Endurance in Sport, Second Edition


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by Tudor O. Bompa, PhD

Healthy eating habits also help you avoid losing days to injuries and upper-respiratory infections, such as colds. Endurance training offers many benefits. Consequently, a trained athlete has greater capacity to burn carbohydrate for fuel during intense endurance exercise and relies less on muscle glycogen and blood glucose as fuel during prolonged submaximal exercise. A unit of glycogen burned aerobically with oxygen generates nearly 20 times the ATP that it could through anaerobic without oxygen metabolism.

In practical terms, a higher lactate threshold means that your oxygen-dependent energy systems have improved and that your muscles are better able to clear lactic acid from the blood. You can exercise more intensely without accumulating lactic acid—an obvious benefit because the presence of lactic acid contributes to fatigue and inhibits the ability of the body to burn fat as fuel, which increases the rate at which glycogen is broken down. All these adaptations help you become more efficient at using fat as a fuel source during exercise. Fats are mobilized and made available to working muscles more rapidly.

Training also stimulates your muscles to store more carbohydrate in the form of muscle glycogen. The benefits are twofold: Muscles start out with larger glycogen reserves, and you use it at a slower rate. You can therefore exercise at a higher absolute level for example, maintain your pace for longer before experiencing the fatiguing effects of glycogen depletion.

Remember, making daily food choices that supply key nutrients and adequate calories sets you up to train consistently at a high level.


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Athletes who accomplish their training goals arrive at the starting line better prepared to handle the rigors associated with endurance sports. Do you want to be stronger and faster next season? Athletes participating in endurance sports typically fall into two categories when it comes to body weight: those who wish they had less weight to carry around especially less body fat and those trying to boost their strength-to-weight ratio by adding muscle. But if this quest becomes an obsession, you will perform poorly and may even do serious harm to your health and happiness.

Fearing food in order to run faster takes my love of the sport away. Although most of us readily accept our height, we often spend a lot of time and energy trying to manipulate what we weigh. The important thing to remember is that your weight is influenced by more than what you eat and how much you exercise. Your sex, age, and height, as well as the thickness of your bones and your ratio of muscle to fat all affect how much you weigh.

Obviously, most of these factors are genetically predetermined and out of your control, as is your inherited body type. The simple fact is that your bathroom scale cannot differentiate between fat weight and muscle weight. Besides, body weight is not static, remaining constant from day to day or even throughout a single day.


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Think of your body weight as a vital sign, like your blood pressure or body temperature, all of which vary throughout the day. To gain useful information from the scale, weigh yourself nude in the morning, once a week at most, after emptying your bladder and before you exercise or eat breakfast. Monitoring your weight over time during a specific phase of your training, for example can be valuable. An otherwise unexplained drop of weight over a few weeks or months, combined with less than satisfactory performances, for instance, can alert you to the dangers of becoming overtrained because of underfueling.

Daily weigh-ins, on the other hand, provide information only on shifts in body fluids. Many factors will affect your weight at a particular time. Sweating during exercise and vomiting or diarrhea because of an illness will temporarily decrease your weight, whereas you may appear to gain weight literally overnight because of water retention related to monthly hormonal changes or from eating a carbohydrate-packed meal the night before.

If you still want to weigh yourself daily, put your time and energy to good use by weighing yourself before and after exercise to monitor your fluid losses. To rehydrate, drink at least 2. Health professionals developed BMI to help find people at risk for obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, and some cancers. Many athletes and even regular exercisers, however, may show up on the charts as overweight BMI of You can blame your lean body mass, or muscles, which are denser than fat. Healthy bodies come in all shapes and sizes. Body Composition and Performance Rather than relying solely on a scale to evaluate the effectiveness of your diet and training programs, look at your body composition.

You can distinguish the amount of body weight due to fat expressed as percent body fat from the nonfat tissue of the body, or lean mass bones, muscles, organs, and connective tissue , using various techniques of body-composition analysis. Generally, leaner athletes, or those with lower percentages of body fat, perform better on tests of speed, endurance, balance, agility, and jumping ability.

For endurance athletes in particular, excessive body fat can be undesirable. It translates into extra weight that the athlete must transport for extended periods. The ideal body composition varies from sport to sport. In general, body-fat levels of elite endurance athletes, such as marathoners and triathletes, range from 5 to 9 percent in men and 8 to 15 percent in women.

Keep in mind that these levels are simply what researchers have observed, not what all endurance athletes should strive for or necessarily attain. Be careful not to confuse correlation with causation. The measured body-fat levels of elite athletes are observed to fall into or correlate with a particular body-fat range. In fact, shaving your body fat level too low can be unhealthy and detrimental to your performance. Your body needs some essential fat to function. The American College of Sports Medicine estimates that men need a minimum level of 5 percent and women need at least 12 percent females require higher body-fat levels to protect menstrual and child-bearing functions.

If you choose to monitor your body-fat percentage, be realistic. The goal is to achieve an appropriate body-fat level that allows you to perform at your best without harming your overall health. As with weight, the top performers in any sport will vary in body-fat percentage. For example, I was involved in a comprehensive study of elite female distance runners.

Most of the women were running well at body-fat percentages between 10 and 12 percent. Methods of Assessing Body Composition Several techniques are available for assessing body composition. Body fat can only be estimated in living humans, not measured directly. Underwater or Hydrostatic Weighing This method requires repeated tests in which you sit perfectly still for about 10 seconds while fully immersed underwater in a special tank after blowing all the air out of your lungs.

The difference between your weight on land and your weight in water is used to estimate your body density. From that your body-fat percentage can be extrapolated. This test is a time when being found to be dense is OK, because denser bodies have less fat! Underwater weighing has traditionally been the gold standard, the technique of choice by researchers when it comes to assessing body composition. All other methods are compared with it.

Air Displacement Bod Pod This technique relies on the same whole-body measurement principle as underwater weighing does; the overall density of the body is used to determine the percentage of fat and lean tissue. You sit in an enclosed egg-shaped capsule the Bod Pod for about one minute as computer sensors determine the amount of air displaced by your body. The Bod Pod quickly generates estimates of body-fat percentage, does not require the subject to get wet, and produces estimates that correlate closely with those produced by hydrostatic weighing for physically active people. Unfortunately, few facilities can afford the research-oriented version of the Bod Pod which has the ability to measure actual lung volume , so this option can be expensive and may not be available in your area.

Check university research laboratories and athletic facilities that serve professional and collegiate athletes. The Bod Pod version typically available in health clubs uses predicted lung volumes; thus athletes engaged in serious training may be led awry by skewed results. With either version, waiting at least two hours after exercising before being tested is advised.

DEXA looks at the body using a three-compartment model: lean muscle mass, fat, and bone. Developed to measure bone density, DEXA assumes that the amount of photon energy being absorbed is directly proportional to the mineral content of the bones. Besides letting you know what shape your bones are in compared with predetermined standards for people of the same sex and age group , DEXA provides relative measurements of fat and lean tissue.

Furthermore, DEXA shows exactly where the fat as well as the muscle is distributed throughout your body. Noninvasive and easy, DEXA does expose you to low amounts of radiation as all x-rays do , and it can be relatively pricy because the equipment is expensive and trained professionals are required to operate it. Check universities, hospitals, and other research-based facilities. The faster the current travels through your body, the less body fat you have.

Although quick and noninvasive, BIA has a higher error rate 3 to 5 percent and can be particularly inaccurate when used with athletes. BIA tends to overestimate body-fat percentages in lean individuals, and fluid shifts in the body caused by dehydration from exercising or fluid retention due to a menstrual cycle can easily sway the results. To increase the probability of getting meaningful measurements, you must be well hydrated although you should avoid eating and drinking for 4 hours before the test and should avoid exercising for 12 hours before the test.

The same advice applies if you purchase a scalelike device based on BIA designed for home use like the Tanita body-fat scale. You need to take readings at the same time of day, when you are in a hydrated state with an empty bladder. Avoid getting on the scale when you are most likely to be dehydrated—early in the morning or late at night, following exercise, after a sauna, or within 24 hours of consuming large amounts of caffeine or alcohol.

Skinfold Caliper Test A skinfold caliper test involves using hand-held calipers to pinch and measure the thickness of fat located right under the skin. Typically, three to seven sites are measured, for example, the abdomen, back of the arm, thigh, hip, and back of the shoulder. These measurements are plugged into a formula to estimate percent body fat. This simple, noninvasive, inexpensive technique can provide accurate and reliable readings, but only if the measurement taker is skilled and has lots of practice.

Skinfold measurements are not the most valid predictor of body fat 3 to 5 percent error. Nevertheless, they can be very useful to athletes and coaches in monitoring changes in body composition over time. This method requires no fancy scientific formulas, just precise measurements. Simply measure selected points on your upper arm, chest, waist, hips, thighs, and calves to the nearest eighth of an inch three millimeters with a tape measure and record those readings. Over time, though, as you repeat the measurements, you will be able to see your body respond as you adopt healthier eating habits or undertake a new training program.

If losing weight is your goal, for example, monitoring the amount that you lose with your measurements getting smaller over time can be gratifying and reassuring. If you lose fat and gain muscle at the same time, your weight as registered by a scale may not change at all. Female athletes who intensify their training or begin a strength-training program often struggle with this fact. A pound of muscle think of a brick , however, takes up less space than a pound of fat think of cotton balls , so a tape measure will more accurately reflect changes in body composition than a scale will.

Determining Healthy Body Composition Many athletes I counsel want to know what they should weigh, especially those who are new to a sport or embarking on a challenging physical endeavor for the first time. Strive to keep your weight within an optimal range, within a few pounds for example, during a competitive season.

Living on salad and rice cakes while training twice a day to reach or maintain a specific weight should be a red flag that your weight goal is unrealistic. Remember that your weight and body-fat percentage will vary some throughout the year depending on the amount and type of exercise that you are engaged in. The second mistake that they make is comparing measurements compiled from different testing methods. Science tells us that if we want to track body composition, we must use the same method each time and follow the person over time.

This approach allows us to monitor changes in body composition that truly occur in response to changes in training or eating habits. To make such measurements worthwhile, keep accurate notes on the type and volume of training that you were involved in at the time of each measurement. Instead of focusing on your weight, which is merely an outcome of what you do, concentrate on what you need to be doing to reach the desired outcome. These two factors are what will carry you over the long haul. The weight that you end up at is your optimal healthy weight—one that you can realistically achieve and maintain, perform well at without compromising your health, and enjoy life with.

Check out the most current research-based standards, which take into account age and gender see table 3. Table 3. Body-fat values for athletes vary widely depending on gender and the sport itself. From V. Heyward and D. Wagner, , Applied body composition assessment, 2nd ed. Some need to gain weight, whereas others want to lose weight or body fat.

Whether you maintain, lose, or gain is primarily a matter of energy balance. To lose weight, you must expend more calories than you take in. The concept sounds simple, but in reality the process can be quite complex. Strategies for Losing Weight Before embarking on a plan to lose weight, be sure that you really need to. One of my collegiate teammates, the best female cross-country runner in her state as a high school senior, is a perfect example. Tall with a lean upper body, she carried all her weight on the lower half of her body. Despite completing a successful high school career at a certain weight, our coach decided that she would perform better in college if she lost 5 pounds 2.

Living on salad, air-popped popcorn, and a small dinner accompanied by a scoop of ice cream as a reward for making it through the day , she did lose the weight. But she was constantly battling an upper-respiratory infection and even pulled some intercostal muscles between the ribs from coughing so hard! She never fully recuperated and ran poorly all year. Your competitors are the only ones who benefit from this type of weight loss.

Athletes who are chronically dehydrated and operating with low glycogen stores find it difficult to maintain their usual training pace, fatigue earlier in workouts and competitions, and suffer more injuries. Repeated attempts to manipulate body weight or body fat below a level that is normal for you are counterproductive. Significant metabolic changes result from chronic dieting or loss of critical fat stores. For example, if you restrict your caloric intake too drastically, your body will resist your attempts to lose weight by immediately dropping its resting metabolic rate—that is, your body will use fewer calories to carry on essential vital functions and will store excess calories as fat.

Because your body has no way of knowing how long this under-fueling will last, it will attempt to protect itself by adapting to the lower calorie intake. The body apparently receives messages through brain signals and hormones that help it become more efficient at extracting energy from food and storing it as body fat. Consequently, perpetual dieters often find it progressively harder to lose weight and must eat even fewer calories in the future to induce further weight loss.

So, as your muscle mass decreases, your body requires fewer calories to remain at the same weight. Set a realistic weight-loss goal. Work with a qualified expert, such as a sports dietitian, if you need help in this area. Focus on getting your weight into a realistic and healthy range that you can reach and maintain at this point in your life through healthy exercise and eating habits. Finally, keep in mind that how you eat is just as important as what you eat. Assuming that you have weight to lose, want to keep the weight off permanently, and want to have enough energy to exercise, calculate your calorie needs see chapter 1 and put the following strategies into action.

You bite it, you write it: Keep a food diary Keep a food journal, which serves the same purpose as a training log. Be sure to record the time of day or night too. Recording the reason that you are eating is also helpful. For example, are you eating because you are hungry? Nervous about an upcoming race? Writing down everything that you eat can help you stay committed to your long-range goal of losing weight sensibly. The 25 percent of participants who consistently recorded all the foods that they ate during this period managed to lose 7 more pounds! The very act of writing down your daily choices, not the precise things that you record, is what counts.

Self-monitoring forces us to be accountable for our daily actions. For best results, leave your food journal in a visible place as a visual reminder for example, on your desk or in your kitchen or record what you eat in your day planner or training log. Unfortunately, the most common weight-loss strategy that athletes attempt is one that actually promotes weight gain.

They diet all day by skimping on breakfast and lunch, become progressively hungrier as the day goes along, and then backload in the calories by beating a path to the refrigerator from dinner until bedtime. Keep in mind that athletes of all ages and abilities who want to lose weight should do so in stages. Incorporating even small changes into new habits takes time and effort.

How endurance athletes are using the power of the now - Ned Phillips - TEDxUWCSEA

Stop and assess how you are doing at maintaining the healthy changes that got you to a lower weight. Can you realistically continue them? Will you be able to do more? You still need to consume foods from all five food groups, just like everyone else. Instead, they nibble their way though the day, racking up calories from small chocolate bars, energy drinks and bars, coffee beverages, and oversize bagels and muffins.

If you find yourself constantly eating out of a box, in your car, or while standing up, consider that these unfulfilling actions may be sabotaging your efforts to lose weight. You may lack skills in the cooking and domestic department.

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I met one college athlete who lived off campus and was responsible for his own meals. He routinely boiled four hot dogs for lunch and followed that up with four more for dinner! Alternatively, invest in cost-effective dinners offered by companies that provide preassembled meals that you cook at home. Because we eat what is available and convenient, your job is to keep a variety of nutritious and tasty foods on hand so that you can assemble meals quickly. One of the crucial habits of successful weight losers as tracked by the National Weight Control Registry adults who have lost at least 30 pounds, or 14 kilograms, and kept it off it for more than six years is eating breakfast every day.

By eating breakfast, you jump-start your metabolism and set the stage for the rest of the day. For that reason, eating breakfast is even more important for physically active people, because we tend to get hungry more often and more quickly. Remember, the less you eat in the morning, the more likely you are to overeat later in the day. Be a portion master: Practice brings progress Be aware of portion distortion, especially when you dine away from home.

Because of the supersizing of food portions, an average bakery bagel now provides calories—the equivalent of eating three to four slices of bread! Megasized cookies, muffins, sodas, and coffee drinks may appear to be a good buy, but can you afford the to calories that they provide? The bottom line: supersize portions lead to supersize people, including overweight athletes.

I constantly hear from fitness enthusiasts and recreational athletes who are disappointed because they assumed that they would inevitably lose weight while training for a new athletic challenge. Use a kitchen scale and measuring cups and spoons periodically at home so that you can estimate portion sizes when you dine out. Look for easy ways to trim empty calories. If you eat out frequently, limit your intake of high-fat foods such as salad dressings, mayonnaise, cheese, fatty meats like hot dogs and sausage, and fried items.

Inquire about how foods are prepared before ordering them to detect hidden fats, such as cream sauces, olive oil, and cheese. Watch out for carbohydrate overloading too. Ask yourself how many times you begin meals at home by eating a whole basket of bread! Divide your plate into thirds—and keep the starchy foods, like potatoes, rice, pasta, and bread, to one-third. Get a handle on how many calories you drink throughout the day too. Cutting back on soda, alcohol, health shakes, energy drinks, and even juice may be all you need to do. People report feeling fuller longer when they eat ample amounts of protein, and that appears to translate into feeling less deprived and more motivated to stick with a lower calorie intake.

Researchers are eagerly seeking the underlying mechanism to explain how protein works to increase the feeling of fullness. Include enough lean, quality protein such as fish not fried , chicken no skin , lean red meat, low-fat dairy and soy products, and beans of all kinds pinto, black, kidney, and so on at every meal. Stick to reasonable-size portions, such as 3 ounces 90 grams of meat, at any one time.

Unlike carbohydrate and fat, protein cannot be stored by your body. If you eat protein beyond your needs, your body breaks it down and converts the excess calories into body fat. Have you eaten today? Concentrate on eating your calories when you need them most, which is during the day. Our muscles and our brain cells thrive on having a steady, constant supply of fuel available.

Endurance Sports Nutrition:Second edition - Suzanna Girard Eberle - Google Books

Be creative with your eating schedule. For instance, if you train after work, eat less at lunchtime and save some calories for an afternoon snack closer to your workout time. A sports drink or energy bar after you finish takes the place of that second helping or extra dessert at dinner. You can still obtain a desirable level of body fat if you snack on half a bagel spread with peanut butter or a salad with dressing drizzled over it. Be sure to keep enough fat in your diet. Besides supplying energy and essential fatty acids, fat allows your body to absorb and use fat-soluble vitamins.

Fat also heightens the flavors of food, curbs cravings, and helps you feel full. Without enough fat in your diet, you will feel unsatisfied and will be more likely to overeat, especially in the carbohydrate department. The fact remains that we do not gain weight simply from eating foods or meals that contain fat. Excess calories, whether they come from fat, carbohydrate, or protein, are the culprit.

Eating a diet that contains an appropriate amount of fat, at least 20 percent of total calories or one-half gram per pound one gram per kilogram of body weight, is not overdoing it. The key is to concentrate on eating the right kind of fat. Nuts and nut butters, seeds, avocados, and oils such as olive, canola, and flaxseed are rich in heart-healthy monounsaturated fat.

Of course, even these heart-healthy fats supply concentrated calories nine calories per gram , so use small amounts spaced throughout the day. Fats that we all need to limit in our daily diet are saturated fats and partially hydrogenated fats, or trans fats. To reduce the saturated fat in your diet, choose low-fat dairy products and lean cuts of meat. Limiting traditional fatty foods such as fried food, fast food, and processed foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils such as stick margarine, snack foods, and bakery goods will help keep the amount of trans fat that you consume under control.

Exercise does more than just help you burn fat. It helps create a calorie deficit in the body; in other words, it helps you expend more calories than you consume. Remember that to lose one pound, you need to create a deficit of 3, calories, either by eating less, exercising more, or some combination of the two. No matter what fuel you burn during exercise, the body can pull from its fat stores later to make up for the calories expended during exercise. The amount of calories that you burn during exercise depends on many factors—your body weight, the type of exercise that you do, the intensity and duration of exercise, and whether you are a novice or a trained athlete.

But strength or resistance training and higher-intensity exercise, such as intervals, tempo workouts, and fartlek training breaking your normal pace up with fast bursts , can help you lose weight as well as boost your performance. Given the same time period, lower-intensity exercise uses a greater percentage of fat, but it also burns fewer total calories than higher-intensity exercise does. During faster paced activities, a greater percentage of calories come from carbohydrate than from fat, but the overall amount of calories that you use is higher.

What matters most is the total number of calories used, not the percentage of fat to carbohydrate.

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Higher-intensity exercise helps you lose weight because it uses more calories per minute. Think about it this way: A large percentage of a small number can be smaller than a small percentage of a large number. For example, a pound kilogram cyclist averaging a leisurely 12 miles 19 kilometers per hour may burn calories an hour, and about 70 percent of the energy is derived from fat.

The same cyclist may burn approximately calories per hour riding at 18 miles 29 kilometers per hour, and fat provides about 50 percent of the necessary fuel. But 70 percent of is , and 50 percent of is , so the more intense ride burns over more fat calories. More important, because few people have unlimited time to exercise, riding more intensely burns more calories in the same period versus Trained athletes burn more fat for two reasons.

They use fat sooner during exercise training helps you store more fat within muscles for easy access , and they have the ability to work at higher intensities thanks in part to an elevated lactate threshold than recreational athletes do, thus burning more calories and proportionally higher amounts of fat. Working at lower intensities until you can handle workouts that are more intense helps you avoid injuries and prepares your body for future stress.

As you work up to handling higher-intensity workouts, duration becomes a greater factor in losing weight, not to burn more fat but to burn more calories. In other words, you need to exercise longer to make up for the lower number of calories used per minute. Or simply become more active during the day, such as by taking the stairs instead of the elevator or by walking instead of driving to complete errands.

Strength, Muscular Endurance, and Power in Sports

Visiting the weight room while trying to lose weight is especially beneficial. Strength training builds muscle mass, which boosts your resting metabolic rate. Weight training also helps ensure that the weight you lose is primarily from body fat, not muscle. This recovery period provides your body—and your mind—with a well-deserved and, for many athletes, a much-needed break, from training. Whether you totally kick back, engage in active rest a perfect time to try new activities , or enter a period of lighter training, decreases in exercise volume and intensity also mean decreases in caloric intake.

Otherwise, unwanted extra weight is the result. The off-season is also the best time to reexamine your nutrition goals, establish new eating habits, lose weight if you need to, or work on increasing your muscle mass. Skip the sports foods. Save energy drinks, bars, and gels for their intended purposes—before, during, and after exercise. Keep moving. Besides workouts and races, many athletes are quite sedentary, especially those tied to a desk all day.

With fewer planned exercise sessions, you may need to remind yourself to get up and get moving.

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To hold yourself accountable, buy a simple step counter. Aim to walk at least 10, steps a day, approximately five miles, by taking the stairs, running errands on foot, and pacing back and forth while on the phone. Weigh yourself weekly—on the same scale, at the same time of day, and under the same conditions. Modest weight gains are acceptable and expected. Be alert to rapid or large gains in unnecessary weight for example, those not associated with a strength-training program or the restoration of healthy weight lost during the competitive season.

Take responsibility for your body and take action before small gains lead to an unreasonable amount of extra pounds. Eat a fruit or vegetable at every meal and snack. Fill up without filling out. A good habit any time becomes an essential habit during the offseason. Commit to filling half your plate at lunch and dinner with fruits and vegetables. Commit to eating three balanced meals each containing at least three food groups every day, with snacks as needed. Strategies for Gaining Weight Gaining weight can be an advantage if speed, power, leverage, or mass come into play in your sport or activity.

Of course, you most likely want to gain lean muscle tissue, not fat. Adding muscle mass can increase your strength-toweight ratio, which ultimately increases your strength and power, enabling you to perform at a higher level. Depositing extra body fat does little to enhance power or strength. Like athletes who are trying to lose weight, you need to be realistic about the amount of weight or lean body mass that you can gain.

Adding a few pounds before you head off to an ultrarun or adventure race is one thing, but expecting to transform your physique is a completely different ball game. Look at the other members of your family, especially your parents, to get a clear picture of your potential. The bottom line, of course, is that to gain weight you must consume more calories than you expend.

No magic nutrients exist that promote substantial gains in strength and muscle mass. See chapter 5 for a complete review of creatine and other supplements that are touted for their potential to enhance lean muscle mass in athletes. Keep the following guidelines in mind as you attempt to gain lean muscle mass. Bulking up, or building muscle, requires you to have enough calories on board to meet your energy demands as well as support the growth of new tissue.

You must also commit to a well-designed strength-training or weight-training program. Strength training helps muscle cells become more efficient at using available protein to synthesize new cells. Of course, if you simply overeat literally consume more calories than you burn off , then the extra calories from any source—carbohydrate, protein, or fat—will help you gain weight by increasing your body fat.

Make eating a priority: Start early and eat often Many athletes need to make eating a higher priority to ensure that they get enough calories. Also consciously plan to eat minimeals snacks two to three times a day. Be smart and plan by buying and keeping healthy snacks on hand at home, at the office, and in your car. See chapter 8: Performance-Enhancing Snacks, page Take the hearty route: Choose higher-calorie but still-healthy foods You can easily boost your calories by choosing heartier versions of various foods, such as granola over cornflakes, cranberry juice over orange juice, and split-pea soup instead of chicken noodle soup.

Sports Nutrition for Endurance Athletes

Eating larger than normal portions of healthy foods, such as another helping of baked beans or an extra sandwich, will also add calories. Liquid meal products, homemade milk shakes and fruit smoothies, and even percent fruit juice can be easy ways to down additional calories. Most athletes have trouble gaining weight not because they lack protein but because they fail to consume enough calories or enough carbohydrate in their day-to-day diet.

Although protein requirements do increase when gaining muscle is the goal, most athletes naturally consume enough extra protein from the additional food that they eat to boost their calorie intake. Your body relies on carbohydrate to fuel your weight-training sessions as well as the endurance activities that you participate in. The terrain of the race varies, spanning hard sand on beaches with an outgoing tide, coastal hills cut by ravines that often require leading the horses, tight forested tracks and soft sand, where haste could result in tendon injuries.

While thrilling, this arduous enterprise will force riders to keep a steady pace while reading the immediate landscape for the fastest or most efficient route — never knowing what might come next. Race the Wild Coast will take place in twelve stages with a total of 16 riders covering over 80km per day. Pacing the horses is essential for their wellbeing and to keep them competitive. Horses are checked by a veterinarian after each stage, and penalties for overworking horses can seriously impact the leader board. Competing horses are required to be brave and independent, with a strong work ethic and good temperament.

Sourced from local endurance stud Moolmanshoek, horses include pure bred Arabs, Arabs crossbred with local Boerperde for their hardiness and temperament and pure Boerperde suited to tough conditions of the Wild Coast. Wiesman Nel and his team from Moolmanshoek who have been preparing the horses for months, along with a team of six veterinarians will ensure of the well-being of the horses. Table of contents List of Contributors.

Preface to the First Edition. Preface to the Second Edition. Semantic, biomechanical and physiological definitions. Part 2b: Psychological Aspects of Endurance Performance. Part 2c: Genetic Determinants of Endurance Performance. Part 2d: Physical Limitations of Endurance Performance. Index show more. Review quote a A valuable addition to the library not only of chartered physiotherapists with an interest in sports medicine but indeed any sports medicine professional interested in looking at both the practice and the theory of endurance in sports.

About R. Shephard R. Shephard is the editor of Endurance in Sport, 2nd Edition, published by Wiley. Rating details.

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