After visiting London in he publishes La Psychiatrique anglaise et la guerre , in Evolution psychiatrique 1. Lacan argues that his technique accelerates analysis. The underlying logic is that if the unconscious itself is timeless, it makes no sense to insist upon standard sessions.
- Product description.
- Quality of experience for multimedia : application to content delivery network architecture.
- Wheel With a Single Spoke and Other Poems.
Lacan defends his use of short sessions a year later in La psychanalyse, dialectique? At the time he is considered to be the most productive and original theoretician of the group, all the more so because he always uses the classical terms of the Freudian orthodoxy when speaking within the S. A large amount of freedom of choice is left to students in training.
In January Lacan is elected President of the S. Lagache, F. Dolto, J. Favez-Boutonier among others. Nevertheless the S. His critique of analytic literature and practice spares almost nobody. Lacan returns to Freud yet his return is a re-reading in relation with contemporary philosophy, linguistics, ethnology, biology and topology.
At Sainte-Anne he held his seminars every Wednesday and presents cases of patients on Fridays. The first ten Seminars elaborate fundamental notions about psychoanalytic technique, the essential concepts of psychoanalysis, and even its ethics. Granoff , in S. Lorand and M. Balint, eds. Yet Lacan emerges, if not the only thinker of the group, at least as the one who has the largest audience and the most audacity, especially since his practice of short sessions secures him the greatest number of analysts-in-training.
A Lacan group begins to organize itself, identifiable by its language and its modes of intervention in discussions. This opposes the S. It is a subject divided by the emergence of the signifier. As to the subject of the unconscious, it is impossible to know who speaks. At the Congress of Edinburgh in , the I.
Moreover, in a series of twenty requirements it asks the S. He was not banned from psychoanalytic practice nor from teaching: he was denied the right to train analysts. Driven to choose between Lacan and affiliation with the I. Moreover, a motion is adopted by the Bureau of the S. In May, envoys from the I. A visit Paris and meet with Leclaire. At the Congress of Stockholm, in July, the I. Everything is organized to reorient his students in training analysis towards others analysts, thanks to a committee supervised by the I.
Two weeks before the expiration of the deadline fixed by the I. On November 19 a general meeting has to make a final decision on I. Lacan then writes a letter to Leclaire announcing he will not attend the meeting because he can foresee the disavowal. As a result of it Leclaire and Dolto resign from office. Lacan: Symptoms, those you believe you recognize, seem to you irrational because you take them in an isolated manner, and you want to interpret them directly. For example, take the Egyptian hieroglyphics. As long as we look for the direct meaning of vultures, chickens, the standing, sitting, or moving men, the writing remains indecipherable.
Well, analysis deals with this order of phenomena. A psychoanalyst is not an explorer of an unknown continent, or of great depths; he is a linguist. He learns to decipher the writing which is under his eyes, present to the sight of all; however, that writing remains indecipherable if we lack its laws, its key.
Yet, if Freud has said something new, it was that in psychic life we are ill because we conceal, we hide a part of oneself, we repress. But the hieroglyphics themselves were not repressed, they were written on stone. So your comparison cannot be complete? Lacan: On the contrary, it must be taken literally.
What is to be deciphered in psychic analysis is all the time there, present since the beginning. You speak about repression, forgetting something. Something continues to function, something continues to speak in the place where it was repressed. This notion is difficult to understand because when we speak of repression we imagine immediately a pressure, a vesicular pressure, for example. That is, a vague mass, undefined, exerting all its weight against a door that we refuse to open.
Now, in psychoanalysis, repression is not the repression of a thing, it is a repression of a truth. What happens then, when we want to repress a truth? The whole history of tyranny is there to give the answer: It is expressed elsewhere, in another register, in a ciphered, clandestine language. Well, this is exactly what is produced with consciousness. Truth, the repressed, will persist, though transposed to another language, the neurotic language. Truth has not been annihilated, it has not fallen into an abyss.
It is still there, given, present, but turned into unconscious. You can clearly see that what we have lost is not the truth; it is the key to the new language in which it is expressed from then on.
Why did Freud choose it straightaway, even at the level of the interpretation of dreams, to designate this restraining insistence, the repressing force? Censorship, as we know, is this anasthasia, this constraint that works using a pair of scissors. And on what? Not on whatever passes by in the air, but rather on what is susceptible of being printed, in a discourse, a discourse expressed in a language. And then, in the end, in psychoanalysis, you only ask one thing of the patient, only one thing, that is, to speak.
If psychoanalysis exists, and if it has its effects, it is only within the domain of confession and of speech.
- So You Want to Be a School Leader?.
- Finding Your Way: A Medical Ethics Handbook for Patients and Families!
- Why School Anti-Bullying Programs Dont Work.
- Your Answer.
Yet, for Freud, as for me, human language does not spring up for human beings like a fountain. Look at the way that, ordinarily, how a child gains experience is represented for us: he sticks his finger on a burning pan, he burns himself. Starting from that moment that he encounters hot and cold, danger, it is maintained that all that remains for him to do is to deduce, to reconstruct all of civilization.
That is absurd. Starting with the fact that he burns himself, he is placed face to face with something which is much more important than the discovery of hot and cold. In fact, he burns himself and then there is always someone who gives him a whole speech about it. Indeed, the child will have a much harder time entering into this linguistic discourse that we have submerged him into, than to learn to avoid the hot pan. In other words, the man who is born into existence deals first with language; this is a given. He is even caught in it before his birth.
Yes, the child who is to be born is already, from head to toe, caught in this language hammock that receives him and at the same time imprisons him. They are not made for anyone, since the ill person, in particular, the ill person, himself, does not understand them, and a specialist is needed to decipher them! Maybe, the hieroglyphics have become incomprehensible, but, at the time they were used, they were made to communicate certain things to certain people.
So what is this neurotic language? And then, a language is something that we use. This one, on the contrary is infringed upon. Take the obsessional. He would certainly like to get rid of his fixed idea, get out of the trap. Lacan: These are precisely the paradoxes that are the object of discovery.
And yet, if language were not addressed to an Other, it could not be understood thanks to an other in psychoanalysis. And you can see to what point this is precise. You mentioned the obsessional. The Ratman was a great obsessional. A young man of higher education who finds Freud in Vienna to tell him that he suffers from obsessions.
They are sometimes intense worries in relation to his beloved, and sometimes the desire to commit impulsive acts, like cutting his throat, or he constructs for himself interdictions concerning insignificant things. Lacan: There we find an error of the term!
Obsessional does not necessarily mean sexual obsession, not even obsession for this, or for that in particular; to be an obsessional means to find oneself caught in a mechanism, in a trap increasingly demanding and endless. He has to accomplish an act, a duty; a special anxiety takes over the obsessional.
About Beckett, Lacan and the Mathematical Writing of the Real
Will he be able to accomplish it? Taken in this way by an inner whirlwind, it is impossible for him to find a state of tranquillity, of satisfaction. Nevertheless, the great obsessional is far from being delirious. He has no conviction whatsoever, only a kind a necessity, totally ambiguous, that renders him incredibly unhappy, suffering, hopeless, left to an unexplainable insistence that comes from within himself, and that he does not understand. The obsessional neurotic is common and can go unnoticed, if we are not attentive to the little signs that betray him. The people suffering from this illness occupy their social positions well, even if their life is ravaged, eroded by suffering and by the development of this neurosis.
This was the case of the Ratman, distressed, trapped by the return of his symptoms, that lead him to consult Freud in Vienna, where the Ratman was participating in important military exercises as an army reserve official. He asked Freud for advice with regard to a very boring story of a debt he owed to the mail office where he had sent a pair of glasses, a story that he loses track of.
If we follow him, literally, right to his doubts, we find in the scenario created by his symptom, a scenario that concerns four persons, the very events that led to the marriage of which the subject was the fruit, trait by trait, transposed into a vast set of mannerisms, without the subject suspecting anything. Lacan: A fraudulent debt of his father, a military man, grew. The father lost his military rank due to having committed a crime; there was a loan that allowed him to pay his debt, and the unclear aspect of the restitution of the money to the friend who came to his aid, and finally a betrayed love due to a marriage that gave him status.
During his childhood, the Ratman had heard these stories, some light-hearted, others covert.. What is striking is the fact that what returns from the repressed is not a particular event or trauma; it is the dramatic constellation that ruled over his birth, his prehistory.. He is descended from a legendary past. This prehistory reappears via the symptoms that represent that pre-history in an unrecognizable form, that weave it into myth, represented by the subject without awareness. Since it is transposed like a language or a writing, maybe transposed into another language, with other signs; it is rewritten without the modification of the liaisons; like a figure in geometry is transformed from a sphere to a plane, which does not necessarily mean that any figure can transform itself into any other figure.
Lacan: Listen well…I have not said that the cure of a neurosis is accomplished with this. You know very well that in the cure of the Ratman there is something else that I cannot talk about here. If a prehistory sufficed for the origin of consciousness, everyone would be a neurotic. It is linked to the way the subject assumes things, accepts them or represses them. And why do certain people repress certain things?
IXth Congress of the WAP
Anyway, take the time to read the Ratman using this key that traverses it , part by part; the transposition into another figurative language, totally unperceived by the subject, of something that can only be understood as a discourse. Interviewer: It could be that repressed truth is articulated, as you say, in a discourse with ravaging effects. But in the case of someone who comes to you, it is not because he searches for the truth. He is someone who suffers horribly, and wants to be relieved from his pain. If I remember correctly the story of the Ratman, there was also a fantasy of rats.
Psychoanalysis is a terribly efficient instrument, and because it is more and more a prestigious instrument, we run the risk of using it with a purpose for which it was not made for, and in this way we may degrade it. The phenomena proper to psychoanalysis are of the order of language. In relation to the effects that we define as belonging to analysis, the analytical effects, as we say — mechanical or electrical effects — the analytical effects are of the nature of the return of the repressed discourse.
I can assure you that at the very moment you have put the subject on the couch and you have explained to him the analytical rule as briefly as possible, the subject is already introduced into the dimension of the search for his truth. Lacan-And I can assure you, that at the very moment you have put the subject on the couch and even if you have explained to him the analytical rule as briefly as possible, the subject is already introduced into the dimension of the search for his truth.
Yes, just from the fact of having to speak, as he must in front of another, the silence of another — a silence which is neither approving nor disapproving, but rather attentive- he feels it as an expectation, and this expectation is that of the truth. And also , he feels driven by the prejudice that we had mentioned before: that of believing that this other, the expert, the analyst, knows something about him that he himself is unaware of; the presence of the truth is fortified, it is there in an implicit state.
The ill person suffers but he realizes that the path to take in order to go beyond, to ameliorate his suffering, is of the order of the truth: to know more and to know better. This would be the new representation of man that we owe to Freud; man is someone who speaks? Lacan- Is language the essence of man? In other words, if I have tried to elaborate something, it is not a metaphysical theory but a theory of intersubjectivity.
Since Freud, the center of man is not where we thought it was; one has to go on from there.
Related Lacans Use of mathematical science
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved