Julian D. Marshall, Michael Brauer and Lawrence D. Air pollution costs per ton of emission are higher where population densities are high, Several studies indicate that automobile occupants are exposed to more harmful air pollution than people traveling by other modes, but pedestrians and cyclists inhale more air per minute and so may be exposed to greater risk NZTA Some demographic groups, such as children, seniors and people with allergies, are likely to experience more harm from a given level of air pollution exposure. Below are some factors that affect how transportation changes affect energy consumption and pollution emissions.
Programs that reduce driving by older or out-of-tune vehicles may provide relatively large emission reductions. As a result, strategies that reduce extreme congestion reduce emissions e. LOS C to A can increase energy consumption and some types of pollution emissions, particularly if it induces additional vehicle mileage. Which units are used to Measure Transportation can affect energy and emission evaluations.
For example, increasing land use density may increase emission rates per acre and per vehicle-mile , because it increases the number of people per acre and results in shorter and more congested vehicle trips, but reduces total vehicle ownership and annual mileage, so emissions decline per vehicle and per capita. Congestion reduction strategies reduce energy consumption and emissions per vehicle-mile , but may increase per capita energy consumption and emissions if they result in increased vehicle mileage, as discussed later in this chapter.
There are two general ways to reduce vehicle air pollution emissions: reduce emission rates per vehicle-kilometre called Clean Vehicle strategies , or reduce total vehicle travel called Transportation Demand Management or TDM , or Mobility Management. Table 7 lists common examples of these strategies. One study Tight, et al.
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Clean Vehicles Reduce Emission Rates. This table identifies various types of emission reduction strategies, including those that reduce emission rates, and those that reduce total vehicle travel. Clean Vehicle and TDM strategies can both reduce transportation energy consumption and emissions, but they differ in important ways.
Clean Vehicle strategies tend to provide just one or two types of benefits and impose one or two types of costs. For example, stricter emission control standards reduce emissions, increase vehicle production costs, and sometimes reduce vehicle performance. There are few other impacts to consider. On the other hand, TDM strategies tend to provide multiple benefits, and may impose multiple costs.
For example, parking pricing can help reduce traffic congestion, road and parking facility costs, traffic crashes, and urban sprawl, as well as pollution emissions. It imposes financial costs on motorists, provides revenue to parking facility owners, and adds transaction costs for collecting fees and dealing with violators. From some perspectives it increases equity i. Planning Objective. Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicles. TDM Solutions. TDM strategies reduce total motor vehicle travel, and so support many planning objectives, providing multiple economic, social and environmental benefits.
TDM strategies are often justified based on their economic and social benefits, providing environmental benefits at essentially no additional costs. On the other hand, because of their multiple costs, TDM strategies often face a variety of political and institutional barriers. Clean Vehicle and TDM strategies also tend to differ in how they are implemented.
Clean Vehicle strategies tend to rely on vehicle design changes implemented in response to government regulations or consumer incentives. TDM strategies often involve planning and pricing changes, or special programs implemented at the regional or local level. TDM implementation can involve many stakeholders, and require new institutional relationships and responsibilities. For example, many TDM strategies involve cooperation among various levels of government, businesses, community organizations and individual people. They may require transportation agencies to become involved in new types of programs and services.
Most Clean Vehicle strategies can be implemented individually, and their impacts are relatively easy to predict. TDM strategies tend to be most effective if implemented as part of an integrated program, and their individual impacts may be difficult to quantify. For example, parking pricing tends to be most effective at reducing automobile travel if implemented in conjunction with walking, cycling, ridesharing and transit improvements, and other pricing and land use management strategies. Most individual TDM strategies have modest impacts, affecting a small portion of total vehicle travel, but their impacts are cumulative and synergistic.
Some studies suggest that comprehensive implementation of TDM strategies to the degree that they are economically justified could reduce total vehicle travel by more than a third. Some people are skeptical that TDM strategies are feasible, because they require consumers to change their travel habits, and support policy changes such as pricing reforms. Although such changes may be difficult to implement, there are examples of successes, including recycling, smoking reductions and seat belt use.
In each case, a combination of public education, policy changes and support services have had a dramatic impact on behavior patterns, indicating that consumers can support such changes both politically and individually. As a result, the TDM strategy will reduce traffic congestion, road and parking facility costs, crashes, urban sprawl and traffic noise, while Clean Vehicles can increase these costs.
It is important to account for these mileage changes when evaluating and comparing emission reduction options Litman These mileage-related costs and benefits are generally greater in total value than emission costs, as indicated in Figure 1. On the other hand, an energy conservation or pollution reduction strategy becomes far more valuable to society if it also reduces mileage-related costs. The following TDM strategies tend to be particularly effective at reducing energy consumption and pollution emissions.
This gives motorists with higher polluting vehicles a greater incentive to reduce their mileage, and conversely, gives motorists who drive high mileage a greater incentive to choose low polluting vehicles. Fees can vary depending on when and where driving occurs, with higher charges at times and locations where pollution impacts are greater Pricing Methods.
A more advanced system uses electronic sensors to measure actual tailpipe emissions when a vehicle is driven, giving motorists an incentive to minimize emissions in a variety of ways: choosing less polluting vehicles, reducing mileage, keeping engines well-tuned, and driving more smoothly. Such fees result in relatively large emission reductions and relatively modest mileage reductions. Fee Basis. Vehicle Model. Vehicle Use. South Coast. See original report for additional notes and data.
Fuel Taxes are often considered a road user fee, which can be increased to recover more roadway costs. Carbon Taxes are taxes based on fossil fuel carbon content, and therefore a tax on carbon dioxide emissions. Fuel tax increases are an effective way to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, but is less effective at reducing other emissions or other mileage-related costs. One of the most appropriate emission reduction strategies is to eliminate current fuel subsidies Koplow Raising fuel price has two effects, it causes modest reductions in vehicle mileage, and over the long term encourages motorists to choose more fuel-efficient vehicles.
About one-third of the long-term energy savings result from reduced driving, and about two-thirds results from consumers shifting to more fuel-efficient vehicles. Manufactures design vehicles to meet specific emission standards, and so implement more control strategies in vehicles with larger engines than in vehicles with smaller engines. Some emission control strategies reduce fuel efficiency for example, catalytic converters add weight, and tuning engines to minimize NOx emissions increases fuel consumption.
Reducing vehicle weight and wind resistance tends to reduce non-tailpipe emissions such as tire particles and road dust, but these effects are difficult to quantify. Tax Increase. Fuel prices can be increased through Market Reforms such as a revenue-neutral tax shift increasing fuel taxes and using the revenue to reduce other taxes that are considered more economically harmful, such as taxes on employment and business activity.
Such tax shifts can provide Economic Development benefits by reducing employment and investment costs, reducing the economic costs of imported petroleum, stimulating energy efficiency technological innovation, and encouraging consumers to shift their expenditures to goods that generate greater regional employment Goldstein, Shapiro, Pham and Malik used the U. Diesel freight vehicles tend to produce high particulate and sulphur emissions, although, as described earlier, these are declining as more rigorous emission control standards are implemented. The specific strategies described below can increase freight efficiency and reduce pollution.
These include increased aerodynamics, weight reductions, reduced engine friction, improved engine and transmission designs, more efficient tires, and more efficient accessories. Note that by reducing shipping costs this may increase total freight traffic volumes, resulting in little or no reduction in energy consumption, emissions or other externalities. This can be accomplished through increased computerization and coordination among distributors. One estimate of potential truck energy efficiency strategies is listed below www.
Aviation is a major source of energy consumption and pollution emissions, is one of the fastest growing transportation sectors, has relatively high fuel consumption rates per passenger-mile see Table 2 , and tends to stimulate increased travel. High altitude air pollution emissions by jets tend to impose particularly high greenhouse impacts, and aircraft cause local air and noise pollution problems. Although some air travel is relatively inelastic which is why airlines can sell high-priced business-class seats , much air travel is highly price sensitive which is why airlines offer discounted fares , so even modest price increases can reduce air travel.
Various policies and management strategies can encourage more efficient, less polluting air travel, and shifts to other modes, particularly to rail and bus for medium-distant trips miles. These include:. Eliminate duty-free shops at airports. Various types of programs implement specific TDM services within a particular geographic areas or group. Many TDM strategies need such a program to be implemented.
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Such a program has stated goals, objectives, a budget, staff, and a clear relationship with stakeholders. Below are examples. Program Type. Travel Affected. Employees in a particular business or jurisdiction. Transportation Management Association. Employees, businesses and clients in a district or jurisdiction. Personal and some freight travel within an area.
Campus Transport Management. Serves students, staff and visitors in a college, university or research campus. Commutes, and sometimes other trips. School Transport Management. Serves students, parents and staff within a school. Businesses, employees, residents and visitors within a district or jurisdiction.
Tourist Transport Management. Visitors, businesses and staff. Travel in resort areas. Any leisure travel. Special Event Transport Management. Participants and staff at special events, and travelers during emergencies. TDM programs typically include some of the following strategies:. Pay-As-You-Drive PAYD pricing means that fixed vehicle fees such as insurance and registration charges are converted into variable fees. Other fees, such as vehicle registrations, licensing, taxes and lease fees can also be made distance-based.
Converting vehicle insurance and registration fees to PAYD approximately doubles variable vehicle expenses. Because this involves changes to existing vehicle charges rather it should face less political opposition than a new fee or tax. It can be implemented as consumer option just as consumers are able to choose a telephone or Internet service rate structure. This can include direct road user fees, parking pricing, insurance pricing reforms, tax reforms for example, charging property taxes on road rights-of-way , and vehicle emission fees.
Since governments must tax something to raise revenue, many economists recommend shifting taxes from socially desirable activities to activities that impose external costs. For example, fuel taxes and other road user charges could increase, and the revenues used to reduce employment and business taxes. Some current tax policies unintentionally favor automobile use. For example, tax policies encourage employers to provide company cars or offer generous mileage reimbursement rates as a perk, and parking is often taxed at a lower rate than other goods.
Least-Cost Planning means that demand management strategies are given equal consideration as capacity expansion in planning and funding. Clustered development tends to have lower public service costs, but these savings are not generally reflected in development and utility fees. More cost-based pricing can encourage more infill development. Conventional parking pricing and road tolling systems are inconvenient and expensive to operate.
New Pricing Methods can overcome these problems, making direct user charges more feasible and politically acceptable. There is virtually no technical limit to how much these strategies can reduce transportation energy consumption and emissions, their barriers are primarily political and institutional. Transportation market reforms justified on efficiency grounds such as more efficient pricing of roads, parking and vehicle insurance could reduce VMT by about one third, plus additional long-term travel reductions from more efficient land use development patterns Litman Land use management strategies such as Smart Growth , New Urbanism , Transit Oriented Development , and Location-Efficient Development can reduce per capita automobile use, transportation energy use and emissions by improving Accessibility and Transportation Options Donoso, Martinez and Zegras Environmental Protection Agency study identified substantial energy conservation and emission reductions if development shifts from the urban fringe to infill USEPA Land use reforms can provide a number of benefits Land Use Evaluation.
Increased land use density and mix tend to reduce total per capita emissions Boarnet and Handy ; Lawrence Frank and Company ; TRB , although it can increase exposure to local emissions such as carbon monoxide, particulates and noise. Ewing , et al. In a study comparing per capita carbon emission rates by U.
Much of what appears as regional variation may be attributed to these spatial factors. The following land use factors can affect energy consumption and emissions Land Use Impacts on Transportation :. Research by Kenworthy indicates that residents of North American cities consume about 60 MegaJoules annually for transportation energy, about twice that in Canada and Australia, four times that of Western Europe, and six times that of High Income Asian cities, due to differences in transportation and land use policies.
A USEPA study found that regardless of population density, transportation system design features such as greater street connectivity, a more pedestrian-friendly environment, shorter route options, and more extensive transit service tend to reduce per-capita vehicle travel, pollution emissions, congestion delays and traffic accidents.
Shifts from automobile to nonmotorized transportation can be particularly effective at energy conservation and emission reductions by reducing short motor vehicle trips which have high per-mile fuel consumption and emission rates. A short pedestrian or cycle trip often replaces a longer automobile trip for example, consumers may choose between shopping at a local store or driving to a major shopping center. Nonmotorized transportation improvements are also important for increasing transit use and creating more Accessible land use patterns. Petritsch, et al. Walking and cycling improvements can help reduce total travel: a short walking or cycling trip replaces a much longer automobile trip, and nonmotorized travel improvements support transit use and more accessible development patterns.
Some pedestrian-friendly communities have times as many nonmotorized trips as occurs in more Automobile Dependent communities with otherwise similar demographic and geographic conditions. Their analysis indicates that increasing sidewalk coverage from a ratio of 0. Based on the study results the team developed and tested a spreadsheet tool that can be used to evaluate the impacts of urban form, sidewalk coverage, and transit service quality and other policy and planning changes suitable for neighborhood and regional scenario analysis.
Ridesharing refers to carpooling and vanpooling. Vanpooling uses vans that are usually owned by an organization such as a business, non-profit, or government agency and made available specifically for commuting. Vanpooling is particularly suitable for longer commutes 10 miles or more each way. Ridesharing can be the most cost effective transportation mode. Carpooling that makes use of existing vehicle seats that would otherwise travel empty have very low incremental costs.
Vanpooling with 6 or more passengers in a vehicle tends to have the lowest average cost per passenger-mile, since it carries more passengers per vehicle than a carpool, and does not require a professional driver or empty backhauls like conventional public transit services. There are several ways to support and encourage ridesharing, including providing rideshare matching and vanpool organizing services, Marketing , Commuter Financial Incentives and HOV Priority.
Road Pricing means that motorists pay directly for using a particular roadway or driving in a particular area. Road Pricing can be implemented as a demand management strategy, to fund roadway improvements or for a combination of these objectives. Economists have long advocated Road Pricing as an efficient and equitable way to pay roadway costs and encourage more efficient transportation. Below are specific types of road pricing.
This is considered more equitable and economically efficient than other roadway improvement funding options. This allows more vehicles to use HOV lanes while maintaining an incentive for mode shifting, and raises revenue. This can be done by simply requiring vehicles driven within the area to display a pass, or by tolling at each entrance to the area.
A variety of strategies can encourage transit use, including increased service, more convenient and comfortable service, transit priority traffic management, lower fares, improved marketing, commuter incentives such as employee transit benefits , improved pedestrian and bicycle access to transit stops, and Transit Oriented Development. Transit consumes less energy and produce less pollution per passenger-mile than automobile travel, and people who rely on transit tend to travel fewer passenger-miles than motorists, so increased transit tends to reduce per capita energy consumption and pollution emissions.
A variety of factors affect the energy conservation and emission reduction impacts of transit improvements and incentives Transit Evaluation. Strategies that increase transit load factors for example, fare discounts, more comfortable vehicles and better information, that increase ridership on routes that have excess capacity can provide significant emission reductions.
Transit improvements can provide a catalyst for broader travel and land use change. For example, people who commute by transit do not usually drive for errands during their breaks, and attractive transit service may allow some households to give up a second car, resulting in reduced per capita automobile travel. Transit Oriented Development helps create multi-modal communities where residents and employees drive less overall Land Use Impacts on Transport. Some research indicates that each passenger-mile of rail travel represents 3 to 6 miles of reduced automobile travel if a transit system provides a catalyst for more accessible land use, suggesting that total energy saving and emission reduction benefits may be many times greater than what results directly from passenger-miles shifted from automobile to transit Transit Evaluation.
Davis and Hale estimate that at current levels of use public transit services avoid emissions of at least 6. ICF International found that high quality public transit service reduces energy consumption and pollution emissions directly, and also indirectly by creating more accessible and multi-modal land use patterns.
Parking Management and Parking Pricing strategies are an effective way to reduce automobile travel, and tend to be particularly effective in urban areas where pollution problems are greatest. Parking management and pricing supports use of alternative modes, improves walkability, and encourages more efficient land use. Also, by reducing the total amount of pavement in an area they help reduce Heat Island Effects increased ambient temperatures in paved areas which tends to increase ozone Gorsevski, et al, Marketing can have a major impact on TDM program effectiveness. TDM marketing includes:.
Traffic Calming includes a variety of roadway design features that reduce vehicle traffic speeds and volumes. The energy and emission impacts depend on project design and conditions. Some Traffic Calming strategies result in smoother traffic and more optimal speeds, reducing energy consumption and emissions. In particular, Modern Roundabouts that replace stop signs and traffic signals can improve traffic flow www.
Other Traffic Calming strategies increase stop-and-go driving and reduce traffic speeds below optimal vehicle efficiency i. Impacts on per capita energy consumption and emissions depend on whether Traffic Calming reduces total vehicle travel by making alternative modes and more accessible urban neighborhoods relatively more attractive. Comprehensive Car-free Planning and Vehicle Restrictions can reduce vehicle use, energy consumption and emissions, if implemented as part of a comprehensive program to increase transportation and land use efficiency.
If applied on a small scale, such as a single street or commercial centers, it may simply shift when and where driving occurs, causing little or no energy savings or emission reduction benefit. Some types of vehicle restrictions, such as no-drive days based on license plate numbers, are used during extreme air pollution emergencies, but are probably not effective as long-term strategies. Telework involves the use of telecommunications to substitute for physical travel.
This includes telecommuting, distance learning, and various forms of electronic business and government activities. A portion of the reduced travel is often offset by additional vehicle trips teleworkers make to run errands, and because it allows employees to move further from their worksite, for example, choosing a home of job in a rural area or another city because they know that they only need to commute two or three days a week.
Traffic speeds reductions can reduce energy consumption and emissions in two ways. Lower speeds tend to reduce total vehicle mileage. In addition, vehicle fuel consumption and emissions tend to increase at speeds greater than 55 miles per hour, as indicated in figures 1 and 2. Some researchers suggest that significant energy savings and emission reductions could be achieved by enforcing existing traffic speed limits Suzuki, Sustainable Transportation refers to transportation systems that respond to long-term and indirect economic, social and environmental objectives.
Global air pollution and depletion of non-renewable resources are major concerns for Sustainable Transportation. Sustainable Transportation planning can provide a framework for implementing energy conservation and emission reduction strategies. Energy conservation and emission reduction strategies that do not involve TDM are described below. Information and promotion can encourage consumers and fleet managers to purchase more efficient, less polluting vehicles.
This publication ranks motor vehicles according to their environmental impacts. AirHead Website www. Fuel Economy Website www. Department of Energy and the U. Environmental Agency provides information on fuel consumption ratings of new automobiles and additional information on vehicle efficiency strategies. These are requirements that manufacturers produce vehicles that incorporate certain technologies such as emission catalysts or meet a maximum emission standard. These have been widely applied and have been successful at reducing per-mile emission rates for some pollutants.
Such standards can be increased to force manufactures to develop and implement additional emission controls. McGranahan and Murray discuss vehicle emission standards suitable for developing countries. Total HC. Cold CO. Manufactures pay a fine if the vehicles they sell on average exceed these standards. The current US standard is These have not increased since Recent studies have investigated raising these standards in the near future NRC, ; Suzuki, A Gas Guzzler Tax is a special tax on the purchase of new vehicles based on their fuel consumption rates, to encourage the manufacture and sale of more fuel-efficient vehicles.
The U. Gas Guzzler Tax was established in and phased in over ten years. Environmental and energy conservation organizations are lobbying to extend this tax to light trucks and SUVs FOE, Miles Per Gallon. Feebates are a surcharge on the purchase of new fuel inefficient vehicles, with the revenue used to provide a rebate on the purchase of fuel-efficient vehicles Perrin, Kunert and Kuhfeld recommend a set of tax reforms to encourage the purchase of more fuel efficient vehicles.
Dollars, based on Michaelis, New Vehicle Fuel Economy Increase. Purchasers of vehicles that are less efficient pay a fee, and purchasers of vehicles that are more efficient receive a rebate based on the selected rate. Current U. This deduction is not available on lighter vehicles. A large Chevy Suburban qualifies, but the lighter and more fuel efficient Chevy Blazer does not, nor does a standard or fuel efficient car.
This provides a significant price cut. Ford Motor Co. Although originally intended to benefit small farmers, the law is now primarily used by non-farm businesses. This can be implemented by modifying the structure of existing vehicle registration fees rather than imposing a new fee. These may induce some motorists to purchase less polluting vehicles. Such fees tend to be regressive, since lower-income motorists are more likely to own a higher-polluting vehicle Sevigny, Transit vehicle emission reduction programs can be particularly cost effective because transit vehicles tend to drive high mileage under urban-peak conditions, and older diesel buses had high per-mile emission rates.
Motorcycles average about 50 miles per gallon BTS, , about twice the fuel efficiency of an average automobile, so shifts from driving to motorcycling can conserve fuel. Programs can encourage motorcycling and motorcycle safety VicRoads, However, motorcycles tend to produce high rates of conventional pollutants because their engines generally lack emission control features such as fuel injection and catalytic systems, and many older motorcycles had high-polluting two-cycle engines.
Motorcycles also have low load factors: they tend to be more energy-efficient than a solo driver in an average automobile, but less energy efficient than two or more passengers in a fuel-efficient car. Public agencies can sponsor research, demonstration and marketing programs to develop super-efficient and alternative fuel vehicles and encourage their use Hypercar ; CalStart. The emission reduction benefits from alternative fuels depends on many factors, including the type of fuel and engine used, how the fuel is produced, and whether full lifecycle emissions are considered Delucchi ; Bourne Implementation strategies include minimizing taxes or providing tax credits on high efficiency and alternative fueled vehicles, minimizing taxes on alternative fuels, development and production subsidies and tax credits, government fleet purchases of high efficiency and alternative fueled vehicles, infrastructure support such as government supply of refueling and recharging stations , mandates and promotion campaigns.
It requires that a portion of vehicles sold in California by major car companies be zero-emission i.
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This means that vehicles are inspected annually or biannually by a certified emission inspection station to identify those with excessive emission rates www. As a larger portion of the vehicle fleet has modern engines with more durable emission controls, the effectiveness of such programs is expected to decline. Instruments are now available that identify the emission rates of vehicles as they drive pass a sensor FEAT Data Center, www.
These can be used with voluntary systems see box below or legal enforcement to have high emitting vehicles corrected. Some programs encourage police and citizens to report vehicles that appear to emit excessive smoke www. Voluntary Emissions Reduction www. Using input from the public, a new type of vehicle emissions information system has been developed which integrates an innovative variable message sign with an on-road vehicle emissions sensing system to display individual vehicle emissions information to passing drivers.
The original deployment was permanently located in Denver at the intersection of Speer Blvd. The system operated 7 days a week 24 hours a day in conditions that ranged in temperature from to degrees F. The Smart Sign system has now been converted to a portable system enabling it to be used in a number of new and innovative applications. The sign has been mounted onto a trailer. The remote sensor is mounted above ground in weather protective housings upstream of the sign.
These programs involve the purchase and disposal of older, higher-emitting vehicles Dill This can reduce local pollution emissions, since older vehicles tend to have high emission rates, but does little to reduce energy consumption since older vehicles are on average no more fuel-efficient than new vehicles. Such programs can be set based on vehicle age i. There are potential problems with such programs, since many of the vehicles may be scrapped soon anyway, and some residents may even purchase an older vehicle from another region so it can be purchased through the program.
Li, Linn and Spiller conclude that such programs provide little and costly emission reductions. Vehicle fuel quality such as sulphur and heavy metal content affects the amount of pollution produced per vehicle-mile SOx, heavy metals, NOx, and particulates , and some fuel contaminants can degrade vehicle emission control equipment. Fuel quality improvements can reduce some pollutants, and may slightly increase vehicle efficiency Perrin, ; Working Group 1 on Environmental Objectives, Many jurisdictions, including the United States, Canada and some individual states regulate fuel quality.
California has been a leader is setting high fuel quality standards. Fuel quality can also be improved by imposing higher taxes on lower-quality fuels or fuels that have harmful additives. This approach has been successful in reducing the use of leaded fuel. Emission Capping places a limit on the total amount of pollution that may be produced in an area. Emission Trading is a market structure that involves allocating or selling pollution rights, and allowing those rights to be traded to allow the most cost-effective emission reduction strategies to be implemented Albrecht ; Neiderberger For example, if ten factories each receive a ton-per-year emission allocation, those that can reduce emissions at a lower cost can sell their rights to others that have a higher cost per unit of emission reductions.
Emission trading has been effective and efficient at reducing some emissions when there are a small number of emitters e. Emission trading may allow funding of specific transportation emission reduction programs. For example, discounts. There are many ways to increase motor vehicle performance and efficiency through best management practices, including regular inspections and maintenance, and improved driver training Sivak and Schoettle This is especially appropriate for large vehicle fleets, such as delivery trucks, taxis and vehicle pools PHH Driver education and training programs can emphasize techniques that reduce fuel consumption.
It recommends the following driving habits:. Idling vehicles produce air and noise pollution. FleetSmart encourages truck drivers to minimize idling. Some communities have passed anti-idling laws that limit how long a vehicle can sit with the engine operating when it is not being driven CCS, Some organizations provide information and resources to help reduce unnecessary engine idling www. These are small, low-speed vehicles, often powered by alternative fuels, suitable for local travel Sperling For information see Smart Cars www.
This type of vehicle can be encouraged by removing any barriers to their legal registration and use of public roads, favorable local transportation policies, roadway designs that accommodate such vehicles, and by direct support from transit agencies. However, most studies indicate that this is not a very cost effective way to increase fuel efficiency. The table below lists the energy conservation and emission reduction strategies described in this chapter for strategies that appear to be suitable for quick implementation see Noland, Cowart and Fulton, Reduces Vehicle Emission Rates.
This table lists the various types of energy conservation and emission reduction strategies identified in this chapter. Governments can implement various reforms and provide incentives for implementation of emission reduction strategies. Governments can perform sustainability audits of its policies, investments and programs to identify how they affect Sustainability objectives, including energy and emission reductions.
This process can help prioritize funding allocations and design policies and programs to help achieve sustainability. Federal, state and provincial governments often provide funding to regional and local governments. Special funding programs can be available for projects that reduce transportation emissions such as transit and nonmotorized transportation improvements , and all types of grants can be prioritized based on how well they support sustainability objectives.
For example, infrastructure funding that encourage efficient transportation and Smart Growth can be given priority over projects which are otherwise equally beneficial, but do not support these objectives. Federal, state and provincial grants can give priority to communities that have efficient transportation and land use policies. Such incentives can motivate communities to implement their own Institutional Reforms and Smart Growth Fiscal Reforms.
This can increase the cost effectiveness of infrastructure investments, since efficient transportation and land use policies can reduce unit costs of providing public services such as roads, water, sewage and schools, particularly over the long run. Programs to reduce vehicle traffic congestion are often promoted as ways to save energy and reduce vehicle emissions.
However, actual benefits are difficult to predict, and often small or negative over the long term if congestion reductions efforts stimulate additional vehicle travel. Traffic speed has different effects on different types of pollutants. Per-mile emissions of most pollutants are high at very low speeds and under stop-and-go conditions, and decline as traffic speeds increase and become steady. NOx emissions are lowest at mph and increases at speeds over 45 mph.
As a result, strategies that relieve congestion and increase traffic speeds from 25 mph up to 50 mph my reduce CO and VOC emission, but increase NOx emission. Whether a particular congestion reduction program causes overall reductions or increases in energy use and emissions depends on the specific circumstances, including location, time, change in level of congestion, driving style, and which emissions are considered most harmful. Although extreme traffic congestion that results in stop-and-go driving Level of Service F significantly increases energy consumption and emissions, a good portion of urban-peak travel occurs under moderate congestions in which energy consumption and emissions are minimized Level of Service C or D.
NOx emissions increase with highway speeds above miles per hour, VOC emissions increase with speeds above mph, and CO above On arterials and local streets emissions increase above A congestion reduction program that improves roadway Level of Service from F probably reduces energy consumption and emissions, but shifting Level of Service from D to A probably increases energy consumption and most emissions. Table 16 compares energy consumption and emissions for a typical diesel transit bus under various conditions, showing the effects of higher speeds and traffic congestion.
Congested Flow. Minor Roads. Arterial Road. The table shows the emission and energy consumption rates of a typical diesel bus under various driving conditions. Congestion increases emissions and energy consumption. Congestion reductions tend to induce additional vehicle travel by reducing travel time and vehicle operating costs Rebound Effects. A less congested roadway allows people to take additional automobile trips that they would forego under more congested conditions. For example, if roads are uncongested you might take a cross-town shopping trip, but choose a closer, more convenient store if roads are congested.
Increased roadway capacity may induce some people to choose more distant homes or worksites, resulting in long-term increases in vehicle mileage. This additional travel can increase overall energy consumption and emissions, even if it occurs under less congested conditions. Cities with increased roadway capacity tend to have higher per capita transportation energy consumption and emission rates, indicating that congestion reduction efforts are unlikely to reduce overall vehicle energy use or emissions. Below are congestion reduction strategies that are sometimes promoted as ways to save energy and reduce emissions.
Such claims are probably exaggerated or wrong altogether. Current knowledge indicates that efforts to reduce urban traffic congestion by themselves are unlikely to reduce overall vehicle energy consumption or pollution emissions, and are as equally likely to increase it over the long run.
Of course, congestion reduction and increased vehicle travel may provide user benefits, but there is little valid evidence that they are justified on environmental grounds. Flextime means that employees are allowed some flexibility in their daily work schedules. For example, rather than all employees working to , some might work to , and others to This shifts travel from peak to off-peak periods. By itself it provides no reduction in vehicle mileage, although it can help transit and rideshare commuters match schedules. Road widening and traffic signal synchronization are sometime advocated as ways to reduce traffic congestion, and therefore energy consumption and pollution emissions TRB ; Cobian, et al.
However, research suggests that at best these provide short-term reductions in energy use and emissions which are offset over the long-run due to Induced Travel Noland and Quddus Field test indicate that shifting from congested to uncongested traffic conditions significantly reduces pollution emissions, but traffic signal synchronization on congested roads provides little measurable benefit, and can increase emissions in some situations Frey and Rouphail Emissions also rise due to increased volumes of traffic each person traveling further and more often and because the modal split changes in favor of the private car, at the expense of public transport and bicycling.
Table 17 summarizes roadway improvement emission impacts, including effects on emission rates per vehicle mile, increases in total vehicle mileage, and emissions from road construction and maintenance activities. General Estimates. Large Cities. Small Cities. Intercity Travel. Emission reductions per vehicle-kilometer due to improved and expanded roads. Short term reductions. Stable or some increase over the long-term.
Depends on situation, ranging from no change to large emission increases. Depends on situation. Both emission reductions and increases can occur. Increased vehicle mileage induced vehicle travel , short term less than five years. Increased vehicle mileage induced vehicle travel , long term more than five years.
Road construction emissions are relatively modest compared with traffic emissions. Road operation and maintenance emissions are relatively modest compared with traffic emissions. This table summarizes roadway improvement emission impacts according to research by the Norwegian Centre for Transport Research. Intelligent Transportation Systems include the application of a wide range of new technologies, including driver information, vehicle control and tracking systems, transit improvements and electronic charging see ITS Online and ITS America.
These can provide a variety of transportation improvements, including driver convenience, reduced congestion, increased safety, more competitive transit, and support for pricing incentives. ITE strategies that support transportation demand management reduce total vehicle travel such as transit improvements and electronic road pricing can reduce energy consumption and emissions, but not strategies that make driving more convenient, or squeeze more vehicles onto existing roadways, because they are likely to increase vehicle traffic mileage and speeds.
Their conclusions vary significantly based on the assumptions that are used. Many evaluations ignore Rebound Effects , particularly the tendency of motorists to increase their mileage when increased fuel efficiency reduces per-mile vehicle operating costs. Ignoring this impact tends to overstate the emission reduction benefit of technical strategies that increase fuel efficiency. Most evaluations focus on direct implementation costs and emission reduction benefits, ignoring most other costs and benefits. Such an approach may favor strategies that are cost-effective at reducing emissions, but increase other problems such as consumer costs, crash damages or traffic congestion.
A more Comprehensive Evaluation Framework considers a broader range of impacts, and so will favor that emission reduction strategies that provide additional benefits, such as consumer cost savings, road safety and congestion reductions Litman Table 18 discusses whether each strategy described in this chapter is likely to cause induced travel, and what additional benefits and costs it is likely to cause.
Strategies that reduce perceived vehicle operating costs tend to induce additional vehicle travel, and so tend to increase traffic congestion, facility costs, crashes and urban sprawl. Strategies that increase perceived vehicle operating costs tend to reduce total vehicle travel, and so can provide benefits such as reduced congestion, facility costs, crashes, and urban sprawl. Some strategies also improve consumer choice and savings.
The vehicle travel impacts of some strategies depend on how they are implemented. Induced Vehicle Travel. Additional Impacts. Can help reduce congestion, road and parking facility costs, crashes and urban sprawl. Depends on which strategies are used. Strategies that reduce vehicle traffic can reduce congestion, roadway costs and crashes.
Strategies that reduce air travel can reduce airport congestion, consumer costs and crashes. Can help reduce congestion, road and parking facility costs, crashes and increased equity. Can reduce crashes, increase transportation choices, reduce sprawl and increase community livability. Can reduce congestion, road and parking facility costs, sprawl, and increase transport choices and community livability. If it encourages motorists to purchase more fuel-efficient vehicles than they would otherwise it may cause some induced travel.
Generally none, unless it significantly increases total roadway capacity and automobile dependency. Depends on the type of pricing and how revenues are used. Can reduce congestion, road and parking facility costs, crashes and sprawl. Can reduce congestion, road and parking facility costs, sprawl, and increase transport choices. Can reduce congestion, road and parking facility costs and sprawl. None, unless it only applies to a small area and causes travel to shift elsewhere.
Telecommuters may take additional non-commute trips or move farther away from their worksite. Reduces traffic congestion, crashes, road and parking facility costs and improves commuter choice and savings. May contribute to sprawl. Generally none, unless it also reduces vehicle operating costs. Reduces vehicle operating costs and so tends to increase vehicle mileage. Tends to increase traffic congestion, road and parking facility costs, crashes and sprawl.
Reduces vehicle operating costs and so increase vehicle mileage. Tends to increase crash injuries and deaths. Often increases conventional air pollutants since few motorcycles have emission control equipment. Reduces parking costs.
May reduce vehicle operating costs by a small amount. May increase traffic congestion, road and parking facility costs, crashes and sprawl, but impacts are likely to be small. May increase road safety by reducing the number of old vehicles on the roadway. May increase fuel costs but increase fuel efficiency. May reduce vehicle-operating costs and reduce vehicle mileage.
Tends to increase per-mile time costs and so reduce total mileage. Can reduce crashes and sprawl, and increase community livability. Can increase community livability due to reduced local air and noise pollution. Mixed impacts. Likely to increase consumer choice and community livability. Reduces vehicle operating costs and increases comfort. May increase traffic congestion, road and parking facility costs, crashes and sprawl.
Reduces traffic congestion, which is likely to induce vehicle travel. Reduces traffic congestion and vehicle operating costs, inducing additional vehicle travel. Likely to increase downstream traffic congestion, road and parking facility costs, crashes, sprawl and automobile dependency, particularly over the long-run. Strategies that reduce congestion and increase vehicle speeds and volumes may increase some costs.
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This table indicates whether a strategy is likely to induce additional vehicle travel by reducing per-mile vehicle operating costs, and other benefits and costs that it is likely to cause. Lin evaluates climate change policies in terms of their equity impacts, including the distribution of damages from climate change and other air pollutants impacts such as power plant emissions and reduced fish and game are particularly concentrated on low income and minority communities , and the distribution of benefits from emission reduction efforts such as whether energy conservation programs provide incentives and jobs to low income and minority populations.
She critiques emission reduction policies, such as cap-and-trade, feebates and road pricing in terms of their impacts on disadvantaged populations, and recommends specific design principles such as insuring adequate alternative travel modes if congestion pricing or carbon taxes are implemented, and use of revenues in ways that benefits disadvantaged populations. Many transportation professionals have a personal preference for technological strategies that increase vehicle fuel efficiency and reduce per-mile emissions over TDM strategies that reduce automobile mileage, on the assumption that this maximizes social benefits, since vehicle mileage reductions require consumers to forego travel or shift to slower modes.
However, this assumption if often wrong. Mileage reduction strategies based on positive incentives for example, by improving alternative modes or giving consumers a financial reward for reduced driving benefit consumers directly, as well as providing additional social benefits such as congestion reductions, reduced crashes, road and parking facility costs savings, and more efficient land use Evaluation.
When all factors are considered, mileage reductions are often the most cost-effective way to reduce energy consumption and emissions, and make consumers better off overall Win-Win Transportation Solutions. Of course, there is seldom a need to choose between vehicle efficiency improvements and TDM. Demand management strategies can be implemented in conjunction with vehicle design improvements, so that consumers have opportunities and incentives to avoid unnecessary vehicle travel, and any driving they do is in an efficient, low-polluting vehicle.
Wit and Humor. Simply connect the exhaust pipe directly into the passenger compartment. Strategies that use positive incentives improved transportation choices and financial benefits tend to make consumers better off overall, while strategies that use negative incentives such as road and parking pricing tend to cause direct reductions in consumer surplus minus any social benefits and revenues.
Jones, Wheeler and Kammen quantify the potential of local policies and programs to meet aggressive GHG reduction targets using a consumption-based, high geospatial resolution planning model for the state of California. These data and companion online tools can help cities better understand priorities to reduce GHGs from a comprehensive, consumption-based perspective, with potential application to the full United States and internationally. Vision California is a strategic planning program that explores the role of land use and transportation investments in meeting the environmental, fiscal, and public health objectives.
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