The carotenoid content correlated with the ATP content, which was used as a proxy marker for the insect's metabolism. Moreover, the authors could demonstrate that environmental stresses conducted on a given population resulted in the phenotypic heterogeneity of carotenoid content two generations later. This kind of use of Raman spectroscopy is particularly relevant as pigments are difficult to extract and quantify by conventional methods.
Because of the ubiquity and ecological importance of pigments in insects, phytoplankton, birds, crustaceans, protists, etc. Example of the advantages of Raman spectroscopy in evaluating the effects of food availability and parasitism on the secondary sexual characteristics in birds. In black birds, carotenoid pigments are an indicator of good health as their concentration is directly correlated with food availability and the immuno-resistance against parasitism [ 32 ].
Raman spectroscopy is known to provide specific signatures for pigment identification and quantification, as shown in the pioneering work of Thomas et al. This may become useful to monitor indirectly the health status of birds in natural populations. Likewise, the discrimination of intestinal and blood parasite species copepoda, protozoa, etc. We show here a hypothetical example of linear discriminant analysis LDA , in which three groups are identified each point of the plot corresponds to a spectrum taken from one individual.
Furthermore, rather than focusing on the biological entity, one may instead measure the molecular composition of the environmental niches. For example, Raman spectroscopy has been successfully used to characterize the molecular composition of soil [ 33 ]. Thus, we expect Raman spectroscopy will allow assessment of the impact of environmental composition on the biodiversity or functions of resident species.
One of the first ecological studies using Raman spectroscopy provides a good example of how the molecular composition of lichen substrata is affected by environmental variables such as salinity, freshwater or rock type, which in turn affect the distribution of lichen species across natural sites [ 24 ]. And last but not least, we stress that pragmatism should always be used when choosing an experimental method. This could be a strong incentive for ecologists working in the field.
However, depending on the molecular compounds or organisms that are being studied, a home-made or commercialized microscope with more expensive equipment might be required to achieve a good spectral resolution and sensitivity approx. Specifically, for the most demanding biological samples, a good polychromator equipped with a powerful detector usually, a CCD camera and a high N. On the other hand, one advantage by comparison with other methods e. To facilitate the practical use of Raman spectroscopy by biologists, guidelines presenting how to build and set-up Raman microscopes, and how to perform spectral analyses, were recently published e.
Another strong incentive for the integration of Raman platforms in academic environments is that they can benefit researchers from various specialties, including cell biology, ecology, chemistry, geology or engineering. Our work was motivated by the fact that the advantages of Raman spectroscopy have not yet been introduced in ecology and experimental evolution, despite its ability to address many central questions in these fields.
Here, we demonstrated that the unique metabolic signature of the Raman signal and its ability to characterize the phenotypes of living and non-living entities show promise for various applications in ecology and experimental evolution. It is worth mentioning that similar conclusions could be drawn with other derivatives of infrared or near-infrared absorption spectroscopy techniques.
The non-destructive nature of these techniques, their versatility and their relative low cost make them appealing to a broad range of users and experimental set-ups. In the future, it is worth exploring whether the aforementioned advantages of vibrational spectroscopy could benefit the empirical demonstrations of current and emerging concepts in ecology and evolution, such as the study of the phenotypic plasticity of individuals and its consequences for evolution [ 35 — 37 ] and for evolutionary rescue [ 38 , 39 ].
The ability of Raman spectroscopy to measure both at various scales from molecules to populations may give the opportunity to study complex hierarchical dynamics [ 40 ], or even the characterization of the molecular evolutionary dynamics in artificial systems [ 41 ]. In order to open new avenues of research and to extend the scope of available methodologies used in ecology and evolution, we strongly encourage ecologists and experimental evolutionists to communicate with spectroscopy experts and discuss the possibility for biologically relevant applications.
Overall, we hope that this forward-looking perspective will initiate the integration of Raman spectroscopy into the field of ecology and evolution.
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The authors thank Dr Yasushi Okada and Mr Kylius Wilkins for their valuable comments and corrections on an earlier version of this manuscript. All authors approved the final version of this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J R Soc Interface.
Published online Jun 7. Watanabe 1. Tomonobu M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 8; Accepted May 9.
Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials | Springer Nature Experiments
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Scientists are always on the lookout for new modalities of information which could reveal new biological features that are useful for deciphering the complexity of biological systems. Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, vibrational imaging, experimental evolution, ecology, phenotyping, pigment.
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Introduction Ecology and evolution are interlinked disciplines and aim together to decipher the complexity of biological systems at various spatial and temporal scales. Open in a separate window.
Figure 1. Grounding Raman spectroscopy in the conceptual framework of ecology and experimental evolution The choice of a given technique in ecology is fundamentally constrained by its capacity to characterize specific traits and distinguish variations among the individuals or samples under consideration, which may differ in response to environmental changes. Implementing Raman spectroscopy in the context of ecology and evolution In addition to the aforementioned conceptual considerations, it can be argued that experimental design in ecology and evolution takes into account several technical or pragmatic aspects.
Figure 2. Figure 3. Perspectives and conclusion Our work was motivated by the fact that the advantages of Raman spectroscopy have not yet been introduced in ecology and experimental evolution, despite its ability to address many central questions in these fields. Acknowledgements The authors thank Dr Yasushi Okada and Mr Kylius Wilkins for their valuable comments and corrections on an earlier version of this manuscript. Authors' contributions A. Competing interests We declare we have no competing interests.
Funding No funding has been received for this article. References 1. Butler HJ, et al. Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials.
Raman spectroscopy is both qualitative and quantitative.
The identification of microorganisms by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Ellis DI, Goodacre R. Metabolic fingerprinting in disease diagnosis: biomedical applications of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Analyst , — Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: an emerging platform for biology and medicine. Science , Visualizing cell state transition using Raman spectroscopy. Isolation and identification of bacteria by means of Raman spectroscopy. Drug Deliv. Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the growth of pigmented and non-pigmented mycobacteria.
Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Materials
Partial least-squares regression PLSR enabled us to make a calibration model which predicts the specific gravity of the hard and soft ivories. You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.
Login or Create Account. Allow All Cookies. Applied Spectroscopy Vol. Not Accessible Your account may give you access. Abstract This paper demonstrates the usefulness of near-infrared NIR Fourier transform FT Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics in nondestructive discrimination of biological materials.
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