Hulnick, Arthur. Fixing the spy machine : preparing American intelligence for the twenty-first century. Westport, Conn. Hulnick ; foreword by Richard R. Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. To learn more about how to request items watch this short online video. You can view this on the NLA website. Login Register. Advanced search Search history. Browse titles authors subjects uniform titles series callnumbers dewey numbers starting from optional. See what's been added to the collection in the current 1 2 3 4 5 6 weeks months years.
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You must be logged in to Tag Records. Phase Two began roughly in with the Iran-Contra affair. Relations between the congressional overseers and the intelligence community had been tense throughout the administration of Ronald Reagan. Thanks to issues such as covert action and U. It did not help that Americans were sharply divided over how to wage the Cold War a fact that has been obscured over time.
Disclosure of the arms-for-hostages deal brought the conflict to a head and led to congressional investigation and a legal prosecution. These investigations became a quest to link top administration officials to illegal acts and sparked an effort to establish tighter rules for notifying Congress before a covert operation could be undertaken. Both efforts failed. Casey fell ill just as the investigations began and died soon after.
Arthur S. Hulnick - A-I
The convictions of Oliver North and John Poindexter, the two other officials most closely linked to the scandal, were overturned on legal technicalities, whereupon the investigations ran into a dead end. When Congress passed legislation that would have tightened the rules requiring the president to notify Congress before undertaking covert action, President Bush vetoed the bill and legislators lacked the votes to override him.
Investigators then dropped their prosecution of the legal case, and Phase Two ended with senior intelligence officials' simply promising to work more closely with Congress. The election of Bill Clinton in probably also defused the confrontation, as it gave the Democratic Party control of both the presidency and majorities in the House and Senate. Double agents are spies who pretend to be defecting, but in reality maintain their original loyalty.
Counter-intelligence staffs are always sceptical of volunteers or defectors and restrict their use for positive espionage purposes. A high-priority espionage target is the penetration of the various international terrorist organizations. If the leadership of such units can be infiltrated by spies, advance knowledge can be obtained of the location and identity of intended victims, the nature of the disguises being used by the hit team, and the secret sources of weapons. Such information could be used to foil terrorist operations.
International drug trafficking, it has been asserted, can similarly be thwarted by effective espionage, but the problem is complex, and only limited success has been achieved. How espionages are gathered?
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Intelligence work, including spying, proceeds in a five-step process. Initially, what the decision makers need to know is considered, and requirements are set. The second step is collecting the desired information, which requires knowing where the information is located and who can best obtain it. The information may be available in a foreign newspaper, radio broadcast, or other open source; or it may be obtained only by the most sophisticated electronic means, or by planting an agent within the decision-making system of the target area.
The third step is intelligence production, in which the collected raw data are assembled, evaluated, and collated into the best possible answer to the question initially asked. The fourth step is communicating the processed information to the decision maker. To be useful, information must be presented in a timely, accurate, and understandable form. The fifth and crucial step is the use of intelligence.
The decision maker may choose to ignore the information conveyed, thus possibly courting disaster; on the other hand, a judgment may be made on the basis of information that proves inaccurate see Hulnick, Arthur S. The point is that the decision maker must make the final crucial judgment about whether, or how, to use the information supplied.
The intelligence process can fail at each or any of these five basic steps. Similarities exist among them, yet distinctions are sharp. In the United States the Central Intelligence Agency continues to sit at the corner of an elaborate complex of some dozen separate intelligence organizations. Each has a specific role and a carefully guarded area of operations.
In the latter job the director theoretically coordinates all the separate intelligence units, setting their requirements, budgets, and operational assignments. The military also maintains a major tactical intelligence capability to assist field commanders in making on-the-spot decisions. In contrast to the federated American intelligence structure, the typical totalitarian setup is highly centralized.
Its director was generally a powerful member of the Politburo the governing political committee of the USSR.
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The KGB had two chief directorates. The most important was the First Directorate, which was responsible for foreign intelligence gathering. Its targets included diplomats and journalists stationed in the USSR, foreign students, business people, tourists, and visiting delegations see Macpherson, Nelson. China, Cuba, and other Communist nations still do. The third model of intelligence systems is the British, a confederation of agencies coordinated by a Cabinet subcommittee and accountable to the Cabinet and prime minister.
These labels reflect the military origins of these services, which are now in the civilian sector. MI5 is charged with domestic counter-intelligence and internal security. A number of specialized units also operate within the British intelligence community. These include the Government Communications Centre for code making and breaking , the Ministry of Defense intelligence sections, and various Foreign Office intelligence groups.
With some national variations, the intelligence services of France, Italy, Israel, and the Commonwealth of Nations countries follow the general British pattern of organization see Macpherson, Nelson. The Austrian statesman Prince von Metternich also established an efficient organization of political and military spies early in the 19th century.
Better known than either of these organizations was the dreaded Okhrana Department for Defence of Public Security and Order of the Russian tsars, created in to uncover opposition to the regime. During the midth century the secret police of Prussia was reorganized and invested with the duty of safeguarding the external as well as the internal security of the country.
The Prussian espionage system played an important part in preparations to unify the German states in the German Empire. It also covered France with a network of about 30, agents whose work contributed to the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War of Not until the latter part of the 19th century, however, were permanent intelligence bureaux created by modern states see T.
In preparing for World War I the Germans again flooded France with a host of agents, some of whom were disguised as trade representatives, teachers, agricultural labourers, or domestics. The most famous of these agents was Mata Hari, who posed as an Indian dancer in Paris. German agents also engaged in attempts to sabotage American national defense both before and after the US entry into World War I.
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Most nations, however, entered World War I with inadequate espionage staffs, and the war was frequently fought on the basis of poor intelligence. The lessons of that war, along with rapid advances in technology, especially in communications and aviation, spurred a major growth in intelligence agencies. This was further stimulated by the advent of Fascist governments in Europe and a military dictatorship in Japan, all of which had expansionist foreign policies and the creation of counter-espionage agencies such as the Gestapo in Nazi Germany. These developments led other, democratic countries to establish counter-espionage systems as well see Hulnick, Arthur S.
World War II was the great stimulus to intelligence services worldwide. Modern military and communications technology put a premium on accurate and quick information, as well as on efforts to protect the security of sensitive information. Some of the great battles of World War II were actually intelligence and counter-intelligence battles.
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Only in recent years have some of the exploits, and failures, in this secret war been disclosed. Notable is Operation Double Cross, in which the British captured practically all the German spies in Great Britain during the war and turned them into double agents who sent false information back to Germany. The surprise attack by Japan on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor on December 7, , was a great intelligence success for the Japanese and an intelligence failure for the Americans.
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