Leadership: The Key Concepts
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- Understanding Differentiated Instruction: Building a Foundation for Leadership.
- Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™;
Series: Routledge Key Guides Series by cover. Series description. Related series Fifty Key Thinkers. How do series work? Series: Routledge Key Guides Series by cover 1—8 of 92 next show all. Contemporary British Novelists by Nick Rennison.
Key Vocabulary and Principles of Effective Differentiation
Fifty Contemporary Filmmakers by Yvonne Tasker. Fifty Eastern Thinkers by Diane Collinson. Fifty Key Medieval Thinkers by G. At other points, the teacher ensures that students of mixed readiness work together in settings that draw upon the strengths of each student. Sometimes students work with classmates who have like interests. In other situations, students of varied interests cooperate toward completing a task that calls on all the interests.
Students might work with those who have similar learning patterns for example, a group of auditory learners listening to a taped explanation , and some tasks call for a grouping of students with varied learning patterns for example, a student who learns best analytically with one who learns best through practical application. Sometimes working arrangements are simply random; students work with whoever is sitting beside them, or they count off into groups, or they draw a partner's name.
Finally, in a flexibly grouped classroom, students themselves sometimes decide on their work groups and arrangements, and sometimes teachers make the call. This important principle provides that every learner must have tasks that are equally interesting and equally engaging, and which provide equal access to essential understanding and skills. In differentiated classrooms, a teacher's goal is that each child feels challenged most of the time; each child finds his or her work appealing most of the time; and each child grapples squarely with the information, principles, and skills which give that learner power to understand, apply, and move on to the next learning stage, most of the time, in the discipline being studied.
Differentiation does not presume different tasks for each learner, but rather just enough flexibility in task complexity, working arrangements, and modes of learning expression that varied students find learning a good fit much of the time. Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.
While the teacher is clearly a professional who diagnoses and prescribes for learning needs, facilitates learning, and crafts effective curriculum, students in differentiated classrooms are critical partners in classroom success. Students hold pivotal information about what works and does not work for them at any given moment of the teaching-learning cycle, they know their likes and preferred ways of learning, they can contribute greatly to plans for a smoothly functioning classroom, and they can learn to make choices that enhance both their learning and their status as a learner.
In differentiated classrooms, teachers study their students and continually involve them in decision-making about the classroom. As a result, students become more independent as learners. A teacher can differentiate content. Content consists of facts, concepts, generalizations or principles, attitudes, and skills related to the subject, as well as materials that represent those elements.
Content includes both what the teacher plans for students to learn and how the student gains access to the desired knowledge, understanding, and skills. In many instances in a differentiated classroom, essential facts, material to be understood, and skills remain constant for all learners. Exceptions might be, for example, varying spelling lists when some students in a class spell at a 2nd grade level while others test out at an 8th grade level, or having some students practice multiplying by two a little longer, while some others are ready to multiply by seven.
What is most likely to change in a differentiated classroom is how students gain access to core learning.
Some of the ways a teacher might differentiate access to content include Using math manipulatives with some, but not all, learners to help students understand a new idea. Using texts or novels at more than one reading level. Presenting information through both whole-to-part and part-to-whole approaches. Using a variety of reading-buddy arrangements to support and challenge students working with text materials. Reteaching students who need another demonstration, or exempting students who already demonstrate mastery from reading a chapter or from sitting through a reteaching session.
Using texts, computer programs, tape recorders, and videos as a way of conveying key concepts to varied learners. A teacher can differentiate process. A familiar synonym for process is activity. An effective activity or task generally involves students in using an es- sential skill to come to understand an essential idea, and is clearly focused on a learning goal. A teacher can differentiate an activity or process by, for example, providing varied options at differing levels of difficulty or based on differing student interests.
He can offer different amounts of teacher and student support for a task. A teacher can give students choices about how they express what they learn during a research exercise—providing options, for example, of creating a political cartoon, writing a letter to the editor, or making a diagram as a way of expressing what they understand about relations between the British and colonists at the onset of the American Revolution.
A teacher can also differentiate products. We use the term products to refer to the items a student can use to demonstrate what he or she has come to know, understand, and be able to do as the result of an extended period of study. A product can be, for example, a portfolio of student work; an exhibition of solutions to real-world problems that draw on knowledge, understanding, and skill achieved over the course of a semester; an end-of-unit project; or a complex and challenging paper-and-pencil test. A good product causes students to rethink what they have learned, apply what they can do, extend their understanding and skill, and become involved in both critical and creative thinking.
Among the ways to differentiate products are to: Allow students to help design products around essential learning goals. Encourage students to express what they have learned in varied ways. Allow for varied working arrangements for example, working alone or as part of a team to complete the product.
Ethics and moral leadership in project management
Provide or encourage use of varied types of resources in preparing products. Provide product assignments at varying degrees of difficulty to match student readiness. Use a wide variety of kinds of assessments. Work with students to develop rubrics of quality that allow for demonstration of both whole-class and individual goals. Students vary in at least three ways that make modifying instruction a wise strategy for teachers: Students differ 1 in their readiness to work with a particular idea or skill at a given time, 2 in pursuits or topics that they find interesting, and 3 in learning profiles that may be shaped by gender, culture, learning style, or intelligence preference.
To differentiate in response to student readiness, a teacher constructs tasks or provides learning choices at different levels of difficulty. Some ways in which teachers can adjust for readiness include Adjusting the degree of difficulty of a task to provide an appropriate level of challenge. Adding or removing teacher or peer coaching, use of manipulatives, or presence or absence of models for a task.
Teacher and peer coaching are known as scaffolding because they provide a framework or a structure that supports student thought and work. Making the task more or less familiar based on the proficiency of the learner's experiences or skills for the task. Varying direct instruction by small-group need. To differentiate in response to student interest, a teacher aligns key skills and material for understanding from a curriculum segment with topics or pursuits that intrigue students. For example, a student can learn much about a culture or time period by carefully analyzing its music. A social studies teacher may encourage one student to begin exploring the history, beliefs, and customs of medieval Europe by examining the music of the time.
A study of science in the Middle Ages might engage another student more. Some ways in which teachers can differentiate in response to student interest include Using adults or peers with prior knowledge to serve as mentors in an area of shared interest. Providing a variety of avenues for student exploration of a topic or expression of learning. Providing broad access to a wide range of materials and technologies.
Giving students a choice of tasks and products, including student-designed options. Encouraging investigation or application of key concepts and principles in student interest areas. Learning Profile. To differentiate in response to student learning profile, a teacher addresses learning styles, student talent, or intelligence profiles.
Some ways in which teachers can differentiate in response to student learning profile include Creating a learning environment with flexible spaces and learning options.
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Presenting information through auditory, visual, and kinesthetic modes. Encouraging students to explore information and ideas through auditory, visual, and kinesthetic modes. Allowing students to work alone or with peers. Ensuring a choice of competitive, cooperative, and independent learning experiences. Balancing varied perspectives on an issue or topic.
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