Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics


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Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics

Google Scholar. Philip M. Piccoli Philip M. Philip A. Candela Philip A. Economic Geology 5 : Article history accepted:.

Indium is Abundant

Abstract The use of indium in modern technologies has grown in recent decades, creating a growth in indium demand; thus, there is a need to constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of indium-bearing, granite-related deposits. You do not currently have access to this article. You could not be signed in.

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D — Goldschmidt Abstracts Mineralogical Magazine. N — Goldschmidt Abstracts Mineralogical Magazine. V — Goldschmidt Abstracts Mineralogical Magazine. Y — Goldschmidt Abstracts Mineralogical Magazine.

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T — Goldschmidt Abstracts Mineralogical Magazine. I — Goldschmidt Abstracts Mineralogical Magazine. View More. Related Book Content. Internal differentiation of rare-element pegmatites; A synthesis of recent research Ore-bearing Granite Systems; Petrogenesis and Mineralizing Processes. Magmatic and hydrothermal processes in ore-bearing systems Ore-bearing Granite Systems; Petrogenesis and Mineralizing Processes.

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Geochemistry of highly fractionated I- and S-type granites from the tin-tungsten province of western Tasmania Ore-bearing Granite Systems; Petrogenesis and Mineralizing Processes. What would happen if all geoscientists stopped practicing their science? Would the average person's life change? As expected, the authors identify immediate negative impacts to society on matters such as prevention of natural hazards, availability of clean drinking water, or awareness and understanding of lead contamination.

However, it is telling that, as the first casualty of the disappearance of geoscientists, they chose the discovery of new resources such as "the rare earth minerals that power our smart phones.


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For a few centuries—at least since the widespread use of the steam engine in the s—people's lives have relied on an increasingly large and diverse supply of mineral resources. Against this backdrop, and in the context of the NAGT, it is appropriate to ask if the teaching of economic geology is keeping pace with the times: is the role of economic geology appreciated enough by geoscience teachers and within geoscience academic programs nationally and globally, and is economic geology being taught in a quantity and of a quality consistent with the many new environmental, engineering, and economic issues and concerns relevant to society today?

The development of humanity is marked by the increasingly complex use of Earth's mineral resources. Starting with stones, clay, and bones and—with the onset of civilization—evolving to the use of metals e. We currently use a greater quantity and variety of metals than ever before Price, Essentially, we now use all the naturally occurring elements in the periodic table Fig. Barring an unforeseen disruption, this trend will not change in the near future, as global population increases, living standards for most people in the developing world continue to improve, and new technologies materialize.

Indeed, some new technologies are widely regarded as an integral part of the solutions to some of society's most pressing concerns, such as the changeover to non-carbon energy sources Fig. While the topic of the future of mineral resources and, by association, mining is complex and subject to controversy Arndt et al.

Industry e. Thus, demand for exploration and discovery of new mineral deposits, and therefore for economic geology, will continue. Despite their critical role in everyday life, mineral resources are widely misunderstood and, all too often, society's views on the subject are disconnected from reality. These issues are illustrated by misconceptions prevalent in the media—and by extension the population—on the future of Earth's mineral resources. As an illustration, one only needs to do an Internet search to the question "Are we running out of mineral resources?

The associated titles and headlines are consistently dramatic: "Born in How much is left for me?

- Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics by ULRICH SCHWARZ-SCHAMPERA

At least two of these widely circulated articles and graphics originate from well-known sources. One was published in issue , 26 May , of the international science magazine New Scientist. In it, the author claims that, based on data by researchers from Yale University and the University of Augsburg, "if predicted new technologies appear and the population grows, some key resources will be exhausted" within what is graphically shown as an alarmingly short time frame. Among the mineral resources covered, platinum, indium, and copper are particularly illustrative of the grave errors of interpretation contained in the article.

For example, humankind should be running out of platinum three years from now 15 years from However, despite production of 2, metric tons of platinum between and and a metal price drop of 26 percent, the global reserves of platinum group metals have decreased only by 2. Likewise, according to this report we should have run out of indium sometime between seven and two years ago. Never mind that, as a key component of indium tin oxide ITO , this metal has been present as a transparent thin film conductor in the touch screen displays of every smartphone and tablet manufactured since —including the 1.

I would argue that nothing but common sense is needed to believe that by the time of the Paris Olympiad in , ITO-based transparent thin film conductors or a new, and likely superior, substitute will continue to be present in digital displays and thin film photovoltaic cells, among many other applications.

No, we will not run out of metals, like copper, indium, or platinum and palladium any time soon. Indeed, the U. Geological Survey has resource estimates of hundreds of years for most metals, solely based on known deposits.


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For the foreseeable future, the reserves of most metals are controlled by economics, technology, geopolitics, etc.

Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics
Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics
Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics
Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics
Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics

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