Encyclopedia of Anthropology


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12 Volume Set

An adaptation is passed from generation to generation.

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Also called physical anthropology. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.

Encyclopedia of Anthropology by Birx

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You cannot download interactives. Hunter-gatherer cultures forage or hunt food from their environment. Often nomadic, this was the only way of life for humans until about 12, years ago when archaeologic studies show evidence of the emergence of agriculture. Human lifestyles began to change as groups formed permanent settlements and tended crops.

There are still a few hunter-gatherer peoples today. Explore the lifestyle of hunter-gatherers in your classroom with these resources. Demography is the study of demographics, the social characteristics and statistics of a human population.

Encyclopedia of Anthropology: Five-Volume Set by H. James Birx

Because of the diverse subject matter it encompasses , anthropology has become, especially since the middle of the 20th century, a collection of more specialized fields. Physical anthropology is the branch that concentrates on the biology and evolution of humanity. It is discussed in greater detail in the article human evolution. The branches that study the social and cultural constructions of human groups are variously recognized as belonging to cultural anthropology or ethnology , social anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and psychological anthropology see below.

Archaeology see below , as the method of investigation of prehistoric cultures , has been an integral part of anthropology since it became a self-conscious discipline in the latter half of the 19th century. For a longer treatment of the history of archaeology, see archaeology.


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Throughout its existence as an academic discipline, anthropology has been located at the intersection of natural science and humanities. The biological evolution of Homo sapiens and the evolution of the capacity for culture that distinguishes humans from all other species are indistinguishable from one another. While the evolution of the human species is a biological development like the processes that gave rise to the other species, the historical appearance of the capacity for culture initiates a qualitative departure from other forms of adaptation , based on an extraordinarily variable creativity not directly linked to survival and ecological adaptation.

The historical patterns and processes associated with culture as a medium for growth and change, and the diversification and convergence of cultures through history, are thus major foci of anthropological research.

The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology, 3 Volume Set

By the middle of the 20th century, many American universities also included 5 psychological anthropology, emphasizing the relationships among culture, social structure, and the human being as a person. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order.


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Encyclopedia of Anthropology Encyclopedia of Anthropology
Encyclopedia of Anthropology Encyclopedia of Anthropology
Encyclopedia of Anthropology Encyclopedia of Anthropology
Encyclopedia of Anthropology Encyclopedia of Anthropology
Encyclopedia of Anthropology Encyclopedia of Anthropology
Encyclopedia of Anthropology Encyclopedia of Anthropology

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