ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives


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The book provide a representative view of current Information and Communications Technology ICT educational research approaches in the Ibero-American context as well as internationally. It includes studies that range from elementary to higher education, from traditional to distance learning settings. It considers special needs and other inclusive issues, across a range of disciplines, using multiple and diverse perspectives and technologies to furnish detailed information on the latest trends in ICT and education globally.

Design, development and evaluation of educational software; ICT use and evaluation methodologies; social web and collaborative systems; and learning communities are some of the topics covered. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 15 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed.

Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Students used tablets or smart phones as learning devices in a project plan based on constructivism. The stages of the project were defined with the aim to create e-learning content for students in a BSc course. The disadvantages of this method are that more preparation work is required from the lecturer Jarosievitz, ,5.

Multimedia as a technology-based constructivist learning environment enables students to solve problems by means of self-exploration, collaboration and active participation. Simulations, models and media-rich study materials still and animated graphics, video and audio integrated in a structured manner can facilitate the learning of new knowledge. Conceptual and theoretical framework. This highlights that the unique characteristics of a subject influence the success of learning via picture or audio presentations Nugent, In the past 20 years of teaching History in schools, ICT with multimedia e.

History lessons have become more active and learner-centred with respect to ICT integration and the use of multimedia resources in teaching and learning at schools in South Africa. In SS the representation of information by using the visualization capabilities of video are said to be immediate and powerful.

In History lessons, multimodal information through images and animations, pictures, including sound and speech are recommended for deep understanding. For example, when illustrating a war, replicas of war equipment can be prepared and geographical locations can be illustrated. Such videos consist of a high degree of reality and visualization. Geography lessons also make use of many maps, animations and videos. Animations, when combined with user input, enable students to view different versions of change over time, depending on different variables.

The reasons why multimedia is promoted in SS education are that it is readily available for use, helps make remembering easy, and more information can be shared faster and in an interesting format Ekinci et al. The mind-shift involves the integration of ICT not only to learn a specific skill, but also to integrate multimedia resources into the teaching and learning of pre-service teachers, who can then apply their experience to teaching in schools. The inclusion of on-screen information sources proposes opposite reactions to traditional historical printed text and contributes to the development of critical and objective skills development Lee, Geography is a highly visual subject and is complemented with the use of multimedia resources Peterson, Audio-visual resources have been used effectively at tertiary institutions to support teaching and learning in Geography.

Visual presentations and representation are integral parts of Geography education e. However, one should be cautious to not only rely on multimedia without text, since research has also revealed that text is more advantageous as the material becomes more complex. This highlights the important advantage of text for the presentation of complex materials Nugent, Students will be successful in their learning task if they interact meaningfully with their academic material, select relevant verbal and non-verbal information, organise information into corresponding mental models, and integrate new representations with existing knowledge when learning with multimedia Mayer, An important aspect required for multimedia learning is that learners must be able to hold corresponding visual and verbal representations in short-term memory simultaneously.

Research has revealed that deeper learning is achieved when the following multimedia combinations are used: text and picture explanations rather than verbal explanations; exclusion of irrelevant words, sounds and video; avoidance of complex verbal and pictorial representations with no guidance for low-prior knowledge learners; and words presented in a personalised conversational style, rather than a detailed description style Mayer, ; Mayer, ; Moreno, In the implementation of multimedia it is accepted that the human mind is a two-channel system of information processing with limited capacity.

Once the human mind receives information for cognitive processing, it selects, organises and integrates the mental representations promoting meaningful learning See Image 1. The cognitive processing by the learner is believed to cause learning and not the media environment Mayer, Image 1 represents the cognitive model of multimedia learning of the human information processing system.

The boxes represent memory stores, being sensory, short-term and long-term memory Mayer, Pictures and words as a multimedia presentation enter the sensory memory through the eyes and ears. The sensory memory allows pictures to be registered in the eyes and held as visual images in a visual sensory memory for a short span of time. Text printed words is processed in the visual channel and then moves to the auditory channel. Spoken words and sound are registered in the ears and held as auditory images in the auditory sensory memory for a brief period.

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The core ofmultimedia learning takes place in the short-term memory where knowledge is held temporarily. Short-term memory is divided into two sections based on the two sensory modalities, namely visual and auditory. The left side of Image 1 represents raw material in the form of sound words and images pictures , with an arrow from sounds to images representing the mental conversion of a sound into a visual image.

The arrow from images to sounds represents the mental conversion of a visual image into a sound image. The right side of Image 1 represents knowledge construction of visual and verbal mental models and the link between the two Mayer, The arrows labelled selecting moving from the presented material to short-term memory , organising moving from one kind of representation in short-term memory to another , and integrating moving information from long-term memory to short-term memory and between visual and auditory representation in short-term memory represent the main cognitive processes needed for multimedia learning.

The last box is labelled long-term memory. The arrow from long-term memory to short-term memory represents the knowledge that a person has acquired that must actively be brought to short-term memory so that one can actively think about this material in long-term memory Mayer, During the cognitive process of integrating, the learner mentally connects the verbal and pictorial models as well as the applicable prior knowledge from the long-term memory Mayer, The following empirical investigation was based on the insights flowing from the conceptual and theoretical framework.

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Empirical investigation. The measuring instruments included short tests during classes, a semester test and a final examination All the tests comprised multiple-choice questions. The examination required multiple-choice responses as well as written answers. The mastering of knowledge on the correct cognitive skill and level NQF level 5 for first-year students was chosen in compliance with the guidelines formulated in the university moderator's report.

Each group acted as the control group and the experimental group twice, due to the nature of the subject.

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The results of the control group and each experimental group were compared. The two DVDs contained different multimedia, ensuring that the research was rooted in the cognitive theory of multimedia learning's dual channel system of information processing Gilakjani, , One contained predominantly text with audio recordings DVD 1 and the other contained still graphics, audio recordings, text and video clips DVD 2. The introduction of DVD 1 in History featured the lecturer against a historical backdrop.

For the theme dealing with sources, the introduction's setting was a local museum. The motivation for this was to create the context for and to enliven the theme. The text screens introduced the theme and the module outcomes. Both History themes, the first dealing with Sources and the second with Democracy, contained verbal explanations presented by the lecturer as well as text accompanied by audio recordings. Geography's DVD 1 featured the lecturer in front of a geographical backdrop.

Screens containing text introduced the theme and the module outcomes, which focused specifically on knowledge and application aspects. For Geography, the themes Natural Resources and Sustainable Development contained verbal explanations and on-screen text accompanied by audio recordings.

The Natural Resources theme featured a text statement with an answer once the correct option True or False had been chosen. History's DVD 2 with Sources as theme was filmed in a museum so that first-hand primary sources could be viewed. In both History themes Sources and Democracy text focusing on knowledge and application was used. Explanations accompanied by audio recordings also featured. Still images were included to enable visualisation of the theme as the explanation was given.

Many structured mind maps were shown on screen, setting out the theory chronologically and orderly for the Democracy theme. Permission was obtained from a television channel and a council to show excerpts from their programmes, providing clips of current affairs associated with the themes Sources and Democracy. Independent video clips from television were also used for these themes.

Geography's DVD 2 for the themes Natural Resources and Sustainable Development featured the lecturer against a geographical background. Text screens introduced the theme and outcomes. Explanations by the lecturer as well as text were accompanied by audio recordings. Still and moving images and maps were also used to ensure visualisation of the themes while the explanations were given.

A statement featured on the disc, as text, with an answer also given as text once the correct option True or False was chosen was used as self-assessment. There were also video clips of current affairs associated with the theme. The data collected after each assessment opportunity and its analysis were centred on the assessment of the two outcome levels, namely knowledge and application for History and Geography respectively when using different multimedia DVDs. The analysis of data. This was done to test if the means of the populations differed from one another. In this way, it compared the variances s 2 within and also across the groups, controlling for the covariate.

The effect size is a measure of practical significance, using Cohen's d-value and was calculated using the formula:. For each comparison of the control group with each experimental group's intervention, knowledge and application outcomes were assessed for History and Geography respectively. Therefore, all four groups were presumed to be comparable. History analysis and results for the theme Sources. The table refers to Knowledge and Application questions answered in the History theme sources, adjusted for the pre-test results. With regard to the attainment of Application outcomes in Test 1, the results indicated that statistically the groups differed significantly p-value 0.

History analysis and results for the theme Democracy. The analysis of Table 3 below shows the adjusted mean scores, mean square errors, p-values and the effect sizes d-values of ANCOVA for Test 2 and the examination. The table refers to Knowledge and Application questions answered in the History theme Democracy, adjusted for the pre-test results. The mean scores of the three groups who answered Application outcome in the examination differed significantly statistically.

The mean score of group E Table 3. Geography analysis and results for the theme Natural Resources. The analysis of Table 4 shows the adjusted mean scores, mean square errors, p-values and the effect sizes d-values of ANCOVA for Test 3 and the examination. The table refers to Knowledge and Application questions answered in the Geography theme Natural Resources, adjusted for the pre-test results. In Table 4 the Knowledge outcome for the examination shows that the three groups performed reasonably the same, with the control group E and F performing the best The groups differed significantly statistically.

The comparison between the control group E and F and the experimental group group C yielded a medium effect size 0. The mean scores of the three groups for the Application outcome for the examination differed significantly statistically. Group D Multimedia-DVD 2 , who received moving and still graphics with audio and text as well as excerpts showing natural resources, performed the best Group D Multimedia-DVD 2 , who received moving and still graphics with audio and text as well as excerpts showing Natural Resources, performed the best Geography analysis and results for the theme Sustainable Development.

The analysis of Table 5 shows the adjusted mean scores, mean square errors, p-values and the effect sizes d-values ofANCOVA for Test 4 and the examination. The table refers to Knowledge and Application questions answered in the Geography theme Sustainable Development, adjusted for the pre-test results. The Knowledge outcome for the examination shows that the control group C and D performed the best The same motivation given for the Knowledge outcome in the examination for the Natural Resources theme is applicable here.


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The Application outcome for the examination shows that group E, who received DVD 1 with text and audio, performed the best A statistical significant difference in the mean scores of the three groups for the Application outcomes in the examination is seen in Table 5. Discussion of results. Unaccustomed, they had to apply their knowledge to answer questions after using a multimedia DVD. The possibility exists that the multimedia on DVD 2 contained complex verbal and pictorial representations, causing the students to experience a lack of guidance compared to the control group, since it is difficult to distinguish the difference between primary and secondary sources Van Eeden, The possibility also exists that because the concept was too difficult to understand, the combination of the media did not have the expected effect on the outcome ChanLin, Cognitive overload may also have contributed to poor analysis and connection of information during the processing stage Woolfolk, ; Moreno, ; Gilakjani, , since less relevant information may have formed part of the multimedia design on the DVDs.

The presence of the lecturer during the contact session meant that it was possible to assess students' learning before the end of the lecture. Students were therefore forced to apply their knowledge to the summative questions posed. This was not the case with the students who received the DVDs, since their discourse took place during the following scheduled contact session. A possible reason for the results for the theme Democracy in the History analysis is that the visuals used on DVD 2 multimedia provided a clear schematic outlay of the important components of a democratic system that had to be mastered in the outcomes.

The concepts were easily understood with the aid of various multimedia, including contemporary, relevant and applicable excerpts from the news that were most likely watched over and over.

Ict in Education

In support of this finding, Lee states that "digital historical resources made university students return to the same documents time and again. History learners also rated visual media as most useful since it helps to visualise events, and students are more accustomed to technological experiences in the web-based world of our time" Lee, This may explain why Application questions showed higher means for group E multimedia DVD when compared to the other two groups.

These outcomes confirm that humans possess separate channels for processing visual and auditory information. Students therefore learn more deeply from multimedia using text and picture explanations than from a verbal explanation like DVD 1 containing text with audio De Sousa et al. This shows that a strong relationship exists between multimedia presentations and students learning for the theme Sources. Natural Resources' knowledge outcomes in the results and analysis in Geography that were answered in the examination produced the best adjusted mean scores by the group receiving a traditional contact lecture.

In general, the experimental groups using DVD 1 and 2 show that good scores can also be achieved and teaching styles can be changed when integrating multimedia into teaching and learning. However, this result was not what was expected beforehand. Nonetheless, this non-effect is also a finding. This could mean that the students have not yet learned to make the shift to learning with multimedia and that their style of learning has not changed.

Nugent's research reminds us that a subject, with its unique characteristics, influences the success of learning via pictures or audio presentations. The higher means yielded by group D Multimedia-DVD 2 may be due to student learning being enhanced by visual material on a DVD containing moving graphics with explanations and many examples of the types of Natural Resources and their processes in the form of tangible picture illustrations. The data analysis revealed that when assessing Application outcomes during an examination, a DVD containing text with audio will lead to the best results if used for teaching and learning the Geography theme of Sustainable Development.

Text is therefore more advantageous when the material becomes more complex, as Nugent found in his research. For this theme the complex concept does not require visual aids. It is the use of literature that helps build up fundamental knowledge and understanding for Application outcomes De Sousa, The noun phrase, Sustainable Development, consists of two words functioning as a noun. It requires one to understand the twofold concept. The students might have struggled more to understand this last theme in the Geography section, since they had to comprehend that the need for economic development must be accompanied by minimal harm and pollution to the environment so that future generations are not deprived of the earth's riches.

Of great importance is the fact that research by ChanLin found that if a concept such as Sustainable Development "is too difficult to understand then the presentation will be unsuccessful, no matter what media is used". Student achievement by the group that received DVD 1 containing text was superior since:. It may also be that the students of group E were used to learning in an environment with text and audio f De Sousa et al.

De Sousa et al. It has been established that the nature of the theme and the outcome assessed are factors that play a role in determining what the multimedia structure and format should look like on DVD for SS teaching and learning at a tertiary institution. The use of multimedia resources like visual sources and documentary excerpts did not have the expected effect on student learning throughout the four themes when assessing knowledge and application outcomes.

However, their inclusion was beneficial and not detrimental to student learning. In History teaching, a DVD can be integrated successfully into the teaching and learning of Sources and Democracy themes if it contains text, audio, still and moving graphics, schematic representations, and documentary excerpts. The DVD structure and format for Geography teaching and learning that can benefit student learning within SS is dependent on the nature of the theme in Geography.

In both disciplines one can deduce from the best performances by the groups using DVD 1 and DVD 2 that constructive learning as active, outcome-oriented and self-regulated learning with the aid of ICT and multimedia can result in good achievement by students. The study shows that by using multimedia, not only are different teaching and learning styles used, but the approach to learning is also different and it helps learners to construct their own knowledge. Current teaching strategies have not been successful in promoting problem-solving skills, curiosity, and critical and logical thinking.

The use of the multimedia could be useful in History and Geography teaching to make the learning experience more meaningful in SS. Multimedia versus traditional course instruction in introductory social psychology. Teaching of Psychology, Bernhard, J Thinking and learning through technology mediating tools and insights from philosophy of technology applied to science and engineering education. In: N Sanit ed. The Pantaneto Forum. Accessed on 22 August Spanning the Digital Divide. Understanding and tackling the issues. Durbanville: Bridges. ChanLin, L Animation to teach students of different knowledge levels.

Journal of Instructional Psychology, 25 3 Coetzee-Van Rooy, AS Concept moderator's report. In: Institutional course for newly- appointed lecturers. Potchefstroom: North-West University. From multimedia instruction to multimedia evaluation. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, DoE see South Africa.


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    ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives
    ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives
    ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives
    ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives
    ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives
    ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives ICT in Education: Multiple and Inclusive Perspectives

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