Ultimately, however, Livingstone failed to win a third term, losing to Boris Johnson. European governments increasingly are afraid of offending Muslims, Shepherd said, leading them to refrain from criticizing Islamic attitudes toward women or even toward terrorism. Government leaders made sure to criticize publication of the cartoons even as they defended free speech, Shepherd noted.
Jana Hybaskova, head of the Israel committee in the European Parliament, says that despite the hostility of many European Muslim organizations toward the Jewish state, they rarely petition lawmakers on Israel-related issues. One major obstacle to Muslim political power is the absence of any significant pan-European Muslim political organization.
Muslims even have trouble organizing politically within their own countries in Europe. In France, the French Council of the Muslim Faith, a Muslim umbrella organization created in at the behest of then-Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy, has been virtually paralyzed by a rivalry between its Algerian and Moroccan factions. The level of political activism among Muslims varies from country to country.
In Britain, Muslims vote in higher proportions than non-Muslims, whereas in Belgium the Muslim vote is below average. Another major obstacle, according to Riva Kastoryano, director of research at Sciences Politique in Paris and an author of several books on Islam in Europe, is the relative poverty of Muslims.
Muslim organizations often are completely in the dark about how to lobby government officials for their most pressing needs, Kastoryano observed.
In some cases, Muslim groups have even sought the help of Jewish groups. In France and several other countries, Muslims have turned to Jewish organizations for help in acquiring overnment permission to continue to use halal meat — kosher for Muslims — when the method of Muslim slaughter risked violating local ordinances. As for the few politicians in Europe of Muslim backgrounds, they tend to care more about loyalty to party, not Islamic ideology.
In the House of War Dutch Islam Observed, First Edition - AbeBooks
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What ISIS Really Wants
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The datasets are also available as weekly exports. NL EN. More from Sam Cherribi. Political science Open print view. Description: Viii, p.
Taking the fight to Islam
Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. The relationship between Islam and war has been the focus of lively debates. While terrorism experts might find a holy war wherever they look, others deny the role of faith in motivating violence. While no conflict is entirely inspired by faith, nor is any conflict entirely without it, the degree of religious motivation matters a great deal.
How does one gauge the religiosity of a given conflict? We identify three dominant approaches: citing scripture, citing militant leaders, and quantifying religious divisions. While each approach makes valuable contributions, none help us to understand the degree to which a given struggle is understood by Muslim communities to be sacred. Based on rural fieldwork in three Southeast Asian secessionist conflicts, this article provides a series of empirical indicators of religious conflict: the religious credentials of rebel leaders, recruitment networks, public discourse, and burial practices.
Burial practices for fallen rebels provide especially novel insights into how conflicts are understood by local religious officials and Muslim communities, offering a new window into understanding religiosity as perceived by internal audiences.
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