The goal of LCA is to compare the foul range of environmental effects an assignable to products and services such as waste management in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions US EPA, The choice of selected indicators for LCA can provide options for the improvement of the existing systems. Such a damage assessment based on the existing life cycle of natural gas combustion district heating system at a rural location in British Columbia was conducted by Pa et al , recently. Municipal solid waste MSW generally includes degradable paper, textiles, food waste, straw and yard waste ,partially degradable wood, disposal napkins and sludge and non-degradable materials leather, plastics, rubbers, metals, glass, ash from fuel burning like coal, briquettes or woods ,dust and electronic waste.
Jha and et al, Life cycle assessment LCA is a process of evaluating environmental burdens or benefits associated with the total life cycle of a product.
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This is conducted by identifying and quantifying the energy and materials used and waste products released into the environment Siegl, S and et al, The significance of LCA lies in the fact that it equips the policy makers and decision makers for adoption of suitable and sustainable energy supply systems. Increasing global concern due to air pollution and to limited oil reserves has generated much interest in environmental friendly alternatives to petroleum-based fuels Merola, SS and et al, LCA Life Cycle Assessment has been used as an effective environmental management tool in much different kind of studies.
Some of the models conduct the Life Cycle Analysis LCA of the waste disposal system while other only focus on different environmental elements such as noise or traffic Chang et al, or on CO2 emissions from vehicles Wang at all, This city with agricultural lands with a square of hectare is one of agricultural centers of Alborz province. The amount of waste production of this city is about ton per year Two scenarios of integrated waste management in the Mahdasht city were compared using the LCA methodology.
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The scenarios were described using data extrapolation on the basis of data collection referring to By means of this technique results has been shown in the tables below. The life cycle inventory cataloging was done using the IWM-1model environmental point of view, the results of this study showed that composting and recycling operations have an important role in reducing the burden of pollutants and energy consumption of a waste management system.
In this study, the data entered into the software IWM , and the results provided by the software approach to Life Cycle Assessment LCA had been studied and were compared with each other. Given the amount of greenhouse gases in the second scenario combination of recycling, composting and landfill produce about 6, tons compared to the first scenario only landfill which produced about tons, the results indicates a significant reduction in the amount of harmful gasses. It is concluded that if the combined method scenario 2 is used, it can lead to reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 26 percent.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 51, pp. Sharma, Nahar Singh, R. Ramesh, R. Purvaja, Prabhat K. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management in Indian mega-cities: A case study of Chennai landfill. Banar, M. Waste Management, 29, pp.
Barlaz, M. Berg S. Some aspects of LCA in the analysis of forestry operations. Chang, N. Waste Management and Research 14, pp.
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Dobson ID. Life cycle assessment for painting processes: putting the VOC issue in perspective. Waste managers whether in public service or private companies will find a holistic approach for improving the environmental quality and the of managing waste. The book contains general principles economic cost based on cutting edge experience being developed across Europe. Detailed data and a computer model will enable operations managers to develop data-based improvements to their systems. Waste data specialists whether in laboratories, consultancies or environ- mental managers of waste facilities will see how the scope, quantity and quality of their data can be improved to help their colleagues design more effective waste management systems.
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Passar bra ihop. Signs of impaired growth or vitality of trees due to the recent acid and nitrogen deposition lack convincing evidence, nevertheless, methodological advice in diagnosing nutrient imbalances and nitrogen saturation in foliage or effects on root systems is given. Several laboratory and field experiments support the findings of the recent and long-term studies. It was beyond the scope of this review to appraise or summarise all the chapters in this book.
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The intention of this personal selection of conclusions is to invite graduate students, scientists and policy maker advisors to read this informative volume of Ecological Bulletins. White, M. Franke and P. As the authors of this book themselves point out, there is a clear need to develop improved solid waste management systems.
What is novel about the approach in this text is the application of lifecycle inventories LCIs for the systematic dealing of data on the environmental effects of solid waste management and the subsequent developing of management systems. The book is packaged with the lifecycle inventory spreadsheet, which can be used with either ExcelT M or Lotus T M software.
The structure of the text reflects the layout of the spreadsheet and takes the reader systematically through the introductory discussion of integrated waste management and lifecycle assessment, to chapters on waste generation, pre-sorting, collection, recycling, biological and thermal treatment options, and landfilling.
Each chapter is usefully laid out, with a clear summary, boxes which summarise the key concepts, a LCI Box and a Data Box showing the questions asked of the user in the computer spreadsheet, and illustrating how the data are used. The reader is thus guided in easy stages through the operation of the spreadsheet. For anyone working in the area of waste management this is an extremely useful book, not least because it brings together information, from both national and EC sources, that has not been readily accessible.
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