases due to pathogens or toxins Shuval, Many epidemics of shellfish-associated typhoid fever occurred in Europe and the USA at the turn of the century. The recognition of shellfish as a vehicle for enteric agents resulted in some modifications of sewage disposal practices, with the lessening of marine pollution. The clear risk of transmission of typhoid fever by bivalves growing in sewage contaminated water was well-established during the early years of this century and served as the basis for the establishment of shellfish sanitation programmes in the UK and in the USA.
These programmes were based on approved, clean harvesting areas and shellfish self-purification in clean-water holding tanks, termed "depuration". The subsequent disappearance of epidemics of typhoid fever, transmitted by shellfish, may partially be a result of the success of these programmes Mosley, Mosley reviewed the epidemiological aspects of transmission of infectious hepatitis IHA and other virus diseases by shellfish. These outbreaks occurred despite simple sanitary improvements which were sufficient to eliminate shellfish-associated typhoid-fever.
The occurrence of shellfish-associated hepatitis is not confined to eating raw molluscs, because steaming as usually practiced fails to raise the internal temperature sufficiently to inactivate the viral agent Koff and Sears, Another concern is that of the possible transmission of type B hepatitis by accumulation of hepatitis B virus IHB in oysters and clams Mahoney et al. The only demonstration of mollusc contamination, however, was in samples taken from a shellfish bed adjacent to a hospital's sewage outfall.
Many other samples along the coast were negative for IHB. Mosley considered that seafood was not a significant route for transmission of IHB, since occurrence of the agent in faeces was doubtful, and oral infection of serum was low. Metcalf and Stiles demonstrated enteroviruses in oysters harvested from contaminated waters closed to harvesting, and Denis reported frequent recovery of Coxsackie A viruses in market samples in France.
Furthermore, Di Girolamo et al. Goldfield reported five outbreaks of gastro-enteritis of unknown aetiology in which shellfish including clams and oysters were implicated. He suggested that some of these outbreaks of "non-bacterial" aetiology may have been caused by parvovirus. The first well documented shellfish-associated epidemic caused by the Norwalk-like virus was a massive gastro-enteritis outbreak in all areas of Australia, in which approximately 2, cases possibly 10 to 20 times that number of people were actually infected were reported.
This outbreak was associated with the consumption of raw shellfish harvested from sewage contaminated areas Murphy et al. In addition to clear epidemics of virus disease associated with consumption of raw or partially cooked shellfish, there is growing evidence that shellfish consumption is strongly associated with the endemic transmission of infectious hepatitis e. Reports have implicated shellfish as a source of non-A, non-B hepatitis. This was the third most common risk factor after parental drug use and history of blood transfusions.
It is possible that different non-A, non-B hepatitis viruses were associated with the shellfish than with parental drug use and blood transfusions. In the USA, the first case of shellfish-associated gastro-enteritis attributed to Norwalk virus occurred in after individuals consumed oysters from Florida Gunn et al. In addition, a group of small round viruses have been reported as the cause of numerous outbreaks of shellfish-associated gastro-enteritis. These viruses do not appear to be serologically related to the Norwalk virus. More recently the Snow Mountain virus has been reported as the cause of several outbreaks of gastro-enteritis associated with the consumption of clams Dolin et al.
Numerous studies have been conducted on the survival of viruses in marine waters. Laboratory studies have shown that enteric viruses can survive from 2 to days in seawater, which is generally longer than coliform bacteria Melnick and Gerba, A number of variables, including temperature, salinity, microbial antagonism, solar radiation, and association of viruses with solids, have been found to affect virus survival. When sediment is present, the inactivation rates of viruses in seawater-moistened sand tended to be 4.
There is now ample evidence that shellfish, particularly molluscs grown in sewage polluted water are very effective carriers and concentrators of IHA virus and Norwalk virus and have on numerous occasions caused infection in humans. It was clear from the result of a major cholera epidemic in Italy during that contaminated molluscs can be effective vectors of Vibrio cholerae Baine et al.
The cholera epidemic in Naples, the coastal regions of Campania and Puglia and in Sardinia resulted in confirmed cases, probably many more non-laboratory confirmed cases, and 25 fatalities. In addition, major economic losses due to a reduction in tourism and trade resulted from the compulsory international quarantine notification of the outbreak. It should be noted that prior to the much publicized Naples outbreak there was an explosive outbreak of cholera in the Philippines in , in which Joseph et al.
Laboratory studies have indicated that V. Naples-type outbreaks could occur anywhere, especially as El Tor cholera is pandemic and airline travel permits the rapid dissemination of pathogens throughout susceptible populations. These organisms could contaminate shellfish beds via improperly treated or raw sewage. Some bacterial fish pathogens have been implicated with outbreaks of human disease. However, it should be emphasized that the published literature is restricted to a few documented cases; the extent of the problem is largely unknown.
Nevertheless, it is appreciated that Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium spp. The occurrence of toxic species of phytoplankton represents a considerable threat to the economic sustainability of coastal aquaculture development in many countries. A relatively small number of algal species produce a range of toxins, the effects of which include mortality of stock larval and adult , and human illness and even death WHO, ; see also Shumway, and references cited therein.
Several toxins are responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning PSP Sullivan, which is perhaps the most well documented group of phycotoxins.
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The toxins are produced by several armoured dinoflagellates, including Alexandrium tamarense , Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense. Human illness and occasionally death results from the consumption of bivalves which have accumulated the toxin. Human illness has also been attributed to the consumption of fish containing saxitoxin. The presence of the toxin in the fish was assumed to be the result of its transfer through the food chain Ting and Wong, There is, however, no evidence of human illness as a result of consumption of farmed fish containing phycotoxins.
A group of toxins including okadaic acid, dinophysis toxins DTX1, 2 and 3 and Yessotoxin are responsible for diarrheic shellfish poisoning DSP. These toxins are thought to be produced by the armoured dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis and Prorocentrum. Human illness sickness and diarrhoea result from the consumption of bivalves which have accumulated the toxin. There is no evidence that DSP toxins have caused human deaths. The causative agent for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning NSP is Ptychodiscus breve.
Consumption of shellfish containing this toxin causes symptoms similar to PSP, but paralysis leading to death has not been recorded. Amnesic shellfish poisoning ASP has been so-named because one of the effects is memory loss. In , 30 people were taken ill and three died in eastern Canada as a result of consuming bivalves which had accumulated domoic acid, a neurotoxic amino acid.
In this incident the source of the compound was traced to the diatom Nitzschia pungens. There were some unusual features associated with this event. Firstly, the algal species producing the toxin was a diatom when, prior to the event shellfish toxicity had been associated with dinoflagellates. Secondly, the event took place during winter. Thus, the event occurred during the season of low phytoplankton growth; normally most toxic events occur during the period of maximum phytoplankton growth. Ciguatera toxins are produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus and can accumulate in several tropical and subtropical herbivorous fish and predators which feed on the herbivores.
At present this is not a problem in the context of coastal aquaculture, but may become important if ranching of reef fish is practised Maclean, In some coastal regions the occurrence of toxic species and toxicity in bivalves is almost an annual event and this has necessitated the establishment of extensive programmes to monitor bivalve stocks. The detection of toxins at a pre-determined level usually results in a ban on harvesting which is enforced until the level of toxin in the stock falls below the action level.
It is therefore possible to safeguard human health and manage farms to mitigate the effects of toxic events. The duration of closure can, however, affect the economic viability of bivalve culture as a result of loss of markets due to failure to provide the product or loss of consumer confidence in the product often the result of misinformation. Furthermore, the value of the product can be reduced if harvesting is not permitted before the stock begins to mature sexually and the quality of the meat declines.
Microbiological standards have been devised to counter the possible presence of pathogens in aquatic invertebrates. However, the definition of a faecal coliform is vague see Austin et al. In short, viral counts do not coincide with the number of faecal coliforms Tyler, Moreover, it is often difficult to isolate viruses from seawater and filter feeders.
Therefore, current microbiological standards for shellfish are of questionable value. Depuration is commonly used to reduce the risk of microbiologically contaminated filter feeding invertebrates being sold for human consumption. Thus, the animals are transferred to tanks with several changes of "clean" water whereupon pathogens are supposedly eliminated.
The effectiveness of such procedures is possibly illustrated by the virtual elimination of typhoid fever by this route in the industrialized nations of the western world Pike and Ridgway, Yet, problems ensue with the cleanliness of the water used in depuration systems. Firstly, without adequate disinfection systems, depuration may serve to spread pathogens from a few contaminated animals to many others in the depuration system. Secondly, harsh disinfectants, such as high levels of chlorine, may well inactivate many pathogens, but the presence of such chemicals in the water has an adverse effect on the animals.
In the presence of some disinfectants the invertebrates close-up and, therefore, do not depurate. Experience has suggested that ozonation which is extensively used in France, is an effective tool in depuration. In particular, residual ozone in the water does not adversely affect the filter-feeders, and results in the inactivation of viruses, including poliovirus Richard, , bacterial fish pathogens Austin, and parasites, e. The full socio-economic benefits of coastal aquaculture development can only be achieved by adopting the principle of sustainable development, which is defined by FAO as:.
Such sustainable development in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable". It is clear, however, that inadequate planning and inefficient management of coastal aquaculture has been the case, and has resulted in serious socio-economic consequences.
Some examples are:. In addition to the negative social consequences, the cost of disrupting the ecosystem includes coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion into groundwater and agricultural land, acidification, and a reduction in a range of goods and services produced from the mangrove forests Bailey, Some of the problems outlined above result from the market failing to reflect the true cost of resource depletion and environmental change.
For example, the true costs related to the deterioration of coastal water quality are not usually borne by coastal aquaculturists. Such costs are often spread onto other users of coastal waters. Likewise, the cost of land subsidence is borne not just by those in the aquaculture industry, but also by others who are engaged in other productive activities which depend on the availability of groundwater. The solution to this problem requires policy intervention at national and local level, particularly to address the issues of common property rights and economic incentives and deterrents needed to minimize ecological change.
The use of common resources such as water and public land for coastal aquaculture development should take into account traditional use and the potential consequences of over-use. The idea of economic incentives and deterrents such as subsidies and taxes is to encourage aquaculturists to make more efficient use of resources and take full responsibility for mitigating or minimizing ecological changes caused by their culture operation. For example, if aquaculturists in Taiwan Province had to pay for the scarcity value of water and the environmental cost of land subsidence the industry would have developed differently and may have had less of an environmental impact.
Policy intervention may also include a requirement for regulatory control of the establishment, operation and management of coastal aquaculture. It is clear therefore that to ensure sustainable development, the positive and negative socio-economic effects of coastal aquaculture, including its ecological effects, must be evaluated in the context of the society's social and economic goals.
Analysis of any coastal aquaculture project should take into account both the local and the wider social and ecological costs and balance this against the benefits and costs of the project, which should not be undertaken unless there are net social benefits. The assessment of wider environmental impacts socio-economic and ecological is necessary in an evaluation of the social benefits. Thus, the impacts have to be identified, measured and where possible, a monetary value placed on them so that they can be included in a formal analysis Dixon et al.
However, quantitative evaluation of the impacts of aquaculture on the environment have only recently been seriously attempted, and most of the biophysical relationships involved have yet to be firmly established. Most research on the environmental impacts of aquaculture has been focussed on intensive production systems for finfish and molluscs in developed countries ICES, , and little is known regarding the impact of shrimp culture.
Furthermore, in many cases a monetary value cannot be placed on ecological change. In such cases the acceptability of the levels of ecological change associated with coastal aquaculture development lies with society. Sustainable coastal aquaculture requires adequate consideration of the interactions among the social, economic and ecological changes, which accompany development. This can be achieved through an integrated approach to planning and management of coastal aquaculture within the coastal system. The ecological and socio-economic benefits and costs of aquaculture activity are potentially so significant that action oriented policies are necessary.
In order to ensure that financial gain is not at the expense of the ecosystem or the rest of society, aquaculture developments must follow established principles. The formulation of strategies will provide the focus for an equitable balance between those seeking a simple livelihood, those wanting to make a profit, the quality of the environment and the interests of local people, the wider community and, where appropriate, the international community.
While this study involved perch, such plastic pollution is likely harmful to many fish species. The researchers said since this study, they have conducted similar experiments with other fish, both tropical coral reef damselfish and temperate pike and flounder , and all showed responses to microplastic particles very similar to the perch. Discover Thomson Reuters.
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