The Phoenician letter appears to be named after a sword or other weapon. In modern Hebrew, ' zayin ' means penis and ' lezayen ' is a vulgar term which generally means to perform sexual intercourse and is used in a similar fashion to the English word fuck, although the older meaning survives in ' maavak mezuyan ' armed struggle and ' beton mezuyan ' armed, i. The Proto-Sinaitic glyph according to Brian Colless may have been called ziqq , based on a hieroglyph depicting a 'manacle' Moe in Ga clearly indicates the beginning of a new season.
This is not to say that the Egyptians had discovered the circulation of the blood. But the determinative sign for 'heart' often figures as the plumb bob at the end of a plumb line coming from a well-known astronomical or surveying device, the merkhet. Evidently, 'heart' is something very specific, as it were the 'center of gravity' See Aeg.
And this may lead in quite another direction. The Arabs preserved a name for Canopus - besides calling the star Kalb at-tai-man 'heart of the south' Suhail el-wezn , 'Canopus Ponderosus', the heavy-weighing Canopus, a name promptly declared meaningless by the experts, but which could well have belonged to an archaic system in which Canopus was the weight at the end of the plumb line, as befitted its important position as a heavy star at the South Pole of the 'waters below'.
Here is a chain of inferences which might or might not be valid, but it is allowable to test it, and no inference at all would come from the 'lady of every joy'. As concerns the identity of the ruling lady, the greater possibility speaks for Sirius, but Venus cannot be excluded; in Mexico, too, Venus is called 'heart of the earth'. The reader is invited to imagine for himself what many thousands of such pseudo-primitive or poetic interpretations must lead to: a disfigured interpretation of Egyptian intellectual life Furthermore, there is a change in the tresses of Pachamama The Earth Mother - carved into the back side of this marvellous stone statue forever and for everyone to see - which occurs at a time close to The signs in the tresses of Pachamama are distributed as What looks like a tamaiti child glyph arrives in Ga, where the star Syrma marks the left knee of Virgo.
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Significantly this star is not mentioned as the ruling star at the manzil Syrma - knees are not suitable for rulers, instead their function is to be flexible. Obviously the bird in Ga is of the same general type as that in Ga, but this one is not 'giving birth' to an egg but to something else. The Auva manzil is over:. Another rau hei arrives 3 days later.
This one presumably represents Sun, because it is thinner and has only one 'wing'. The 'Wolf season' thus seems to cover ca 4 weeks. The sign in form of an open henua - maybe a short form of he-nua-hine , the old woman - probably indicates 'not visible' referring to the ruler in charge : Nuahine Nuahine. The 'split up' maitaki in Eb has at left and right the same type of 'sky domes' as those to the left and and right of pharaoh inside his temple : Eb Borealis Pictured is the head of Queen Hatshepsut from a colossal statue in painted limestone.
All representations of her female figure were replaced by images of a male king - her deceased husband Thutmosis II. While Deir el-Bahri seems the most likely provenance for this artefact, further research is needed in order to confirm this. It may even be possible to one day determine the exact spot the fragments originated from. Given the importance of the object, the head of Hatshepsut has now been placed on display in a prominent position within the House of Life at the Egypt Centre so that the relief can be appreciated by visitors to the Centre.
It truly feels like I am part of writing history', he said. As a woman living in Egypt's golden age, Hatshepsut was not destined for kingship. She was prohibited by her gender from ascending the throne even though she was of royal lineage. Egypt's gods had supposedly decreed that the king's role could never be fulfilled by a woman and although a pharaoh needed a queen to reign with him, she could never rule alone — although later there were notable exceptions.
Hatshepsut refused to submit to this and, to get round the rule, claimed she was married to the king of the gods and therefore had as much right to sit on the throne as any previous pharaoh. Her brazen approach worked and she had herself crowned in around 1,BC, changing her name from the female version Hatshepsut - which means Foremost of the Noble Ladies - to the male version, Hatshepsu.
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As a woman living in Egypt's golden age, Hatshepsut pictured was not destined for kingship. She reinforced her power by decorating the temples of the gods with portraits of herself in the pharaoh's traditional kilt, wearing all his symbols of office including the black pointed royal beard. While conducting affairs of state surrounded by male courtiers, she may even have worn men's clothes. However, previously-found statues show that early in her reign she liked tight-fitting gowns which showed off her figure and is said to have had a habit of bedding her cabinet ministers.
Hatshepsut was the first but not the only woman ruler of male dominated ancient Egypt. Nefertiti followed her and then Cleopatra took power 1, years later, but neither took the title pharaoh like Hatshepsut. She showed ruthless ambition and exceptional tenacity for the times in which she lived. As a result this mysterious and courageous female ruler rewrote the early story of her country and has been called the first great woman in history.
Hatshepsut insisted she had been made official heir to the throne by her father, the pharaoh Thutmosis I. The pharaoh had several sons who predeceased him and turned to his daughter to safeguard the throne. What immediately followed was not unusual. Hatshepsut married a much younger half-brother, also called Thutmosis, whereupon she became queen. Marriages between siblings were the custom in those days and at first the couple reigned together. Hatshepsut became regent for another Thutmosis, her husband's son by a harem girl.
By now she was not content simply to be regent. Within two years she had taken all the power for herself and was running the country from its capital Thebes, donned in her false beard and all the traditional regalia of kingship. For many years she and her stepson seemed to have lived happily with this arrangement. She ruled while Thutmosis concentrated on his military career. So successful was he that historians know him as the Napoleon of Egypt. Historians suspect these campaigns were an excuse to escape from the influence of his merciless step-mother.
She was becoming so powercrazed in her last years that Thutmosis even feared for his life. In his absence, Hatshepsut built breathtaking temples in her own honour. They were decorated with reliefs telling how she came to the throne of Egypt and with farfetched stories about her divine connections. Even the earliest legal texts by Malik b. Anas and Abu Hanifa employ many methods including analogical reasoning and opinion and do not rely exclusively on hadith. After the death of Imam Hasan, Imam Husayn and his family were increasingly worried about the religious and political persecution that was becoming commonplace under the reign of Muawiya's son, Yazid.
Amidst this turmoil in , Husayn along with the women and children of his family, upon receiving invitational letters and gestures of support by Kufis, wished to go to Kufa and confront Yazid as an intercessor on part of the citizens of the empire. However, he was stopped by Yazid's army in Karbala during the month of Muharram. This battle would become extremely important to the Shi'i psyche.
However, during commemoration they do not have any celebrations in Jamatkhana during Muharram and may have announcements or sessions regarding the tragic events of Karbala. Also individuals may observe Muharram in a wide variety of ways. This respect for Muharram does not include self-flagellation and beating because they feel that harming one's body is harming a gift from Allah. After being set free by Yazid, Zaynab bint Ali , the daughter of Fatimah and Ali and the sister of Hasan and Husayn, started to spread the word of Karbala to the Muslim world, making speeches regarding the event.
Ja'far al-Sadiq excelled in the scholarship of the day and had many pupils, including three of the four founders of the Sunni madhhabs. However, following al-Sadiq's poisoning in , a fundamental split occurred in the community. Isma'il ibn Jafar , who at one point was appointed by his father as the next Imam, appeared to have predeceased his father in Most Ismailis recognized Muhammad ibn Isma'il as the next Imam and some saw him as the expected Mahdi that Ja'far al-Sadiq had preached about.
At this point, some of the Ismaili community believed that Muhammad ibn Ismail had gone into the Occultation and that he would one day return. A small group traced the Imamat among Muhammad ibn Ismail's lineal descendants. The Da'i was not a missionary in the typical sense, and he was responsible for both the conversion of his student as well as the mental and spiritual well being. The teacher-student relationship of the Da'i and his student was much like the one that would develop in Sufism. The Da'i and Imam were respectively the spiritual mother and spiritual father of the Isma'ili believers.
Shams Tabrizi and Rumi is a famous example of the importance of the relationship between the guide and the guided, and Rumi dedicated much of his literature to Shams Tabrizi and his discovery of the truth. With their headquarters in Bahrain , they accepted a young Persian former prisoner by the name of Abu'l-Fadl al-Isfahani , who claimed to be the descendant of the Persian kings        as their Mahdi, and rampaged across the Middle-East in the tenth century, climaxing their violent campaign by stealing the Black Stone from the Kaaba in Mecca in under Abu Tahir al-Jannabi.
Following the arrival of the Al-Isfahani, they changed their qibla from the Kaaba in Mecca to the Zoroastrian-influenced fire. After their return of the Black Stone in and a defeat by the Abbasids in the group slowly dwindled off and no longer has any adherents. This became known as the Baghdad Manifesto and it traces the lineage of the Fatimids to a Jewish blacksmith. Under the Fatimids, Egypt flourished and developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean , which eventually determined the economic course of Egypt during the High Middle Ages.
The Fatimids promoted ideas that were radical for that time. One was promotion by merit rather than genealogy. Also during this period the three contemporary branches of Ismailism formed. The first branch Druze occurred with the al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Born in , he ascended as ruler at the age of eleven.
A religious group that began forming in his lifetime broke off from mainstream Ismailism and refused to acknowledge his successor. Later to be known as the Druze, they believe Al-Hakim to be the manifestation of God and the prophesied Mahdi, who would one day return and bring justice to the world. She appointed the Dai in Yemen to run religious affairs. The second split occurred following the death of al-Mustansir Billah in CE. His rule was the longest of any caliph in both the Fatimid and other Islamic empires. After he died, his sons Nizar , the older, and al-Musta'li , the younger, fought for political and spiritual control of the dynasty.
However, in the Mustaali branch, the Dai came to have a similar but more important task. She was Arwa al-Sulayhi , a queen in Yemen. She ran the dawat from Yemen in the name of Imaam Tayyib. Zoeb bin Moosa was first to be instituted to this office. Syedi Hasan Feer was one of the prominent Ismaili wali of 14th century. The line of Tayyib Dais that began in is still continuing under the main sect known as Dawoodi Bohra see list of Dai of Dawoodi Bohra. Dawoodi Bohra's present Dai al Mutlaq, the 53rd, is Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, and he and his devout followers tread the same path, following the same tradition of the Aimmat Fatimiyyeen.
Other groups include Atba-i-Malak and Hebtiahs Bohra.
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Mustaali beliefs and practices, unlike those of the Nizari and Druze, are completely compatible with mainstream Islam, representing a continuation of Fatimid tradition and fiqh. In the s, the Zirid dynasty governors of the Maghreb under the Fatimids declared their independence and their conversion to Sunni Islam , which led to the devastating Banu Hilal invasions. After about , the Fatimid hold on the Levant coast and parts of Syria was challenged by first Turkish invasions, then the First Crusade , so that Fatimid territory shrunk until it consisted only of Egypt.
Because of the vehement opposition to the Fatimids from the Seljuks, the Ismaili movement was only able to operate as a terrorist underground movement, much like the Assassins. After the decay of the Fatimid political system in the s, the Zengid ruler Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo had his general, Saladin , seize Egypt in , forming the Sunni Ayyubid dynasty. One of their earliest attempts was taken by a missionary by the name of Hassan-i Sabbah. Hassan-i Sabbah continued his missionary activities, which climaxed with his taking of the famous citadel of Alamut.
Over the next two years, he converted most of the surrounding villages to Ismailism. Afterwards, he converted most of the staff to Ismailism, took over the fortress, and presented Alamut's king with payment for his fortress, which he had no choice but to accept. The king reluctantly abdicated his throne, and Hassan-i Sabbah turned Alamut into an outpost of Fatimid rule within Abbasid territory. Knives and daggers were used to kill, and sometimes as a warning, a knife would be placed on the pillow of a Sunni, who understood the message to mean that he was marked for death.
This further increased the ruthless reputation of the Hashasheen throughout Sunni-controlled lands. The English word, assassination, is said to have been derived from the Arabic word Hashasheen.
It means both "those who use hashish", and one of the Shiite Ismaili sects in the Syria of the eleventh century. He was offered a safe place in Alamut, where Hassan-Al-Sabbah welcomed him. He prayed with his back to Mecca, as did the rest of the congregation, who prayed behind him, and ordered the community to break their Ramadan fasting with a feast at noon. He made a speech saying that the Imam had brought his murids to the qiyamah from the shariah. Though it had successfully warded off Sunni attempts to take it several times, including one by Saladin , the stronghold at Alamut soon met its destruction.
By , Genghis Khan had managed to unite many of the once antagonistic Mongol tribes into a ruthless, but nonetheless unified, force. Using many new and unique military techniques, Genghis Khan led his Mongol hordes across Central Asia into the Middle East , where they won a series of tactical military victories using a scorched earth policy.
A grandson of Genghis Khan, Hulagu Khan , led the devastating attack on Alamut in , only a short time before sacking the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad in The Mustaali progressed mainly in Yemen and then shifted their dawat to India under Dai, working on behalf of their last Imam, Taiyyab, and were known as Bohra. Badakhshan , which includes parts of northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan , is the only part of the world where Ismailis make up the majority of the population.
The Druze mainly settled in Syria and Lebanon and developed a community based upon the principles of reincarnation through their own descendants. Their leadership is based on community scholars, who are the only individuals allowed to read their holy texts. The Tajiks of Xinjiang , being Ismaili, were not subjected to being enslaved in China by Sunni Muslim Turkic peoples because the two peoples did not share a common geographical region.
However, due to their isolation from the rest of the world, Islam reached the Hunza about years ago. Ismailism has been practiced by the Hunza for the last years. The Hunza have been ruled by the same family of kings for over years. They were called Kanjuts. Sunni Islam never took root in this part of central Asia so even now, there are less than a few dozen sunnis living among the Hunza.
This gave him access to the literary heritage of the Ismailis, including the majority of the extant Fatimid manuscripts transferred to Yemen. This voluminous text has been critically edited based on several old manuscripts from The Institute of Ismaili Studies' vast collection.
Sunni theological traditions. Theology of Twelvers 3. Other Shia concepts of Aqidah.
The Shia (True Followers) of Imam Ali (A.S.)
They believe that the Imam has the authority to interpret the Qur'an in relation to the present time. The Ginans are Nizari religious texts. They are written in the form of poetry by Pirs to interpret the meanings of Quranic ayat into the languages of South Asia, especially Gujarati and Urdu. Belief in reincarnation exists in the Druze faith, an offshoot of Ismailism.
These virtues take the shape of five different spirits which, until recently, have been continuously reincarnated on Earth as prophets and philosophers including Adam , the ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer Pythagoras , the ancient Pharaoh of Egypt Akhenaten , and many others. The Druze believe that, in every time period, these five principles were personified in five different people who came down together to Earth to teach humans the true path to God and enlightenment, but that with them came five other individuals who would lead people away from the right path into "darkness.
Whereas the Natiq was concerned with the rites and outward shape of religion, the inner meaning is entrusted to a Wasi Representative.
The History of the Fade
The Wasi would know the secret meaning of all rites and rules and would reveal them to a small circles of initiates. This final stage was called the Qiyamah. In Nizari Ismailism , the head Dai is called the Pir.
The Imam is the Pir in Nizari Ismailism. It is through this Universal Intellect 'aql al-kull that all living and non-living entities know God, and all of humanity is dependent and united in this light. God, in Isma'ili metaphysics, is seen as above and beyond all conceptions, names, and descriptions. He transcends all positive and negative qualities, and knowledge of God as such is above all human comprehension. For the Shia, the Light nur of the Imamate is the Universal Intellect, and consequently, the Imam on earth is the focus of manifestation mazhar of the Intellect.
The Ismailis have submitted the Qur'anic zakat see Qur'an , which is a purification due and not charitable alms, to the Imams since the death of the Prophet Muhammad. The zakat rates historically differed depending on the asset type - 2. Among Khoja Ismailis, the zakat is The entire zakat amount is given to the Ismaili Imam through his representatives in the Jamatkhanas, called Mukhi-Sahibs. This has been documented in several interviews of the present Aga Khan.
For the true mawali of the Imam and Dai, heaven is made obligatory. And only with this crucial walayat , they believe, will all the other pillars and acts ordained by Islam be judged or even looked at by God. In place of Taharah, the Druze have the Shahada, or affirmation of faith. In contrast, the Nizari and Musta'ali sects believe in a metaphorical as well as a literal meaning of fasting.
The literal meaning is that one must fast as an obligation, such as during Ramadan, and the metaphorical meaning is seeking to attain the Divine Truth and striving to avoid worldly activities which may detract from this goal. Still, many Nizari Ismailis around the world fast during the month of Ramadan every year. Many Ismaili sects do not ascribe to mainstream Islamic beliefs regarding the Hajj, considering it instead to metaphorically mean visiting the Imam himself, that being the greatest and most spiritual of all pilgrimages.
Since the Druze do not follow shariah, they do not believe in a literal pilgrimage to the Kaaba in Mecca as other Muslims do, while the Mustaali Bohras as well as the Nizaris still hold on to the literal meaning as well, performing hajj to the Ka'aba and also visiting the Imam or in a secluded time like today, the Dai, who is the representative or vicegerent of the Imam to be Hajj-e Haqiqi. For the Isma'ilis, jihad is the last of the Seven Islamic Pillars, and for them it means a struggle against one's own soul; striving toward righteousness, and sometimes as struggle in warfare.
However, Isma'ilis will stress that none but their Imam uz Zaman [Imam of the Time] can declare war and call his followers to fight. The Nizari Ismaili Imams known as the Aga Khans since the 18th century  have used their power to institute reforms in the status and treatment of women in the community. In a message to his followers in , he proclaimed that:. He encouraged women to participate in social and political affairs and criticized veiling as well as gender segregation, including the acts of pardah masking of oneself from the public and zenana restraint on women from leaving the home.
Aga Khan III believed economic independence was key to achieving this equality and freedom.
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