The long-term economic effects of AI are uncertain. A survey of economists showed disagreement about whether the increasing use of robots and AI will cause a substantial increase in long-term unemployment , but they generally agree that it could be a net benefit, if productivity gains are redistributed. Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices since antiquity,  and have been a persistent theme in science fiction. A common trope in these works began with Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein , where a human creation becomes a threat to its masters.
This includes such works as Arthur C. In contrast, the rare loyal robots such as Gort from The Day the Earth Stood Still and Bishop from Aliens are less prominent in popular culture. Isaac Asimov introduced the Three Laws of Robotics in many books and stories, most notably the "Multivac" series about a super-intelligent computer of the same name. Asimov's laws are often brought up during lay discussions of machine ethics;  while almost all artificial intelligence researchers are familiar with Asimov's laws through popular culture, they generally consider the laws useless for many reasons, one of which is their ambiguity.
Transhumanism the merging of humans and machines is explored in the manga Ghost in the Shell and the science-fiction series Dune. In the s, artist Hajime Sorayama 's Sexy Robots series were painted and published in Japan depicting the actual organic human form with lifelike muscular metallic skins and later "the Gynoids" book followed that was used by or influenced movie makers including George Lucas and other creatives.
Sorayama never considered these organic robots to be real part of nature but always unnatural product of the human mind, a fantasy existing in the mind even when realized in actual form. Several works use AI to force us to confront the fundamental of question of what makes us human, showing us artificial beings that have the ability to feel , and thus to suffer. Dick considers the idea that our understanding of human subjectivity is altered by technology created with artificial intelligence. See also: Logic machines in fiction and List of fictional computers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 23 September For other uses, see AI disambiguation and Artificial intelligence disambiguation. Intelligence demonstrated by machines. Main articles: History of artificial intelligence and Timeline of artificial intelligence. Main articles: Knowledge representation and Commonsense knowledge. Main article: Automated planning and scheduling. Main article: Machine learning. Main article: Natural language processing. Main articles: Machine perception , Computer vision , and Speech recognition.
Main article: Robotics. Main article: Affective computing. Main articles: Artificial general intelligence and AI-complete. Main articles: Cybernetics and Computational neuroscience. Main article: Symbolic AI. Main articles: Search algorithm , Mathematical optimization , and Evolutionary computation. Main articles: Logic programming and Automated reasoning. Expectation-maximization clustering of Old Faithful eruption data starts from a random guess but then successfully converges on an accurate clustering of the two physically distinct modes of eruption.
Main articles: Classifier mathematics , Statistical classification , and Machine learning. Main articles: Artificial neural network and Connectionism. Main article: Deep learning. Main article: Recurrent neural networks. Further information: Progress in artificial intelligence and Competitions and prizes in artificial intelligence. Main article: Applications of artificial intelligence. Main article: Artificial intelligence in healthcare. Main article: driverless cars.
Main article: Artificial intelligence in government. See also: Mass surveillance in China. Main article: Artificial intelligence video games. Further information: Artificial intelligence arms race , Lethal autonomous weapon , and Unmanned combat aerial vehicle.
Further information: Computer art. Main articles: Philosophy of artificial intelligence and Ethics of artificial intelligence. Main article: Existential risk from artificial general intelligence. Main article: Computer Power and Human Reason. See also: Lethal autonomous weapon. Main article: Machine ethics. Main article: Friendly AI.
Main article: Artificial consciousness. Main articles: Hard problem of consciousness and Theory of mind. Main articles: Computationalism and Functionalism philosophy of mind. Main article: Chinese room. Main article: Robot rights. Main article: Superintelligence. Main articles: Technological singularity and Moore's law.
Main article: Transhumanism. Main article: Artificial intelligence in fiction. Computer programming portal. Abductive reasoning A. Rising Artificial intelligence arms race Behavior selection algorithm Business process automation Case-based reasoning Commonsense reasoning Emergent algorithm Evolutionary computation Glossary of artificial intelligence Machine learning Mathematical optimization Multi-agent system Personality computing Robotic process automation Soft computing Universal basic income Weak AI.
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