Cooney, D. Solvent extraction of phenol from aqueous solution in a hollow fiber device. Dahuron, L. Protein extractions with hollow fibers.
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Dahuron, and E. Liquid-liquid extractions with microporous hollow fibers. De Haan, A.
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Shimauchi, K. Kondo, and F. Kinetics of copper extraction with Kelex using a hollow fiber membrane extractor. Solvent Extr. Ion Exch. Misek, T. Rugby, U. Naser, S. A numerical evaluation of a hollow fiber extractive fermentor process for the production of ethanol. Newman, J. Extension of Leveque solution. Series C J. Heat Trans. Park, J. Flow distribution in the lumen side of a hollow-fiber module. Prasad, R. Bhave, A. Kiani, and K. Further studies on solvent extraction with immobilized interfaces in a microporous hydrophobic membrane.
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To remove a phase from the separatory funnel, return the funnel to its upright position and rest it on a ring clamp. Remove the cap from the separatory funnel and drain the two phases into two different beakers. Decide which solvent contains the target compound and place the appropriate beaker in a 'safe place' probably in a corner of the bench, but always in the hood. Usually the entire extraction process is repeated several times to insure that the maximum amount of the target molecule has been isolated. For this reason it is necessary to also save the phase containing the original mixture.
Common Source of Error The most common source of confusion for students often occurs when deciding which solvent in the separatory funnel contains the target molecule. This requires some knowledge of the polarity of the target molecule and the extraction solvents used. If ether and water are the extraction solvents and the target molecule is nonpolar, then the ether layer would contain most of the target compound 'like dissolves like' after the first extraction. If this were a real extraction , the bottom layer aqueous would be drained and stored in a separate beaker from the ether. After draining the ether, the aqueous phase would be returned to the separatory funnel and the entire process repeated to insure maximum recovery of the target compound.
The ether layers would then be combined and extraction complete. Multiple extractions with small amounts of volume are always more efficient than one single extraction with large volume. This is a direct result of the distribution coefficient and will be discussed in class. I opened the stopcock to drain the layers and nothing happened. Occasionally a contaminate may become lodged in the stopcock. For this reason it is always good practice to wash the separatory funnel before attempting extraction and checking to be sure it drains properly.
The common problem, however, is that the cap has been mistakenly left on the separatory funnel while attempting to drain. This establishes a vacuum within the separatory funnel and will not allow any liquid to drain. Sometimes an 'apparent' third layer appears between the top and bottom layers. This third layer is actually an interface between the two layers and generally appears only as the layers are separating. Leaving the separatory funnel undisturbed for a few minutes until the layers have completely separated usually eliminates the problem.
Alternatively, gently rocking the separatory funnel is another viable solution.
- Liquid–liquid extraction - Wikipedia.
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If neither of these suggestions work, check with your TA - there are many other reasons why three layers have appeared. Remember when performing successive extractions to 'keep your eye on the prize. Return the aqueous layer to the separatory funnel for a second extraction. This will remove most of the target molecule from the aqueous phase. It does absolutely no good to extract ether with ether. If you are using ether and water as the extraction solvents, ether is always the top layer because it is less dense than water.
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