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Minoan architectural design : formation and signification. Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. To learn more about how to request items watch this short online video. You can view this on the NLA website. Login Register. Advanced search Search history. Browse titles authors subjects uniform titles series callnumbers dewey numbers starting from optional. This is also good chance to introduce the concept of institutional history , or historiography.
Both the Minoan and Mycenaean sites were discovered and excavated around the turn of the last century by Western archaeologists, who had their own culturally specific agendas. Finally, this unit is a wonderful opportunity to introduce the question of epistemology : how do we know what we know? The Minoan culture is an especially good place to get students to question their assumptions about what art means. You might begin the class by showing a simple Minoan object such as the Octopus Flask , and ask students to do a quick free write about what they think it symbolizes or represents.
Then, either right away or later in the lesson, you can ask students to think about what evidence they would need in order to prove their theories—evidence that is unlikely to be available, since we have no decipherable written documents from the Minoan culture and thus know little about their specific beliefs and traditions. As for web resources , Undergraduate student Heather Gustafson University of South Florida has created a really nice, simple web overview of Knossos , which discusses Arthur Evans and the reconstruction of Minoan frescoes.
This is not only a good example of a student research paper, but connects directly to the themes of institutional critique, historiography, and epistemology. The British School at Athens has an online virtual tour of Knossos with lots of good images. For a more simple introduction, Rick Steves has a great, short video clip on Mycenae.
This lecture is split into two main sections: Minoan and Mycenaean art. The main questions for this lecture are:. In an hour and fifteen minutes, these questions can be investigated through many objects and architectural structures, including:. As an optional segue from Prehistoric art, you could start by talking about Cycladic art, which has little relation stylistically to later Aegean art, but demonstrates the importance of marble as a material for art and architecture in the region. The Minoan civilization c. Returning to the Octopus Flask from your first activity, you might ask your class to ruminate on how these aspects of their society are reflected in their art.
How can we tell, without written documents, that the sea was important to them? What can the intended use of this object as a flask for holding olive oil or wine tell us about how the society functioned economically? This is a great point at which to discuss the medium of fresco , which students will see again in later units.
Another Minoan mystery is bull-leaping, an activity depicted in several Minoan frescoes here, the so-called Bull-Leaping Fresco and sculptures where young men and women appear to perform acrobatic feats with these animals. This activity may have had a religious meaning, though the exact significance remains unclear. Basil's Cathedral had a gold finish, with some blue and green ceramic decoration.
The bright, painted colours were added at various times from the 17th to the 19th century. Interior of the Palace of Facets , part of the Moscow Kremlin , built between and John the Baptist Church , built between and , on the bank of Kotorosl river in the Tolchkovo sloboda district. The Renaissance often refers to the Italian Renaissance that began in the 14th century, but recent research has revealed the existence of similar movements around Europe before the 15th century; consequently, the term " Early Modern " has gained popularity in describing this cultural movement.
This period of cultural rebirth is often credited with the restoration of scholarship in the Classical Antiquities and the absorption of new scientific and philosophical knowledge that fed the arts. The development from Medieval architecture concerned the way geometry mediated between the intangibility of light and the tangibility of the material as a way of relating divine creation to mortal existence. This relationship was changed in some measure by the invention of Perspective which brought a sense of infinity into the realm of human comprehension through the new representations of the horizon, evidenced in the expanses of space opened up in Renaissance painting, and helped shape new humanist thought.
Perspective represented a new understanding of space as a universal, a priori fact, understood and controllable through human reason.
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Renaissance buildings therefore show a different sense of conceptual clarity, where spaces were designed to be understood in their entirety from a specific fixed viewpoint. The power of Perspective to universally represent reality was not limited to describing experiences, but also allowed it to anticipate experience itself by projecting the image back into reality.
The southwest interior facade of the Cour Carree of the Louvre in Paris was designed by Lescot and covered with exterior carvings by Jean Goujon. In England the first great exponent of Renaissance architecture was Inigo Jones — , who had studied architecture in Italy where the influence of Palladio was very strong. Jones returned to England full of enthusiasm for the new movement and immediately began to design such buildings as the Queen's House at Greenwich in and the Banqueting House at Whitehall three years later.
These works with their clean lines and symmetry, were revolutionary in a country still enamoured with mullion windows, crenellations and turrets. The Florence Cathedral , built between and in Florence Italy. Interior of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, built between 18 April and 18 November Houses of this type were built between about and , examples of Dutch Renaissance architecture. With the rise of various European colonial empires from the 16th century onward through the early 20th century, the new stylistic trends of Europe were exported to or adopted by locations around the world, often evolving into new regional variations.
Baroque architecture originated in 17th century Rome , where it developed as an expression on the newly triumphant Catholic Church. The Counter-Reformation stated that architecture, painting and sculpture would play an important role in transforming Rome into a truly Catholic city. The streets radiating from St. Peters Cathedral were soon dotted with reminders of the victorious faith. Breaking with the somewhat static intellectual formulas of the Renaissance, Baroque architecture was first and foremost an art of persuasion.
Important developments in science and philosophy had separated mathematical representations of reality from the rest of culture, fundamentally changing the way humans related to their world through architecture. Baroque architects took the basic elements of Renaissance architecture , including domes and colonnades, and made them higher, grander, more decorated, and more dramatic.
The interior effects were often achieved with the use of Quadratura , or trompe-l'oeil painting combined with sculpture; The eye is drawn upward, giving the illusion that one is looking into the heavens. Clusters of sculpted angels and painted figures crowd the ceiling. Light was also used for dramatic effect; it streamed down from cupolas, and was reflected from an abundance of gilding.
Twisted columns were also often used, to give an illusion of upwards motion, and cartouches and other decorative elements occupied every available space. In Baroque palaces, grand stairways became a central element. Library hall of the Clementinum in Prague the Czech Republic , built The Jordan Staircase of the Winter Palace , built in the 19th century.
Earthquake Baroque or Filipino baroque is a type of Baroque architecture unique to the Philippines, corresponding with the Philippine environment in terms of construction and ornamentation. Although the style originated in the rich decoration at the Palace of Versailles , it was also a reaction to the formality of the royal palace. The repertoire of motifs, including Rocaille arabesques and chinoiseries , was infinitely varied. Characteristic of the style were Rocaille motifs derived from the shells, icicles and rockwork or grotto decoration.
Rocaille arabesques were mostly abstract forms, laid out symmetrically over and around architectural frames. A favourite motif was the scallop shell, whose top scrolls echoed the basic S and C framework scrolls of the arabesques and whose sinuous ridges echoed the general curvilinearity of the room decoration. While few Rococo exteriors were built in France, a number of Rococo churches are found in southern Germany. Bedroom of the king in the Rohan Palace from Strasbourg France. In the late 17th and 18th centuries, the works and theories of Andrea Palladio from 16th-century Venice would again be interpreted and adopted in England, spread by the English translation of his I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura , and pattern books such as Vitruvius Brittanicus by Colen Campbell.
This Palladian architecture and continued classical imagery would in turn go on to influence Thomas Jefferson and other early architects of the United States in their search for a new national architecture. By the midth century, there tended to be more restrained decoration and usage of authentic classical forms than in the Baroque, informed by increased visitation to classical ruins as part of the Grand Tour , coupled with the excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in North America between c. This style shares its name with its era, the Federal Period. The term is also used in association with furniture design in the United States of the same time period. The style broadly corresponds to the middle-class classicism of Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Regency style in Britain and to the French Empire style. Extraordinary detail of a ceiling from the Galerie d'Apollon part of the Louvre , completed between and The Academy of Athens , designed as part of an architectural "trilogy" in by the Danish architect Theophil Hansen , along with the University and the National Library.
The Cantacuzino fountain from Bucharest Romania , finished in The Assan house from Bucharest, by Ion D. Berindey and built in the French Neoclassic between and The 19th century was dominated by a wide variety of stylistic revivals, variations, and interpretations. Revivalism in architecture is the use of visual styles that consciously echo the style of a previous architectural era. Modern-day revival styles can be summarized within New Classical Architecture , and sometimes under the umbrella term traditional architecture.
In art and architecture history, the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia , during the 19th century. In that time, artists and scholars were described as Orientalists, especially in France. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without a major renovation until The Grand staircase of the Palais Garnier in Paris, a large ceremonial staircase of white marble with a balustrade of red and green marble.
The Grand Palais in Paris, opened in , built for the Exposition Universelle "universal exhibition". During the Age of Discovery , architectural style from an Colonizing country has been incorporated into the buildings of settlements or colonies in distant locations. Colonists frequently built settlements that synthesized the architecture of their countries of origin with the design characteristics of their new lands, creating hybrid designs.
The Morgan House from Kalimpong India. Around a number of architects around the world began developing new architectural solutions to integrate traditional precedents with new social demands and technological possibilities, being inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers.
Art Nouveau architecture was a reaction against the eclectic styles that dominated European architecture in the second half of the 19th century. It was expressed through decoration: either ornamental based on flowers and plants, e. While faces of people or mascarons are referred to ornament, the use of people in different forms of sculpture statues and reliefs: see the respective section below were also typical for Art Nouveau.
The decoration usually suggested movement; there was no distinction between the structure and the ornament. Early Modern architecture began with a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament , that first arose around By the s these styles had largely consolidated and been identified as the International Style. The exact characteristics and origins of modern architecture are still open to interpretation and debate. An important trigger appears to have been the maxim credited to Louis Sullivan : " form follows function ".
Functionalism , in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. This statement is less self-evident than it first appears, and is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to modern architecture. Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Northern Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts.
The style was characterised by an early- modernist adoption of novel materials, formal innovation, and very unusual massing, sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms, sometimes by the new technical possibilities offered by the mass production of brick, steel and especially glass. Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined with the political turmoil and social upheaval that followed the German Revolution of , resulted in a utopian outlook and a romantic socialist agenda.
Ephemeral exhibition buildings were numerous and highly significant during this period. Scenography for theatre and films provided another outlet for the expressionist imagination,  and provided supplemental incomes for designers attempting to challenge conventions in a harsh economic climate.
Its revolutionary use of reinforced concrete, geometric forms, straight lines, and decorative sculpture applied to the outside of the building in plaques of marble, ceramics and stucco, and later in stainless steel, were a departure from Art Nouveau. The style reached its peak in the s and s, and took its name from the International Exhibition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts in Paris in In the s a stripped-down variation called Streamline Moderne emerged, which was inspired by the curving aerodynamic forms of ocean liners, airplanes and trains.
Minoan Architectural Design: Formation and Signification - Donald Preziosi - Google книги
Art Deco was used for office buildings, government buildings, train stations and movie theaters around the world in the s, but declined rapidly at the end of the decade due to the Great Depression and intense criticism of the style by modernist architects such as Le Corbusier , who denounced what he felt was its excessive ornament. By , the style was largely out of fashion and was replaced by the more austere International Style. The International style was a major architectural trend of the s and s. The term usually refers to the buildings and architects of the formative decades of modernism, before World War II.
The term had its origin from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson which identified, categorised and expanded upon characteristics common to modernism across the world. As a result, the focus was more on the stylistic aspects of modernism. The basic design principles of the International Style thus constitute part of modernism. The ideas of Modernism were developed especially in what was taught at the German Bauhaus School in Weimar from , Dessau between —32 and finally Berlin between —33, under the leadership first of its founder Walter Gropius , then Hannes Meyer , and finally Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
Modernist theory in architecture resided in the attempt to bypass the question of what style a building should be built in, a concern that had overshadowed 19th-century architecture, and the wish to reduce form to its most minimal expression of structure and function. In the United States, Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock treated this new phenomenon in as if it represented a new style - the International Style , thereby misrepresenting its primary mission as merely a matter of eliminating traditional ornament.
The core effort to pursue Modern architecture as an abstract, scientific programme was more faithfully carried forward in Europe , but issues of style always overshadowed its stricter and more puritan goals, not least in the work of Le Corbusier. Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely. In a broader sense, modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society.
It would take the form of numerous movements, schools of design, and architectural styles, some in tension with one another, and often equally defying such classification. Critical regionalism is an approach to architecture that strives to counter the placelessness and lack of meaning in Modern architecture by using contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning. The term critical regionalism was first used by Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre and later more famously by Kenneth Frampton. Frampton put forth his views in "Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six points of an architecture of resistance.
According to Frampton, critical regionalism should adopt modern architecture critically for its universal progressive qualities but at the same time should value responses particular to the context. Emphasis should be on topography, climate, light, tectonic form rather than scenography and the tactile sense rather than the visual. Frampton draws from phenomenology to supplement his arguments.
Postmodern architecture is an international style whose first examples are generally cited as being from the s, and which continues to influence present-day architecture. Postmodernity in architecture is generally thought to be heralded by the return of "wit, ornament and reference" to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.
As with many cultural movements, some of postmodernism's most pronounced and visible ideas can be seen in architecture. The functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist movement are replaced by unapologetically diverse aesthetics : styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound.
Classic examples of modern architecture are the Lever House and the Seagram Building in commercial space, and the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright or the Bauhaus movement in private or communal spaces. A prime example of inspiration for postmodern architecture lies along the Las Vegas Strip , which was studied by Robert Venturi in his book Learning from Las Vegas celebrating the strip's ordinary and common architecture. Following the postmodern movement, a renaissance of pre-modernist urban and architectural ideals established itself, with New Urbanism and New Classical architecture being prominent movements.
Deconstructivism in architecture is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late s. It is characterized by ideas of fragmentation, non-linear processes of design, an interest in manipulating ideas of a structure's surface or skin, and apparent non-Euclidean geometry ,  i. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit the many deconstructivist "styles" is characterised by a stimulating unpredictability and a controlled chaos.
Important events in the history of the deconstructivist movement include the Parc de la Villette architectural design competition especially the entry from the French philosopher Jacques Derrida and the American architect Peter Eisenman  and Bernard Tschumi 's winning entry , the Museum of Modern Art 's Deconstructivist Architecture exhibition in New York, organized by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley , and the opening of the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus , designed by Peter Eisenman.
Since the exhibition, many of the architects who were associated with Deconstructivism have distanced themselves from the term. Nonetheless, the term has stuck and has now, in fact, come to embrace a general trend within contemporary architecture. On January 21, architects began preparations for constructing the world's first 3D-printed building. An industrial-scale 3D printer used high strength artificial marble.
The technology is being expanded to other frameworks. Sustainable architecture is an important topic in contemporary architecture, including the trends of New Urbanism , New Classical architecture and Eco-cities. Dependencies and other territories. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journal, see Architectural History journal. This article describes the history of building types and styles— what things were built.
See History of construction for the history of construction tools and techniques— how things were built. Main article: Neolithic architecture. Miniature of a regular Cucuteni-Trypillian house, full of ceramic vessels. Main article: Architecture of Mesopotamia. Main article: Ancient Egyptian architecture. Main article: Architecture of Ancient Greece. Main article: Etruscan architecture. Main article: Roman architecture. Arch : Roman aqueduct in Segovia Spain. Main article: Achaemenid architecture.
Main article: Islamic architecture. See also: Islamic geometric patterns. Main article: Architecture of Africa. Large, monolithic churches such as the Church of Saint George Lalibela , were hewn out of the ground in Ethiopia. A traditional tata-somba house in Benin. Main article: Indian architecture. Further information: Harappan architecture and Indo-Islamic architecture. Main article: Buddhist architecture. See also: Stupa and Dzong architecture. This section needs expansion.
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Minoan Architectural Design: Formation and Signification
Main article: Russian architecture. Interior of Saint Basil's Cathedral , full of icons painted in the Byzantine style. Main article: Renaissance architecture. Main article: Colonial architecture. Main article: Baroque architecture. Main article: Rococo. Main articles: Palladian architecture and Neoclassical architecture. Main articles: Revivalism architecture and Orientalism. See also: Victorian architecture.
Main article: Beaux-Arts architecture. See also: Art Nouveau temples. Further information: Modern architecture. Main article: Expressionist architecture. Main article: Art Deco. Main article: International style architecture. Main article: Contemporary architecture. Main article: Modern architecture. Main article: Critical regionalism. Main article: Postmodern architecture.
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