To learn more about how to request items watch this short online video. You can view this on the NLA website. Login Register. Advanced search Search history. Browse titles authors subjects uniform titles series callnumbers dewey numbers starting from optional. See what's been added to the collection in the current 1 2 3 4 5 6 weeks months years. Your reader barcode: Your last name:. Cite this Email this Add to favourites Print this page. You must be logged in to Tag Records. Interlingua-English; a dictionary of the international language, prepared by the research staff of the International Auxiliary Language Association, under the direction of Alexander Gode.
In the Library Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. The first of these alternatives is right. The modern world is pervaded in all its parts and phases by a powerful influence which has reduced the vastness of the globe to a matter of hours and has diffused things and ideas and problems to every corner of every continent. If one simple label is wanted to designate the force responsible for all the good and all the evil that distinguishes our contemporary world from that of centuries past, we may call it the power of science and technology.
But if we go on to ask, has not this world-wide sweep of science and technology carried with it to all corners of the world a language of its own, somewhat in the manner of the medieval Church of Rome which took its Latin language with it wherever it brought its expansive influence to bear, the answer is a peculiarly hesitant one. Yes, in a way there is such a language. We often speak of the language of science and technology. But if this is to lead to the conclusion that that language should then be regarded as the one and only possible auxiliary world language of modern times, we suddenly realize that the language of science and technology is no language in the full sense of the word but at best a vast body of international terms and phrases which appear in our various languages under a corresponding number of slightly varying forms.
Unfortunately we must not analyze further the fascinating suggestion that it is perhaps quite natural that science and technology should be incapable of going beyond the world-wide diffusion of a vast number of specifically technical terms and of evolving from them a full-fledged language, because this inability may very well be correlated with the fact that the world of science and technology is one of discrete ideas which do not fall into a complete and coherent pattern, or in other words, that the "language" of science and technology is not really a language because the thought of science and technology is not really a philosophy.
In interlinguistic terms all this means that even though the "language" of science and technology is not a full-fledged language, even though it can supply us only with a vast number of words and phrases of international validity in various peculiarly national but easily recognizable forms, it does represent a nucleus of a complete language. It does represent fragments of the only international language we have. International Words.
- Characterization and Design of Zeolite Catalysts: Solid Acidity, Shape Selectivity and Loading Properties.
- Interlingua/en | Interlingua Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia.
- The Individual and the Welfare State: Life Histories in Europe!
- Navigation menu.
- Ravens Gate (The Gatekeepers, Book 1)?
The German words Haus and Automobil , for example, are identical with the English words house and automobile despite slight differences in spelling and pronunciation. Their meanings are of course essential parts of them. If they were semantically distinct, as are English also and German also for example, they could not be viewed as identical words. There are two types of international words. German and English Haus and house represent a type which owes its international range to the common descent of two or more languages; words of this type are international by cognateship in the restricted sense of the term.
On the other hand, the internationalism of German and English Automobil and automobile is due to the transition of words from one language to another; words of this type, though sometimes loosely called cognates, should be distinguished as international by loan and diffusion. In its most comprehensive sense, the term "international word" would take in a huge number of words which occur in but a very few languages of minor significance.
International words differ strikingly in their range.
From a practical point of view only those international words need be considered which have a fairly wide range of occurrence throughout the regions of the world inhabited by peoples who participate in international intercourse and are consequently apt to take an interest in its simplification. If international words differ as to their range, they may likewise be grouped as to their language of origin or "center of radiation.
The word igloo for instance has a very respectable range. It occurs in Eskimo, English, French, Russian, and in many other languages. But Eskimo, from which the word stems, is not therefore a significant center of radiation. Such minor "centers of radiation" can be disregarded without a resulting loss of important items in the international vocabulary provided it be ascertained that the possible contributions of every disregarded center come into consideration elsewhere.
Neglecting the Eskimo center of radiation will not imply the loss of the international word igloo, if English, Russian, French, or any of the other languages which know the word, are kept under observation. The restriction of the number of languages examined with regard to their stock of international words does not imply the exclusion of international words of all sorts of remote origins from the resulting list.
For practical reasons the sphere in which "international words" are to be collected must be restricted, but the purpose of getting together the most generally international vocabulary possible can best be served if the restricted sphere fulfills two requirements: first, it must be a powerful center of radiation of international words, one that has contributed largely to the stock of international words throughout the rest of the world; secondly, it must have a high degree of receptivity with regard to the material radiating from other languages.
As for the second of these requirements, English represents a well-nigh ideal fulfillment of it. Hardly another language can compete with English in its "receptive power. The first requirement, concerned with the power of radiation of international words, is a more complex matter. There is no one language that stands as far above all others in regard to the bulk of its contributions to the international vocabulary as does English in regard to its ability to assimilate foreign words. The most important group of international words is doubtless the body of technical terms in science and technology.
In the large majority of cases the international technical terminology is built up of Latin and Greek or Greco-Latin elements. It is not on the whole the contribution of any one language, not even of Greek and Latin taken together, for it includes a considerable number of terms which, though consisting of classical elements, were completely unknown to the native speakers of both the classical languages. Socrates spoke Greek all through his life but he never used the telephone and did not know that the word for it comes from his mother tongue. Words of this type may be grouped under the head of their common origin in a kind of theoretical Neo-Latin which is not spoken anywhere but appears unfolded in the several contemporary Romance languages.
Taken as a group and viewed as joint executors of the Latin heritage and hence as representing most fully the Neo-Latin source of most of the international technical vocabulary, the Romance languages are the most potent center of radiation of international words. Variants and Their Prototypes. The language of origin of a given international word cannot help solve this problem. For instance, the German word Statistik and the English word penicillin they are German and English in origin would, if spelled Statistik and penicillin as items in a list of words of wide international range, still be German and English and not "international.
The resulting prototypes are neither English nor German, not Latin or Greek, neither this language nor that, but in them the variants occurring in this language as well as in that can immediately be recognized. Neither German Statistik nor of course English statistics or French statistique can qualify as an international form. In the international vocabulary the word must be represented by a form of which Statistik and statistics as well as statistique are variants determined by idiosyncratic peculiarities characteristic of German, English, and French respectively.
The process of viewing together the variant forms of international words in order to arrive at normalized, or standardized, prototypes cannot comply with a verifiable methodology applicable to ever new cases, unless the variants themselves, and hence the languages to which they belong, have a common basis in which the principles of normalization or standardization may be rooted.
The Romance languages do have such a common basis in Latin. They represent furthermore the most potent center of radiation of international words and are thus on two important counts a research sphere in which the garnering of international words appears to be most promising. Source or Control Languages.
The Romance languages comply best with the requirement of productive radiation of international words. The best restricted sphere of languages in which to carry out a systematic collection of international words is consequently a combination of English and the Romance languages. We refer to these languages variously as source or control languages.
The inclusion of English does not interfere with the desideratum that the languages to be scrutinized for the compilation of the international vocabulary should be possessed of a common basis. English does share the basis which holds the Romance languages together. Its vocabulary is so strongly romanic that in this respect — whatever the situation may be in other respects — it is a Romance language.
The Anglo-Romance group of languages can boast an aggregate of close to half a billion speakers. This quarter of mankind includes no considerable ethnic group uninvolved or uninterested in international concerns. Nor, to be sure, does it include all the populations of the globe that are involved and interested in international concerns but certainly most of them.
A few examples may serve to show that the Anglo-Romance group of languages does constitute a sphere of source languages in which international words of the most varied origins can be gathered. The Hebrew word for "hell," Ge: Hinno:m , is widely international, but to get it into the international vocabulary, Hebrew need not be investigated for the word appears in English as Gehenna , in Spanish as gehena , in Italian as geenna.
The Arabic word which appears in English as alcove can likewise be garnered in the restricted sphere, for it appears in Italian and Portuguese as alcova , in Spanish as alcoba , and in French as alcove. An example of an international word of Russian origin is that appearing in English as mammoth , in French as mammouth , in Spanish as mamat , and in Italian as mammut. The reasoning in favor of a restricted sphere of assemblage of international words does not preclude the possibility of shifting its boundaries in the interest of a richer haul.
In lieu of one or two of the languages of the Anglo-Romance group one or two other languages of at least equal significance in the international field may be included, provided, of course, that the items examined are still held together by a common basis, which means, that their center of gravity remains in the Anglo-Romance sphere. In the compilation of this Dictionary the sphere of research has been permitted to shift only so as to include German or Russian or both.
The decision not to use the same procedure for other languages was reached after ample tests had demonstrated that the consequent complication of our methodology would not have affected the results in any appreciable way. They functioned as indispensable cultural or utilitarian tools. Modern internationalism is largely conditioned by science and technology in the most comprehensive sense. The language of science and technology is the modern international language or interlingua.
It is not, strictly speaking, a complete language but is rather a very comprehensive body of international terms which constitute the nucleus of an interlingua. The international vocabulary has absorbed materials of the most varied origins but its center of gravity lies in the sphere of the Greco-Latin tradition. It can be collected within the confines of a homogeneous group of source or control languages which not only represent the Greco-Latin tradition in our time but have likewise absorbed all significant international words radiated from other centers.
This group is the Anglo-Romance group of languages with German and Russian as potential contributors. Eligibility of International Words.
The language units to be examined individually are Italian, French, English, and Spanish and Portuguese combined. The combination of the two Iberian languages is indicated not because their separate importance could be doubted but because their significance in the pattern of the Romance languages is similar. The absence of a word from the vocabulary of one of the units listed is often a coincidence which cannot suffice to bar it from the international vocabulary.
German or Russian may take the place of any of the Anglo-Romance source units. It is neither possible to limit oneself to the listings found in a set of chosen dictionaries nor to consider every obscure entry in the most exhaustive compilations. Technical terms should be looked for in technical dictionaries while everyday expressions should be traced in average dictionaries of the everyday language.
Furthermore, the investigation cannot in all instances be limited to the current modern vocabulary. For instance, while the modern French word tuer "to kill" shows no relationship to the Italian word uccidere of the same meaning, there are traces in French of the older occire , and even in Spanish, whose normal word for "to kill" is matar , an old verb corresponding with Italian uccidere and French occire has survived at least in the participial form occiso. In this case — and similarly in similar ones — one may reason that hidden behind, and represented by, tuer and matar there are older forms corresponding with Italian uccidere , so that the requirements of internationality are fulfilled in regard to a word for "to kill" which corresponds directly to Latin occidere.
Carried to its extreme conclusions this procedure justifies the inclusion in the international vocabulary of words corresponding with all Latin terms provided their concepts appear in one form or another in the modern languages. At first glance so broad an interpretation of the rule of modern internationality of words might seem arbitrary. Upon closer examination, however, one is struck by the fact that the languages of the Western World are all in the habit of having recourse to classical and predominantly Latin word material whenever new expressions are to be coined, as well in cases where new ideas, facts, and things are to be named as also when a synonym for a traditionally available term is needed.
The second is everywhere a direct descendent from Latin fidelitas, fidelitat- and consists everywhere of an adjective made into a noun by the addition of one and the same suffix in various etymologically identical forms. The first is everywhere a modern compound consisting again in all instances of etymologically identical elements. However, in an example like Italian amaritudine , it will be found that neither its Spanish nor its French equivalents are in full etymological correspondence.
French amertume and Spanish amargor as also the Italian synonyms amarore and amarezza have substituted deviating suffixes for the original Latin one. Such suffix substitutions, which are not occasioned by expressive needs, must not be allowed to deny a particular word its full international standing, for with them the deviation in form does not imply a deviation in meaning.
Numerous examples of this point are supplied by English adjectives which often differ from the corresponding words in other languages by an excrement meaningless suffix. The suffix -al in fanatical is meaningless; it does not cause the word to differ in any sense from its synonym fanatic and justifies no discrimination between it and French fanatique , Italian fanatico , etc. The same holds true for the English type voracious which has a "superfluous," that is, a distinctively English and meaningless suffix -ious.
The corresponding French word is vorace , Spanish voraz, etc. In English, for instance, the derivational types of versatile-versatility, visible-visibility , etc. The frequency and clear-cut character of the English affix -ity permits the assertion that behind the noun proximity there exists — potentially if not in fact — an adjective which can join the actually existing Italian prossimo and thus contribute to the international standing of the simple adjective behind its derived noun. This same reasoning could not apply if the adjective in back of proximity did not exist anywhere.
On the other hand it does apply in cases where the situation is reversed, that is, where the simple word is fully international while it is the derivative which is merely "potentially" available. The affixes which, when occurring in formations of limited range, carry them nevertheless into the international vocabulary, must be both frequent and clear.
All those found to qualify under this head are represented by special entries in the body of the Dictionary. A complete list appears below on pp. What has been said about affix formations of limited range applies likewise to compounds. The Italian word for "match, lucifer" is fiammifero. It is a compound of elements which are completely international and quite unambiguous.
The word as such occurs in but one language, but the representation of its elements in all the contributing languages justifies the claim that the word is potentially international. In a considerable number of cases where ideas of full international range happen to be represented by numerous and etymologically quite unrelated terms, adequate renderings in the international vocabulary can be found by examining all the monolingual renderings in regard to their potential representation in the source languages as a whole.
Form of International Words. This implies that everything is to be eliminated from them that is a characteristic feature of but one particular language. If the Spanish word for "earth" is tierra , the international form of it must not contain the diphthong -ie- which is a typically Spanish development. The international form corresponding to French aimer must not end in -er which is a typically French development. Or again, if the word voracious is qualified to enter the international vocabulary, it cannot appear there with the final syllable -ious because that is a peculiarly English excrescence.
On the other hand, the international form of a word must be such that every idiosyncratic feature of its representation in one particular language must be explicable as a monolingual transformation of it. It must be the prototype of which all contributing forms are specialized variations. For example, the prototype of French terre , Spanish tierra , Portuguese and Italian terra is terra. The French final -e and the Spanish diphthong are specifically French and Spanish developments from the original neutral final -a and the original neutral monophthong -e- respectively.
The resulting international form terra may look like the Italian, Portuguese, and Latin forms, but it is "international" and not Italian, not Portuguese, and not Latin. In a great many instances the prototype and hence the international form of a word does coincide with its etymological origin, that is, in the case of words derived from Latin, the Latin ancestor form. But this is not necessarily so. A more typical and more complex instance is that of Latin causa which appears in the modern languages as two distinct words, one represented by Italian, Spanish, Portuguese causa and French, English cause ; the other by Italian, Spanish cosa , Portuguese cousa , and French chose.
The prototype of the former is causa , that of the latter cosa , from which the French initial ch- and final - e as well as the Portuguese diphthong -ou are peculiarly French and Portuguese deviations, explicable in terms of specifically French and Portuguese sound laws. The transformation of Latin -au into -o- is a development characteristically international.
In keeping with the general goal of evolving non-specialized international forms, the prototypes must not be determined by a trait occurring in but one language. A monolingual trait is to be disregarded provided such a procedure does not reduce the international range of the result below the stipulated minimum. To refer again to the example of Latin causa , in the branch yielding the prototype cosa , all contributing forms with the exception of Portuguese show the vowel -o-. If the Portuguese -ou- were not a specifically Portuguese diphthongization of an earlier -o- but rather a survival of the Latin diphthong -au- the resulting form should still show no diphthong since three languages — Spanish, French, Italian — exhibit a simple -o-.
If it is an historical fact that the suffix in English agile and that in fossil are the same, and if furthermore the other contributing languages show them to be alike as they actually do , then the English difference between this particular -ile and this particular -il must leave no trace in the international forms. The common form from which the suffix represented by English -al has evolved in the various languages is a form technically known as the crude form of the Latin oblique cases of -alis , that is to say -ale. This -ale is the ancestor of all the contributing variants but its full spelling is maintained only by Italian.
All the other control languages omit the final -e. Therefore the prototype serving as the international form of the suffix omits it likewise and appears as -al. Somewhat more complex is the case of the parallel suffix evolved from Latin -ilis. It, too, appears in Italian with a final -e in all cases, but the alignment of a pair of illustrations like English civil, agile , Spanish civil, agil , Italian civile, agile, and French civil, agile leads to the introduction of two prototype forms, the one, -il , bearing the stress and omitting the final -e ; the other, -ile , equipped with a final -e and occurring after a stressed syllable.
These data can be looked at inversely so that — as a general rule applying to the forms entered in this dictionary — a final -e after -l and likewise after -n- and -r- turns out to be an indication that the stress must fall on the third last syllable, as in agile as against civil , in automobile as against infantil , as in ordine as against asinin , as in arbore as against professor , etc. Termination of Infinitives. As in the case of -al and -il, it is again only Italian that retains he final -e systematically. Since, however, English absorbs Romance verbs as a rule without the Romance infinitive termination, it cannot assist French and the Iberian languages to overrule the conservation of the final -e.
If this English "abstention" is not to allow Italian to settle the question in favor of its own unique usage, there remains only the possibility to let the prototype forms of the infinitive follow the model of comparable cases, as for instance that of the suffixes -al and -il. Thus the prototype forms of the infinitive terminations appear as -ar, -er , and -ir. Since the subdivision of Latin -ere verbs in two groups with the stress on the penult and antepenult respectively is clearly traceable within the sphere of the modern Romance languages, the prototype of the infinitive termination might be determined for each of the two cases separately.
The resulting distinction of verbs in -er with the stress on the last syllable and a smaller group of verbs in -ere with the stress on the antepenult would largely correspond to two types of derivation. The verbs in -er would show "weak" derivatives in -it- plus -ion, -ire, -ura , etc. In this Dictionary no such distinction has been made. Termination of Adjectives. Here the prototype procedure collides with a point of grammar which must be discussed at this time although grammatical questions in general have no place in a purely lexical discussion.
The prototype of English, French grand , Italian, Spanish, Portuguese grande emerges smoothly as grande. However, in cases like that of the international word corresponding to English saint , the outcome is undecided because here the original inflectional system of Latin survives in all the Romance languages not only with a distinct form for the plural but also with distinct masculine and feminine forms.
When used as nouns to represent a male or female saint, the forms sancto and sancta are satisfactory. But with adjectival functions they would be usable only if the grammar of the international language were to keep up a corresponding gender distinction. It is possible to envisage the international vocabulary in operation with a grammatical system which does maintain a gender distinction. Attempts in this direction are on record, but they form a decided minority. The procedure adopted in this Dictionary is the one favored by most users of the international vocabulary.
All adjectives are treated as though Latin and the Romance languages knew only the one type of adjective in which there is no distinction between masculine and feminine. The resulting dictionary entries exhibit no difference in termination between the types grande and sancte. Forms of International Words in Derivational Series. This implies that in the case of Latin-derived nouns and adjectives the prototype is normally neither coincident with nor based upon the original nominative i. This is so because the Romance languages, when — in the course of their development from Latin — they abolished the declensional system of nouns and adjectives, did not normally preserve one case at the expense of all the others; they normally preserved a composite of the various oblique cases.
French pied , Spanish pie , etc. Now it happens to be the stems of the Latin oblique cases i. A word like temporal whether it is considered in its English or any other variant does not come from the stem of Latin tempus but from that of temporis, tempore , etc. A word like pontifical is not based on the stem of Latin pontifex but on that of pontificem , etc. The prototype of English pontiff and the corresponding Romance variants which establish the internationality of the word, is pontifice.
That of pontifical and its Romance equivalents is pontifical. The continuity of form in the prototype pair pontifice-pontifical in contrast to English pontiff-pontifical or German Pontifex-pontifikal is an important feature of the international vocabulary. It permits the interpretation of pontifical , as it were, as a special form for special uses of pontifice just as, let us say, brotherly in English might be called a special, that is, the adjectival form of brother.
If this feature is to be generally characteristic of the international language, derivatives must always be made to have a bearing on the prototype forms that constitute its vocabulary. For instance, the prototype of Italian tempo , Spanish tiempo , Portuguese tempo , French temps , must, in view of the derivatives, become tempore , despite the fact that the nearest common ancestor form of those variants is tempus - or at least, if French is disregarded, tempo. Word Families. Such series, often clustered in more or less extensive word families, exist in all the control languages.
In many cases, however, they have become blurred by peculiar trends or historical "accidents," and it becomes one of the most important functions of the prototype technique to give back to them their due scope. Blurred series like English letter-literal or publish-publication emerge in the international vocabulary in clear continuities as littera-litteral, publicar-publication.
This is of the utmost importance for the free formation of autonomous derivatives in an auxiliary language. The principle which governs the limitation of derivational series or word families in the international vocabulary is that of a parallel between formal and semantic continuities. Since the idea of causal is a derivative from that of cause, the corresponding standardized words appear in a formally continuous series as causa-causal. Since, on the other hand, the idea of causal is in no way a derivative from thing although French chose , Spanish cosa, etc.
The prototypes cosa and causa belong, in terms of the standardized international vocabulary, to two different families, although the corresponding words in the Romance control languages are all members of the one etymological family of Latin causa. These and related aspects of the prototype technique and its results are particularly significant in the case of certain verbs and their derivatives.
A more detailed analysis of some verb families may prove useful at this point. Tener is the prototype of Italian tenere , Spanish tener , Portuguese ter , French tenir. The Latin ancestor word is tenere , which is the head of a large family of derivatives and compounds. Among the derivatives that are international and appear also in English, are tenace, tenacitate, tenor , 'tenacious, tenacity, tenor,' etc. In Latin the compounds of tenere appear with a characteristic vowel shift as abstinere, continere, obtinere , etc.
The modern languages did not maintain this and similar vowel shifts in the compound infinitives but adapted them to the form of the simple verb, e. However, the international derivatives from some of these compounds abstinente, continente , etc. In the case of this verb family, the different branches are interlinked by a comparatively clear continuity in meaning. The idea of 'to hold' is everywhere preserved: confiner is "to hold as contents" or "to hold back"; mantener is "to uphold"; detener "to hold in custody"; etc.
A case where one branch of an etymological verb family has become completely detached, both in form and meaning, both in the control languages and hence in the international vocabulary, is that of Latin pendere 'to suspend' and 'to weigh' with the derivative pensum 'something weighted, a weight.
The words for 'to weigh' are Italian pesare , Spanish and Portuguese pesar , French peser cf. They are completely detached, in form as well as in meaning, from the Romance words for 'to think': Italian pensare , Spanish and Portuguese pensar , French penser , whose standardized form is pensar and whose derivatives appear as pensative 'pensive' and pensator 'thinker,' etc. In the modern languages none of these words reveals itself either formally or semantically as a derivative from 'to weigh.
A slightly different case occurs in the family of Latin prehendere, prendere 'to seize. The Latin contracted form prensio has produced another series entirely detached from the first. Phonetically all these national variants have in common the loss of the Latin n before s and the change of the e in the stem into i. Semantically, too, no connection is felt between 'prison' and 'act of seizing. Thus there results a detached family prision, prisionero, imprisionar , etc. Non-Latin Examples.
Additional illustrations are required for the following groups: 1 Words of Greek origin, including classical formations — borrowed directly or transmitted by Latin — as well as neologisms built of Greek word-material. In the standardized vocabulary they exert consequently no influence on the latter's form. Thus the international form of therapeutic has no bearing on that of therapy , for although one is clearly the adjective pertaining to the other, there is no direct derivational relationship between them.
Both are ultimately derived from an identical third, the Greek verb therapeuein. The semantic interdependence of the two is formally as little accounted for in the international vocabulary as in the vocabularies of all the control languages. They appear in the Dictionary as two unrelated entries.
Interlingua-English: A Dictionary of the International Language
In other instances the formal relationship by derivation which did exist in Greek has been totally severed in the modern languages which treat these words exactly like those of the type therapia-therapeutic. This severance is often due to the fact that members of a given derivational series in Greek were taken over by Latin or the modern languages as individual words whose connection with other Greek words of the same family separately taken over by the same languages was not made apparent in their forms. Greek phlegmatikos was actually a derivative from phlegma on the inflectional stem phlegmat- , yet this latter word appears in no modern language and certainly in none of the members of the Anglo-Romance control group in a form corresponding to the old inflectional or deriving stem.
It is represented everywhere by the Greco-Latin nominative and appears correspondingly in the international vocabulary as phlegma , uninfluenced by its companion adjective phlegmatic. In most words of Greek origin, however, the formal continuity of derivational series emerges in the international vocabulary as clearly as it does in the case of words of Latin origin. Their role in the international vocabulary gives rise to two special observations. There are a good many instances of English words of Germanic origin which are related to words in the other control languages by Indo-European cognateship.
In all such instances the Germanic form provided of course there is perfect formal and semantic correspondence can be considered a contributing variant that adds to the international range of the word in question. As for the prototype technique, words of this category must be standardized exclusively on the basis of their Romance variants.
Here the inclusion of Germanic cognate forms would produce prototypes on an Indo-European basis which is much too narrow to support an international vocabulary. A related and considerably more important problem is that of words of Germanic origin represented by borrowed variants in the Romance control languages, whether or not they are supported by an inherited form in English.
Most words of this category were taken over by the Romance languages during the early Middle Ages when Germanic supremacy, especially in the fields of law and warfare, made itself felt in all parts of western Europe. If the English form of such words is available and generally it is , it can again be considered a variant of the Romance forms, fit to add to the international range of the word in question but not suitable to enter into the determination of its prototype. French hareng , Italian aringa , Spanish, Portuguese arenque are all Romance variants of West Germanic haring and thus identical by Germanic cognateship with English herring and German Hering.
The meaning of the word raises no new problems. It has full international range throughout the control languages. For the determination of its prototype the inclusion of the English and German variants would produce a result on a Germanic basis. The exclusion of English and German produces the prototype haringo which is the form by which this word is represented in the standardized international vocabulary.
In many instances the Iberian languages show a closer similarity to the phonetic structure of the original than the second-hand borrowers. The resulting international form is carrafa. Derivatives from these relatively recent loan words are not very frequent. Where they do occur, they influence the prototype in exactly the same way as in all other cases. An example is the international word for 'tea.
The combination of these two branches might prove quite problematic if it were not for the existence of the international derivative theina which serves to determine the prototype of the base word as the. Finallv, foreign words which have been introduced into the control languages in comparatively recent times and have retained their foreign character, do so also in the standardized international vocabulary. Examples are: allegro, aria, imbroglio from Italian; cargo, matador, rancho from Spanish; bouquet, bureau, chassis from French; budget, interview, reporter, standard from English; hinterland, kirschwasser, landwehr from German.
In some cases the modern languages have built on these foreign loans independent derivatives of which only the endings have to be standardized. Thus we have interviewar on interview , standardisar on standard , etc. In the Dictionary such "foreign" words are entered without accent marks and diacritical signs except when such a procedure would suggest an absurd pronunciation.
English words reveal at times by their spelling whether they were internationalized on a British or American basis. Summary of Definitions — The following formulations are not intended to be self-explanatory. They are summaries of the foregoing analyses which serve to elucidate them and provide pertinent illustrations for them. Traduction a interlingua per Rodrigo Mallmann Guerra. Vita et Libertate , per Carlos Eduardo de Paula. In interlingua, a vices in portugese o esperanto. Ancora un recolta de commentarios, sur interlingua e esperanto.
Super linguas analytic e synthetic. Brasil Curiose , Novas brasilian, international e del cosmo. Per Felipe Silva. Proque un Lingua International? Gilson Passos. Le Arbore Romanic , Novas e articulos sur le cultura romanic in interlingua. Le original Tabacaria es hic. Vide anque iste articulo.
Blog del traductor. Como libro de papiro via Lulu. Edition paperback , edition hardcover. Version MS Word. Blogs per Maciej Skuneczny. Le Piscator e le Piscetta Aurate. Proque nos vide in colores? Articulos in interlingua , per Melvin Doucet. Leger Interlingua. Infelicemente iste blog es deliberatemente scribite in un variante deviante de interlingua. Mi proprie articulos in e sur interlingua: RSS. Un gruppo in Facebook que habe actualmente 17 de septembre membros ex tote le paises del mundo!!! Interlingua coollist , le Collaterista. Le Foro de Interlingua Google groups.
Un discussion in nederlandese Usenet , super esperanto, ido e esperanto. How much of Interlingua is a relexification of English? Un discussion super adjectivos e adverbios, in esperanto in le articulo per Marc Oostendorp e in interlingua in le commentarios. Scribite in nederlandese e partialmente in interlingua. Perque apprender Esperanto in Europa? OmegaT 3. Ubuntu in interlingua.
Linux Mint in interlingua. Firefox in interlingua. Traducite per Carmelo Serraino e alteres. Apertium , traductor automatic pro linguas simile. Ancora sin supporto pro interlingua. Information in Wikipedia super Apertium. Annuncio : un traductor automatic rudimentari del espaniol al interlingua. Functiona con simplice reimplaciamento de parolas ex un base de datos. Per Lucianinski Orange. Pagina GitHub. Discarga del file de installation. Base de datos. Querer con patronos , cercar varie dictionarios con expressiones regular.
Material e software del interfacie. Per Ruud Harmsen. A short course that will teach you the basics of Interlingua. Quante personas parla interlingua? Consilios de como usar interlingua correctemente Le angulo linguistic — Parolas del mense; de Panorama. Thesauro Facebook. Le manifesto de interlingua , texto complete , legite in alte voce per Martijn Dekker. In interlingua e anglese.
interlingua - definition and meaning
Comparison between Esperanto and Interlingua , Wikipedia in anglese. Nos presenta Interlingua , per Ferenc Jeszensky [sic; non le in mi opinion correcte: Jeszenszky]. Troppo simile all'italiano , per Martijn Dekker. Le canal Youtube de Marcus Scriptos, ubi il ha poemas, cantos e videos in interlingua. Esperantaj frazoj traducite in interlingua , per Marcus Scriptor. Le opposito de un dialecto , per Marcus Scriptor. Traducite a romanica e a interlingua per Carlos Alberto Santos. Harleigh Kyson Jr. Per Paul LeCorde.
Le pagina de Alyssa St. James in Interlingua: le lingua international. Interlingua: A Universal Language? Un blog avant la lettre : publicate le 3 decembre Pagina 2 , pagina 3. Discussion super illo in Via Facebook : Homophonic vocabulary; containing more than two thousand words having a like sound, and like signification in ten languages, to wit: English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, Dutch, Danish-Norwegian, Swedish, and Russian. Vocabulario homophonic, continente plus de duo milles parolas con sono similar e senso similar, in dece linguas, a saper: anglese, francese, espaniol, portugese, italiano, germano, nederlandese, danese-norvegiano, svedese e russe.
Per Charles Burlingame Waite, — Ille libro data de ! Un interlingua avant la lettre!? Le 30 de maio , via Usenet, sci. An In-Depth Analysis , per J. In iste articulo le autor compara le influentia del linguas romance francese, latino al vocabulario anglese, con le influentia similar al germano, e conclude que iste ultime es anque grandissime. Pro supportar iste idea, ille ha facite listas de comparation:.
- Join YourDictionary today.
- Beginning Android Tablet Application Development (Wrox Programmer to Programmer).
- Interlingua–English Dictionary.
- John Rawls Theory of Social Justice: An Introduction;
De facto, hic le autor describe le philosophia de interlingua! Probabilemente sin saper lo e sin voler lo. Le 22 de julio in nederlandese : Piet Cleij super le question si esperanto o interlingua serea le melior lingua international pro Europa e le mundo. Con multe exemplos bizarre de parolas composite de esperanto. Le 20 de januario in nederlandese : Piet Cleij super le idea de introducer interlingua como lingua pro Europa.
De Aristotele al Toki Pona, 45 paginas A4, Documento in PDF. Historiettas e contos in interlingua Wikibooks. Ille es un del tradutores del evangelios. Nulle calma in Kalmar , un film del dece-secunde incontro nordic de interlingua in interlingua, subtitulate in interlingua. Interlingua Youtube , per Isabella Tricase in interlingua. Un intervista con Isabella Tricase, in re de su dissertation sur interlingua partialmente in interlingua e italiano.
Mi az? The wonderful life and times of Ron Spathaky. Proverbios in interlingua. Le list de proverbios esseva traducite ab espaniol per le polaco K. Que pote nos apprender ab le alteres e ab lor experientias de un seculo. Pagina 39 e sequentes. Qui besonia Interlingua? Discurso al 15e Conferentia International de Interlingua. O interlingua in gallego. Whorfian linguistic relativism and constructed languages, by W. Critiques of individual planned languages , per Ken Caviness. Fabulas celtic de Scotia, Bretagne e Irlanda. In francese. Le problema del linguas international auxiliari , per Giovanni Blandini.
Max Stirner -- vita, opera, effecto. Traduction per Peter Liebig, 10 de martio , ab un texto in germano scribite per Bernd A. Navigation al Insula del Ursos , per Steinar Midtskogen, 8 de augusto Meet Interlingua! Alsi sur su proprie site, hic , le 3 de martio Traductiones del alcun textos de cantos ben cognoscite.
Related Interlingua - English Dictionary: A dictionary of the International Language
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved