Mississippian Settlement Patterns. Studies in Archeology


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Resources and Links. Current Publications. Out-of-Print Publications. Awareness Month. Field Schools. IAS Annual Meeting. Awards and Honors. Stephens Student Paper Award. Constitution and By-Laws. Board of Directors. New Member Bios. Remember me. Forgot password. Illinois archaeological survey. Log in. New Member Biographies. The Illinois Archaeological Survey welcomes its new members who were admitted in New members of Carol Colaninno Carol is a registered professional archaeologist and STEM educator committed to archaeological education and research.

For his thesis, Tony is analyzing use-wear on Wickliffe Thick vessels from the Ohio-Mississippi confluence area to determine their functio Dr. Jennifer Goldman. New Members of Troy Belford. He worked for the Illinois State Archaeological Survey in , and after a leave of absence returned to the organization in His interests include economic anthropology, ethnohistory, and research methods. Timothy Boyd. He is working on his MA in History from the same institution. His interests include experimental archaeology and the survey of local creeks around his hometown of Raritan, Illinois.

Dr. Martyn Allen: Rural settlement and developer-funded archaeology

He has been a staff archaeologist at the Illinois State Archaeological Survey in Macomb, Illinois since , and a crew chief since Tim Horsley. Eugene Keithley. Martha Mihich. Daniel R. Her current research includes analyzing the Johnson Collection, a private assemblage of prehistoric material from a series of sites in Illinois and Wisconsin. Temporal affiliations of the collection range from Paleoindian to Mississippian. Jenny is also developing a comparative collection for historic archaeological materials including domestic, architectural, and personal artifacts.

Jay Martinez. His research includes settlement patterns and lithic analysis. Lauren Fitts. Her interests include prehistoric lithic assemblages, Archaic cultures, and historic Euro-American cultural material. Originally from the suburbs of Chicago, she enjoys Jacksonville's small town setting. We will have excavations at two sites. One site is a prehistoric fortified town complex dating from to AD, and the second is a small hamlet dating to about AD.

Students will learn archaeological survey, excavation, mapping, and geophysical sills throughout the three week long project. Transportation from Memphis to the field project is supplied. Room and board are the responsibility of the applicant. Participant must cover all other expenses including, but not limited to: transportation to and from Memphis, room and board. Pauketat with contributions by Kristin Hedman, John E. Kelly, Lucretia S.

Kelly, Kathryn E. Parker, and Timothy R. The southside excavations cut through the center of the once-impressive East St. Louis mound center. Thought destroyed by archaeologists until the —92 excavations, subsurface archaeological features and the bases of earthen pyramids remain intact below layers of historic fill. Although the southside excavations were limited to a single trench, that trench passed through a portion of the site that appears to have been the location of earthen mounds, special buildings, compound walls, huge marker posts, and miscellaneous pits.

The trench was also wide enough to permit measurements of building sizes and to allow observations of the spatial arrangement of mounds, buildings, walls, posts, and pits of various kinds. For these reasons, and despite excavation limitations, the southside features and artifact assemblages give us a rare glimpse into the inner sanctum of a Mississippian mound center. Only at the Cahokia site itself has anything comparable been documented in the region e. Louis site—the scene of massive earthmoving projects, giant post emplacements, and public house constructions—was apparently occupied with equal intensity throughout the Stirling phase at the same time that Cahokia was undergoing a similar monumental aggrandizement.

So, Cahokia and East St. Louis were occupied and built up at the same time over the course of one century AD — People in both places were on the receiving end of a regionwide network that, at a minimum, mobilized labor first and goods and foodstuffs second. Accumulations of goods and maize provisions may have been such that special huts were necessary for storage. Edited by Jodie A. O'Gorman, Marjorie B.

Schroeder, Bonnie Styles, and Karli White. The C. House site is a small, primarily Middle Woodland, multicomponent site situated on a sand ridge along the Mississippi River. Excavation of the C. House site offered a rare opportunity to document a small, riverine-oriented specialized camp, furthering our understanding of Middle Woodland people and their landscape.

House site provides the first documentation of a specialized Middle Woodland encampment on the banks of the Mississippi with clear stratigraphic evidence of repeated use. It is well documented based on stratigraphic, artifact, and chronological information that Middle Woodland people returned to the site for almost years. Comparison of the warm-weather occupation of C.

House with other excavated sites from this time period provides further insight into the lives of these people 2, years ago. Most striking is the difference in the use of blades between the riverine-oriented sites Hull and C. House and the slough sites near the bluff line. Perhaps this indicates some kind of specialized processing of aquatic species.

The most common kinds of fish include catfish, buffalo, sucker, drum, bowfin, pike, and gar. Many seem to have been very large fish and it is speculated that the abundant blades could be related to fish processing. Author: Andrew C.

Mississippian Settlement Patterns

Fortier with contributions by Kathryn E. Parker, John T. Penman, Lucretia S. Kelly, Kristin Hedman, and George Milner. The Petite Michele site represents a substantial residential camp dating to the latter portion of the early Middle Woodland Cement Hollow phase. The site is located on a sandy bank of the Goose Lake meander, an abandoned channel scar of the Mississippi River, in the central portion of the American Bottom. The occupation consists of 86 pit features and one ceramic concentration. Sizable and diagnostic ceramic and lithic assemblages were retrieved from pit and midden contexts.

Archaeobotanical and faunal remains were also recovered. This site currently represents the most extensive early Middle Woodland occupation excavated in the American Bottom. The occupation appears to represent a multi-season encampment, probably fall through winter, occupied by a transitory group of Middle Woodland people who utilized this site because of its proximity to the marsh resources of the abandoned Goose Lake meander and its proximity to nearby upland resources.

In most respects, the assemblages recovered from Petite Michele are typical of the Cement Hollow phase. The assemblages are characterized by the presence of large, thick-walled, decorated, sandy-tempered cooking jars, Snyders projectile points, large unifacial flake scrapers, and a subsistence system focused on venison and incipient horticulture. Authors: John E. Kelly, Steven J. Ozuk, and Joyce A. Williams with contributions by Lucretia S. Parker, and George R. This is the fourth report in the Range site series.

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Previous reports examined the Archaic through Late Woodland, Early Emergent Mississippian, and the Mississippian occupations at this site. This volume describes the later two Emergent Mississippian components—George Reeves and Lindeman phase occupations. Since primary occupation of the site took the form of a single large village whose inception coincided with the George Reeves phase and that persisted into the Lindeman phase, it is important that changes within this community be carefully documented. Author: Ned H. Hanenberger with contributions by George R.

Milner, Stevan C. Pullins, Richard Paine, Lucretia S. Kelly, and Kathryn E. This is the third in a series of reports describing the archaeological investigations at the Range site 11S47 in St. It deals with the Mississippian and Oneota habitations and burial features.

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These features combine to form Mississippian period Lohmann and Stirling phase AD — farmsteads and community centers, a late AD — Oneota farmstead, and six mortuary areas. Authors: Douglas K. Jackson and Philip G. Millhouse with contributions by Mary L. Simon and Thomas E. Archaeological investigations at the Vaughn Branch site revealed a Stirling phase component. Investigations at the Old Edwardsville Road site produced evidence of an early Moorehead phase occupation. These two sites, located only 2. Each site occupation also represents an example of a specialized form of Mississippian rural community referred to as a civic node.

Central to this identification is the presence of a sweat lodge at each site. Evidence from these sites has added important information on the complex settlement patterns associated with the Cahokian polity in the American Bottom and has provided the opportunity to examine material and subsistence patterns on similar sites from within a limited temporal perspective.

Identifying Ancient Settlement Patterns through LiDAR in the Mosquitia Region of Honduras

Author: Brad Koldehoff with contributions by Kathryn E. Parker, Gregory D. Wilson, and John T. The Woodland Ridge site is located on a narrow, sinuous bluff-top ridge and adjacent bluff spurs along the northern flank of Salt Lick Point in western Monroe County, Illinois. Archaeological investigations conducted in — prior to construction for the relocated town of Valmeyer included the excavation of late prehistoric pit features arranged in 15 distinct clusters.

Based on ceramics, radiocarbon dates, feature fills, and feature organization, it appears that the site was used periodically for brief periods during the full length of the Patrick phase ca. The common occurrence of large ceramic bowls and charred masses of starchy seeds supports the notion that Woodland Ridge was a periodic aggregation site, and that individual feature clusters were probably reused by individual families or larger social groups. The great number of large bowls is especially significant: proportionately more of these vessels were recovered from Woodland Ridge than from any previously reported Patrick phase site.

By addressing multiple traditional and contemporary themes or problem issues including landscape and resources, settlement organization, aggregative group behavior, feasting and ritual, indigenous plant cultivation, exchange and the use of herbal medicines, among others Koldehoff and his collaborators enrich our insights into the Late Woodland of the American Bottom For those of us who harbor a predilection for complex egalitarian Late Woodland systems, particularly in the greater Midwest, The Woodland Ridge Site…is essential reading.

Author: Michael D. Conner with contributions by John J. Field, Barbara D. Stafford, and Marjorie B. This report presents the results of excavations of six sites in the valleys of two tributaries to the Mississippi River in west-central Illinois. The Schuhardt site was located several kilometers north in the McCraney Creek valley.

Except for a scattering of earlier projectile points at several of the sites, and a Mississippian component at Schuhardt, material remains and radiocarbon dates at all the sites indicate the principal occupation at each dated to the Late Woodland period, between AD and AD Excavated features included two Mississippian structures at Schuhardt and two unusual intensely fired, limestone-lined pits at Hadley Creek North and South.

The function of the pits is uncertain, but some evidence suggests they may have been used as kilns for firing ceramics. In all, prehistoric pit features were excavated at the six sites: 2 at Barabell, 7 at Tickless, 26 at Barcam, 80 at Hadley Creek North and South, and 40 at Schuhardt.

The Late Woodland ceramic assemblage at the sites was dominated by cordmarked jars. This report serves as an excellent description and discussion of Late Woodland cultural variability. Authors: Brian M. Butler, Mark J. Hargrave, Heather A. Lapham, Sarah J. Monteith, and Kathryn E. Radiocarbon dates indicate a ca.

Both artifacts and subsistence remains support a long-term multiseasonal use of the site. Botanical remains show that the inhabitants were heavily invested in plant cultivation, including maize, after AD The key ceramic marker is the persistence of rim nodes in some quantity, a trait virtually lacking in Raymond and Patrick phase assemblages. The acre Piney Creek Ravine Nature Preserve in southwestern Illinois contains the highest frequency of prehistoric rock-art sites per acre of any area documented in the state.

A partial archaeological survey of the preserve recorded four such sites and two prehistoric rockshelter sites. The Piney Creek site 11R26 is the largest documented prehistoric rock-art site in the state, with over carved and painted designs. These designs are documented through a combination of photographs and tracings on clear acetate. Stylistic design differences suggest they are not all contemporaneous. The designs appear to date to Late Woodland and Mississippian times ca. Excavation of a test square in the shelter floor revealed Archaic, Crab Orchard, Late Woodland, and Mississippian components at the site.

Wagner brings an arsenal of approaches to the question of age and cultural affiliation of each style and motif, including comparison with other eastern rock art, comparison with archaeological specimens, ethnographic studies of art, and even structural analysis that compares the bilateral symmetry of one panel with engraved shell artifacts from the Spiro site.

Space does not permit an outline of his well-reasoned conclusions; suffice it to say that anyone working on the Archaic, Woodland, or Mississippian periods should have a look. The Floyd site, located along a paleochannel of Cahokia Creek in the American Bottom, was occupied at the end of the Late Archaic period. Radiocarbon analyses and recovered artifacts indicate that most of the site occupations occurred during the Terminal Archaic Prairie Lake phase ca. The site appears to have been occupied by small family groups, who used it as a base camp nearly year-round.

These models are discussed in the concluding chapter of the report. Evans and his collaborators are to be congratulated on producing a highly readable and comprehensive analysis of the extensive work at the Floyd site and providing new and interesting information and interpretation on the nature of Terminal Archaic adaptation and community organization in the American Bottom This volume is worth reading, not just by regional specialists but also by those with broad-ranging interests in the Archaic or other time periods.

One result of this torrential downpour was the destruction of a dam across the Du Page River at Channahon, which supplied a large section of the Illinois and Michigan Canal with water. An unexpected result of the dewatering of this stretch of canal was the exposure of seven canal boat hulls in a section of the canal known as the Morris Wide Water. Opened for navigation in the summer of , the Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the southern tip of Lake Michigan and the port city of Chicago with the upper Illinois River valley, greatly influencing the historic pioneer settlement of the northern quarter of the state.

Jesse Nowak

Although canal boats were once a common sight along this waterway, with hundreds of boats traveling between Chicago and LaSalle, little is known today about canal-boat construction techniques in Illinois. Archaeological investigations at the Morris Wide Water have resulted in detailed documentation of seven such boats and have contributed to our understanding of these nineteenth-century workhorse riverine craft. Authors: Michael C. Bender, Douglas J. Brewer, Kathryn E. Parker, and Jolee A. Archaeological investigations were undertaken in — at the location of the proposed Glendale Gardens Upland Reservoir in Madison County, Illinois.

Subsequent testing and mitigation resulted in the identification of the Cunningham site. Over features were excavated at the site, including two human burials and at least four domestic structures. Recovered artifacts included significant ceramic, lithic, floral and faunal remains. The Cunningham site is interpreted as a single-component Early Late Woodland occupation dating to ca. The lack of structure rebuilding and the ceramic continuity across the site, combined with the generally similar types of faunal and floral remains from the feature clusters, argue strongly for a short-term, perhaps multiyear occupation of the site.

Authors: J. Bryant Evans and Madeleine G. Evans with Edwin R. Hajic, Sheena K. Beaverson, Andrea K. Freeman, Mary L. Simon, and Thomas E. The Ringering site was occupied, off and on, from the Paleoindian to Mississippian periods. In some areas of the site there were approximately 3 m of stratified artifact-bearing deposits. Although the report is large, readers will find it easy to locate specific temporal-cultural information. The authors compare and contrast material assemblages in terms of significant socioeconomic and technological changes that occurred in regional prehistory.

In particular, the Ringering excavations offer significant insights into the Late Archaic to Early Woodland transition in the American Bottom during the Ringering, Carr Creek, and Columbia phases , and these are discussed in some detail in the final chapter. This is available only as a PDF. Edited by Thomas E. Emerson with contributions by M. Catherine Bird, Thomas E. Emerson, Madeleine Evans, Andrew C. Fortier, Rochelle Lurie, John T. Penman, Mary L. Simon, and Anne R. Excavations at Keeshin Farm in the middle Rock River valley uncovered multiple prehistoric pit features containing ceramic and lithic artifacts and botanical and zoological remains.

The project results suggest that Langford society was more sedentary and more complex than previously thought. While the Langford occupation of the middle Rock River emphasized floodplain habitats, the focus was on rich habitats [like] the Kiswaukee-Rock River confluence. For researchers concerned with the Langford tradition of northern Illinois, Keeshin Farm is a must read. And for those whose interests extend beyond the Upper Midwest, this volume is a welcome contribution to the archaeology of late prehistoric small-scale societies. Rodell, University of Wisconsin—Rock County.

This report presents a meticulous reanalysis and documentation of skeletal remains excavated over 30 years ago from two of four mounds at the Hill Prairie mound group, situated about 10 miles northeast of Cahokia.


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The mounds contained the late prehistoric skeletal remains of at least 53 individuals dating to ca. An important component of this study involves the careful chronological evaluation of changes in regional late prehistoric cemetery populations. Also, overlapping dates from ossuary sites in the region indicate greater mortuary variability during this period than previously recognized. Reanalysis for human remains from such sites indicates only limited nutritional stress and moderate disease loads.

Significant maize consumption continued throughout this period, suggesting that environmental or social constraints were not significantly affecting the diet or health of these late Mississippian populations. The editor of this series is to be commended for including such as extensive series of appendices with their wealth of data. William Whitley purchased the acre farm in , although evidence suggests the family was living there as early as They sold the land in , after which the homestead lay abandoned for about 20 years.

From the recovered artifacts, the farm was later briefly reoccupied, probably in the s by Silas Elliott and his family. Archaeological investigations at the Whitley site revealed the farmstead plan including remains of the house, two smokehouses, two wells, four cisterns, and other features enclosed by fences. Artifacts were abundant, and the recovered ceramic assemblage—consisting primarily of decorated pearlware and other early nineteenth century wares—is of particular interest.

Its major strength is that it more than adequately documents the spatial plan of this early nineteenth-century farmstead. It will be an extremely useful work for other researchers interested in farmstead archaeology. Authors: Anne R.

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Mississippian Settlement Patterns. Studies in Archeology Mississippian Settlement Patterns. Studies in Archeology
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