O'Donnell - - Journal of Business Ethics 12 1 - Science and Spirituality. Dr Axel Randrup - manuscript. Economic Sophisms.
Frederic Bastiat - unknown. On the Nature of Money. Mark Thornton - unknown. The Harmonies of Descartes and Leibniz. Peter Machamer - - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 8 1 Axel Randrup - unknown. In Search of Roman Economic Growth.
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Walter Scheidel - unknown. Added to PP index Total views 6 , of 2,, Recent downloads 6 months 1 , of 2,, How can I increase my downloads? Sign in to use this feature. Evil and suffering are the consequence of wrong choices, which then steers people back to the right course, showing that evil tends to abolish itself, unless force is used to try and check the consequences of wrong decisions. Bastiat shows up the fallacy of opposing machines, automation, or foreign imports--these things lead to abundance and wealth, and while they may temporarily dislocate the labor of some, the nature of man's desires ensures people will always find new employment satisfying new wants: "if human wants are indefinite, progressive, capable of increase, like desire, which is their never failing source, we must admit, under pain of introducing discordance and contradiction into the economical laws of society, that nature has placed in man and around him indefinite and progressive means of satisfaction.
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Rather, he who labors less for more satisfaction is the wealthier for it, and more able to exchange his abundance for the satisfaction of other wants, leading to a spread of whatever fortune he enjoys to others who do not and hence, the trend toward equality. As to the value of service, it really stems from the trouble it would save the would-be buyer for doing something for himself or contracting another to do so, and therefore does not always depend on the actual amount of labor the would-be seller engaged in.
A immaterial product like security can be valued, and an object that took its current possessor precious little labor to obtain finding a diamond by chance, for instance can also have great value by this reasoning. In general, products lose value over time, as the trouble of producing them becomes easier with improvements in machinery, technique, etc. Bastiat expands on the benefits of exchange, "In consequence of Exchange, the gain of each is the gain of all," location the proof of which is "each man is more likely to prosper in proportion to the general prosperity of the community in which he lives.
This is odious, but it is not absurd. The second grade, the class immediately below the first, will not fail to attack and batter down monopolies In that case, power passes into their hands, and they still think that power implies Monopoly But then the masses, emaciated, ground down, trampled upon, must also have their revolution Monopolies to the masses Monopoly implies some one to enjoy it, and some one to pay for it Will you never comprehend the whimsical mystification of which you are the dupes?
Will you never understand that the state can give you nothing with the one hand but what it has taken from you with the other? Utility results from that cooperation. Each man receives a share of the general utility proportioned to the value he has created,--that is to say, to the services he has rendered; in other words, to the utility he has himself produced. Bastiat deals with more advanced topics, like population, where he takes on Malthus, and public services versus private services.
He examines the cases where it might be permissible for the state to undertake to provide public services, along with the negative inescapable if unintended effects of doing so. He notes, "as Government acts only by the intervention of force, its action is legitimate only where the intervention of force is itself legitimate. Despite his faith in harmony, Bastiat allows for evil and injustice, brought about by error.
However, the evil consequences of error and the suffering it brings about provides "warnings, corrections, experience, knowledge," location which tends to correct people's behavior and lead to the reduction of evil. Bastiat explores the concept of responsibility, noting that there are natural sanctions that come as a natural reward or punishment of action, religious sanction in terms of metaphysical consequences, and the legal sanction, brought on by action of the law. He expresses confidence that the divine law is in accordance with the natural law, given God is creator of both.
However, he notes "when a legal sanction is brought into play, it ought only to be to give more force, regularity, certainty, and efficacy to the natural sanction. These two powers should cooperate, and not run counter to each other. Before submitting an action or a habit to organized repression, there is always this question to be asked Does the excess of good which is obtained by the addition of legal repression to natural repression compensate the evil which is inherent in the repressive machinery?
In other words, is the evil of artificial repression greater or less than the evil of impunity? In the cases of theft, or murder, of the greater part of crimes and delicts, the question admits of no doubt. Every nation of the earth represses these crimes by public force.
But when we have to do with a habit which it is difficult to account for, and which may spring from moral causes of a delicate appreciation, the question is different, and it may very well be that, although this habit is universally esteemed hurtful and vicious, the law should remain neuter and hand it over to natural responsibility. However, both its lengthier, more serious philosophical tone and its incomplete state make it a read-last work of Bastiat; read his other works first!
Nov 25, Nelson Nelson rated it really liked it. It's a good book yet it's very dogmatic. Shelves: classic-economy , social-studies , philosophy. Frederic Bastiat interesting work. The author shows in it that the interests of the people in the free market are harmonious, and not antagonistic like socialists say. It is a classic of economics. It is worth noting that Bastiat is a precursor of the Austrian School of Economics. When for Ludwig von Mises the most important thing in the economy was human action, for Bastiat the most important thing was service provided for the other person and abolishing some pain.
In fact it is almost the same Frederic Bastiat interesting work. In fact it is almost the same. I recommend it to anyone. Jest to klasyka ekonomii.
Preface to the English-Language Edition
May 20, Timothy rated it really liked it. This is an important contribution to economics and social theory prior to the marginalist revolution of Gossen, Menger, Walras and Jevons. It is the most famous classic of what H.
Very much so. Jevons rightly praised it as a forerunner to the correct theory of economics.
Economic Harmonies - Frédéric Bastiat - Google книги
I wrote the foreword to the Laissez Faire Books ebook edition, which I highly recommend of course. Bastiat strongly believed that what was really needed was a science of economics that would explain the harmony of a free society. January 4, A View from Aristotle". A View from Aristotle - Springer. International Handbooks in Business Ethics. Categories : Classical economics books Economic theories Classical liberalism.
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