The traditional houses and settlements of the numerous ethnic groups of Indonesia vary widely, and each has a specific history. They are at the centre of a web of customs, social relations, traditional laws and religions that bind the villagers together. The music of Indonesia predates historical records. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals.
Angklung , kacapi suling , siteran , gong , gamelan , degung , gong kebyar , bumbung , talempong , kulintang , and sasando are examples of traditional Indonesian instruments. The diverse world of Indonesian music genres is the result of the musical creativity of its people, and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences. These include gambus and qasida from the Middle East,  keroncong from Portugal,  and dangdut —one of the most popular music genres in Indonesia—with notable Hindi influence as well as Malay orchestras.
Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3, original dances. Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship. Indonesian dances derive its influences from the archipelago's three distinct historical eras: the prehistoric and tribal, the Hindu-Buddhist, and the Islamic. In recent times, show businesses, such as those that accompany music performances or entertainment begin showcasing modern dances. Influenced by Western culture, urban teen dances such as street dances have gained popularity among the Indonesian youth.
Traditional dances, however, such as the Javanese , Sundanese , Minang , Balinese , Saman continue to be a living and dynamic tradition. Indonesia has various styles of clothing as a result of its long and rich cultural history. Its national costume has origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions.
Since Java is the political, economic and cultural centre of Indonesia, the Javanese Batik and Kebaya  are arguably Indonesia's most recognised national costume. They originally belong not only to the Javanese but also to Sundanese and Balinese cultures as well. People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions,  and they vary from traditional to modern attire.
Wayang , the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. They incorporate humour and jest and often involve audiences in their performances. It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals,   and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society. The first film produced in the archipelago was Loetoeng Kasaroeng , a silent film by Dutch director L.
The film industry expanded after independence, with six films made in rising to 58 in Djamaluddin Malik 's Persari Film often emulated American genre films and the working practices of the Hollywood studio system, as well as remaking popular Indian films. Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry in the post-Suharto era , where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love.
It hands out the Citra Award , the film industry's most prestigious award. From to , the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media.
By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village and people can choose from up to 11 channels. The number of printed publications has increased significantly since Like other developing countries, Indonesia began the development of Internet in the early s. Its first commercial Internet service provider , PT. Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions , which help to define and preserve their cultural identities.
Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition. It adopted Malay as the preferred universal medium. Prominent figures in modern Indonesian literature include Dutch author Multatuli , who criticised the treatment of natives under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Mohammad Yamin and Hamka , who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians;  and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer , Indonesia's most famous novelist.
Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour.
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Spices notably chilli , coconut milk , fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng , gado-gado , sate , and soto are prevalent and considered as national dishes. The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in , describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions. Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Indonesia is among the only five countries that have won the Thomas and Uber Cup , the world team championship of men's and women's badminton. Along with weightlifting, it is the sport that contributes the most to Indonesia's Olympic medal tally.
Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league. Indonesia's first appearance in the AFC Asian Cup was in and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments. They, however, failed to progress through the next stage in all occasions. Other popular sports include boxing and basketball , which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games Pekan Olahraga Nasional , PON in In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba.
Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in , became one of the sporting events in Southeast Asian Games , with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading forces. In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the major sport powerhouses by winning the Southeast Asian Games 10 times since , most recently in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Republic in Southeast Asia. National emblem. Further information: Names of Indonesia. Main article: History of Indonesia. Main article: Dutch East Indies.
Main article: Geography of Indonesia. Main article: Climate of Indonesia. Main article: Geology of Indonesia. See also: Volcanoes of Indonesia. Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia. Species endemic to Indonesia. Clockwise from top: Rafflesia arnoldii , orangutan , greater bird-of-paradise , and Komodo dragon. Main article: Environment of Indonesia. Main article: Politics of Indonesia. Main articles: List of political parties in Indonesia and Elections in Indonesia. Joko Widodo 7th President of Indonesia. Jusuf Kalla 10th and 12th Vice President of Indonesia.
Main article: Subdivisions of Indonesia. North Sumatra. West Sumatra. Riau Islands. Bangka Belitung. South Sumatra. West Java. Central Java. East Java. West Nusa Tenggara. East Nusa Tenggara. West Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan. North Kalimantan.
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East Kalimantan. South Kalimantan. North Sulawesi. North Maluku. Central Sulawesi.
West Sulawesi. South Sulawesi. Southeast Sulawesi. West Papua.
Main article: Foreign relations of Indonesia. Indonesian Armed Forces. Main articles: Economy of Indonesia and Economic history of Indonesia. Main article: Transport in Indonesia. Major transport modes in Indonesia. Main article: Energy in Indonesia. Main article: Science and technology in Indonesia. Main article: Tourism in Indonesia. Largest cities in Indonesia inter-census survey. Main article: Religion in Indonesia. Religion in Indonesia  Religion Percent Islam. Main articles: Education in Indonesia and Health in Indonesia.
See also: Human rights in Indonesia. Main article: Culture of Indonesia. See also: Public holidays in Indonesia. Main articles: Indonesian art and Architecture of Indonesia. Indonesian music and dance. Main article: Cinema of Indonesia. Main articles: Media of Indonesia and Indonesian literature. Main article: Indonesian cuisine. Main article: Sport in Indonesia.
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