Bringing together those who teach and research RE, sharing research reports and encouraging collaboration and new ideas.
Are you likely to be a newly qualified secondary RE teacher in September ? Find the best support for the start of your career here! We gratefully acknowledge the support of the below organisations. Search our free, great quality teaching resources. Jehovah's Witnesses. Soka Gakkai. Clear Selection 0. Themes Please select. Creative Expression. Global Issues. Impact on Daily Life. Inspirational People. Places of Worship. Rites of Passage.
Social Issues. Sources of Authority. If we choose faith we must suspend our reason in order to believe in something higher than reason. In fact we must believe by virtue of the absurd. According to Johannes Climacus, faith is a miracle, a gift from God whereby eternal truth enters time in the instant. This Christian conception of the relation between eternal truth and time is distinct from the Socratic notion that eternal truth is always already within us—it just needs to be recovered by means of recollection anamnesis.
The condition for realizing eternal truth for the Christian is a gift Gave from God, but its realization is a task Opgave which must be repeatedly performed by the individual believer. Crucial to the miracle of Christian faith is the realization that over against God we are always in the wrong. That is, we must realize that we are always in sin. This is the condition for faith, and must be given by God.
The idea of sin cannot evolve from purely human origins. Rather, it must have been introduced into the world from a transcendent source. Once we understand that we are in sin, we can understand that there is some being over against which we are always in the wrong. On this basis we can have faith that, by virtue of the absurd, we can ultimately be atoned with this being.
The absurdity of atonement requires faith that we believe that for God even the impossible is possible, including the forgiveness of the unforgivable. Although God can forgive the unforgivable, He cannot force anyone to accept it. Kierkegaard is sometimes regarded as an apolitical thinker, but in fact he intervened stridently in church politics, cultural politics, and in the turbulent social changes of his time.
This latter desire gradually left him, but his relation to women remained highly questionable. While Kierkegaard greatly admired Hegel, he had grave reservations about Hegelianism and its bombastic promises. Hegel would have been the greatest thinker who ever lived, said Kierkegaard, if only he had regarded his system as a thought-experiment. Instead he took himself seriously to have reached the truth, and so rendered himself comical.
This authorship snipes simultaneously at German romanticism and contemporary Danish literati with J. Heiberg receiving much acerbic comment. However, it also draws heavily on the work of these authors, especially by taking seriously their framing of philosophical and theological problems. Classical Greek art, in particular, is taken to be the gold standard by which artistic perfection is to be measured. However, Kierkegaard and the German romantics and German idealists share the view that classical Greek art lacks inwardness or subjective spirit. Modern art, by contrast, while unlikely to match the formal perfection of classical Greek art, contains the potential to explore subjective spirit.
One crucial dimension of subjective spirit is freedom, which becomes a distinctive preoccupation of modern art and post-Kantian philosophy. He uses narrative points of view, pseudonyms, vignettes, character sketches and case studies from life and literature to illustrate how dialectics of moods, emotions and spirit can both disable and enable individual freedom.
Moods such as melancholy, boredom and irony can become demonically self-perpetuating, but they also have the potential to lift the individual to a state of self-reflection that amounts to higher order consciousness, thereby enabling the individual to see his or her former existence as what Wittgenstein called a limited whole. The highest order of consciousness for Kierkegaard is God-consciousness, which enables the individual to see himself or herself as both a sinner and as open to divine grace.
So it had little immediate effect as discursive action. Kierkegaard sought to remedy this by provoking an attack on himself in the popular satirical review The Corsair. Kierkegaard succeeded in having himself mercilessly lampooned in this publication, largely on personal grounds rather than in terms of the substance of his writings.
The suffering incurred by these attacks sparked Kierkegaard into another highly productive phase of authorship, but this time his focus was the creation of positive Christian discourses rather than satire or parody. He realized he could no longer indulge himself in the painstakingly erudite and poetically meticulous writing he had practised hitherto. This addressed church politics directly and increasingly shrilly.
One was the influence of Hegel, largely through the teachings of H. Martensen; the other was the popularity of N. Grundtvig, a theologian, educator and poet who composed most of the pieces in the Danish hymn book. Grundtvig emphasized the light, joyous, celebratory and communal aspects of Christianity, whereas Kierkegaard emphasized seriousness, suffering, sin, guilt, and individual isolation.
His intervention with respect to Hegelianism also failed, with Martensen succeeding Mynster as Bishop Primate. Hegelianism in the church went on to die of natural causes. Kierkegaard also provided critical commentary on social change. He feared that the opportunity of achieving genuine selfhood was diminished by the social production of stereotypes. He lived in an age when mass society was emerging from a highly stratified feudal order and was contemptuous of the mediocrity the new social order generated. One symptom of the change was that mass society substitutes detached reflection for engaged passionate commitment.
Yet the latter is crucial for Christian faith and for authentic selfhood according to Kierkegaard. His pamphleteering achieved little immediate impact, but his substantial philosophical, literary, psychological and theological writings have had a lasting effect. Ibsen and Strindberg, together with Friedrich Nietzsche, became central icons of the modernism movement in Berlin in the s.
Taking his cue from Brandes, the Swedish literary critic Ola Hansson subsequently promoted this conjunction of writers in Berlin itself. Berlin modernism self-consciously sought to use art as a means of political and social change. Many other writers have been inspired by Kierkegaard to tackle fundamental issues in philosophy, politics, theology and psychology. Franz Kafka, Emmanuel Levinas and Jacques Derrida have all written extensively in response, to try to sort out the implications for ethics and faith. Kierkegaard was a saint. This has produced quite a debate about the relevance of Kierkegaard for developing narrative accounts of the self, with notable contributions by Anthony Rudd, John Davenport, John Lippitt and Patrick Stokes.
Paul Ricoeur and Judith Butler have also been influenced by Kierkegaard, especially regarding his use of rhetoric and narrative point of view to critique systematic philosophy. It is impossible to give an exhaustive list of the important thinkers who owe an intellectual or existential debt to Kierkegaard. The diversity of the writers and thinkers mentioned above nevertheless testifies to the breadth and depth of his influence, which continues into the present age.
Published against his Will by S. Kierkegaard passed final theological examination - proposed to Regine Olsen, who accepted him broke off his engagement to Regine Olsen - defended his dissertation On the Concept of Irony with constant reference to Socrates Om Begrebet Ironi med stadigt Hensyn til Socrates - trip to Berlin, where he attended lectures by Schelling returned from Berlin Either-Or: A Fragment of Life edited by Victor Eremita Enten-Eller.
Af Johannes Climacus. Udgivet af S. Studier af Forskjellige. Kierkegaard Afsluttende uvidenskabelig Efterskrift til de philosophiske Smuler. Udgiven af S. Kierkegaard En literair Anmeldelse af S. Kierkegaard Opbyggelige Taler i forskjellig Aand af S. Kierkegaard Kjerlighedens Gjerninger. Nogle christelige Overveielser i Talers Form, af S. Kierkegaard Christelige Taler, af S. En ligefrem Meddelelse, Rapport til Historien, af S. Kierkegaard Lilien paa Marken og Fuglen under Himlen.
Tre gudelige Taler af S. Tvende ethisk-religieuse Smaa-Afhandlinger.
Alan A. Block, Ethics and Teaching: A Religious Perspective on Revitalizing Education - PhilPapers
Af Anticlimacus. Af Anti-Climacus—Udgivet af S. Kierkegaard - An Edifying Discourse by S. Kierkegaard En opbyggelig Tale. Kierkegaard Om min Forfatter-Virksomhed. Kierkegaard - Judge For Yourselves! Recommended to the present time for Self-Examination. Second series, by S.
Kierkegaard - The Instant by S. Kierkegaard Guds Uforanderlighed. En Tale—Af S. Kierkegaard - Kierkegaard died November Adorno, Theodor W. Billeskov Jansen, F. Bloom, Harold ed. En kritisk Fremstilling i Grundrids , Copenhagen: Gyldendal. Davenport John J. Derrida, Jacques, , The Gift of Death , trans. Evans, C. Ferreira, M. Bruce H.
Education about Religions and Beliefs (ERB) and Ethics
Kirmmse, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Reitzels Forlag.
- Princess Elizabeths Spy;
- Related items.
- The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death!
- Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia.
- Search our free, great quality teaching resources;
Knox, Macon: Mercer University Press. Hall, Ronald L. Hannay, Alastair and Gordon Marino eds. Houe, Poul, , Gordon D. Jegstrup, Elsebet ed. Kirmmse, Bruce H. Laursen, Princeton, N. Law, David R. Lippitt, John and George Pattison eds. Malantschuk, Gregor, , Frihed og Eksistens. Malik, Habib C. Kirmmse, Pittsburgh, Pa.
- Stellar Pulsation.
- The Community Planning Event Manual: How to use Collaborative Planning and Urban Design Events to Improve your Environment (Tools for Community Planning)?
- A Proslavery Foreign Policy: Haitian-American Relations during the Early Republic.
- Navigation menu.
- The Bounding Approach to VLSI Circuit Simulation.
Podmore, Simon D. Stewart, Jon ed. Taylor, Mark C. Academic Tools How to cite this entry. Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPapers , with links to its database. Hong and Edna H. Related Entries existentialism faith Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich individuals and individuation personal identity Socrates. Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. Mirror Sites View this site from another server:. From the Papers of One Still Living.
Et Livs-Fragment, udgivet af Victor Eremita. Dialektisk Lyrik af Johannes de Silentio. Three Edifying Discourses by S. Kierkegaard Tre opbyggelige Taler. Four Edifying Discourses by S.
Kierkegaard Fire opbyggelige Taler. En simpel psychologisk-paapegende Overveielse i Retning of det dogmatiske Problem om Arvesynden af Vigilius Haufniensis. Three Addresses on Imagined Occasions by S. Sammenbragte, befordrede til Trykken og udgivne af Hilarius Bogbinder. Eighteen Edifying Discourses by S. Kierkegaard a collection of the remaindered Edifying Discourses from and Edifying Discourses in Different Spirits by S. Christian Discourses by S. Kierkegaard unpublished.
Two Ethico-Religious Treatises by H. Training in Christianity by Anti-Climacus, Nos. An Edifying Discourse by S. Kierkegaard To Taler ved Altergangen om Fredagen. Judge For Yourselves!
Related Ethics and Teaching: A Religious Perspective on Revitalizing Education
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved