Dia Magnetic Materials: these materials are not at all attracted by any magnet. The relative permeability of these materials is less than one. The examples of diamagnetic materials are zinc, mercury, lead, sulfur, copper, silver etc. Magnets are of two types — natural magnet and artificial magnet. Once at Magnesium area of Asia Minor, some black stone like substances were found which could attract iron and faced along north and south.
These black stones were used on those days as the direction indicator. These stones were named as loadstone. These stones were actually magnets and the magnets naturally available in mine are called natural magnet. The magnet can also be produced artificially.
Artificial magnets are of two types — permanent magnet and temporary magnet. A permanent magnet can be produced from allayed steel. An iron piece can be made permanent magnet by directional rubbing of another magnet on it. An iron piece can also be made magnet by winding conductor around the iron piece and by supplying current through the conductor. Permanent bar magnets are used in laboratories for various scientific experiments. U shaped magnets and ring magnets are used in different instruments like electrical energy meters, protection relays, watches, meggers, loudspeakers etc.
Needle magnets are used to detect the polarity of different electrical machines. The magnetic strength of a permanent magnet is fixed whereas the strength of a temporary magnet or electromagnet can be changed as per requirements. The polarities of a permanent magnet are fixed but the polarities of the electromagnet can be altered as per requirement. A permanent magnet does not lose its magnetism instantaneously but after switching off the supply the magnetism of the electromagnet suddenly vanishes.
A permanent magnet is not a very strong magnet but the strength of an electromagnet can be increased much higher than a same sized permanent magnet by increasing supply current. By heating or hammering the magnetism of a permanent magnet can be destroyed. The magnetism of electromagnet can be lost by interrupting supply current. Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation Follow. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Browse by Genre Available eBooks Show More. Ali Bilal.
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Nature of Magnetism It is now believed that magnetism is due to the spin of electrons within the atoms. Since the electron is a charged particle, the concept implies that magnetism is a property of a charged particle in motion. General Properties of Magnet1. Magnets usually have two poles.
General Properties of Magnet2. Like Magnetic poles repel andunlike poles attract. General Properties of MagnetCharles Augustine de Coulomb,a French physicist, was the firstrecognized scientist to studyquantitatively the force exertedby magnets. A smaller unit is the statcoulomb.
This is called electronic charge. Problem 1 Two point charges of 2. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the force on each charge. Answer: - 9. Problem 3Given the three point charges q1, q2, and q3 asshown in the figure. Solution: b The resultant force on q1To find the resultant force Fnet on q1, add F12 and F13vectorially. Solve the following problems Find the force between two eqaul charges of 15 x coul if they are 20 cm apart in air.
Find the magnitude and direction of the force in each of two charges of 3. Find the magnitude and kind of force between two charges of 20 x coul which are 25 cm apart in air. A charge of 2. Find the magnitude and direction of the force on the first charge that is due to the second charge. An unknown charge is attracted by a force of 25N when it is at a distance of 10 cm from another charge of 25 x coul.
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What is the magnitude of the un known charge? General Properties of Magnet3. A piece ofmagnetite, whenmade to hang andswing freely,would align itselfwith the magneticfield of the earthfollowing a north-south direction. General Properties of Magnet4. Permanent magnets aremagnets made from alloys ofcobalt and nickel. These magnets retain their magnetism for a long time.
General Properties of Magnet5. Other metals like iron can bemagnetized by Induction. When a piece of iron nailstouches a permanent magnet,the nails becomes a magnet. It retains in this condition for aslong as it is within the magneticfield. The nail is a temporary magnetand its magnetism is describedas induced magnetism.
To determine the direction of force, we employ the right-hand rule 1. Right-Hand Rule 1The implications of this expression include
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