What do these people owe to their societies of origin? May developing societies legitimately demand that their citizens use their skills toimprove life for their fellow citizens?
Are these societies ever permitted to prevent their own citizens from emigrating? These questions are increasingly important, as the gap between rich and poor societies widens, and as the global migration of skilled professionals intensifies. This volume addresses the ethical rights and responsibilities of such professionals, and of the societies in which they live.
Gillian Brockand Michael Blake agree that the phenomenon of the brain drain is troubling, but offer distinct arguments about what might be permissibly done in response to this phenomenon. About The Author. Her recent and current research focuses on global justice and related fields. Michael Blak Format: Paperback Product dimensions: pages, 8. Select Parent Grandparent Teacher Kid at heart. Age of the child I gave this to:. Hours of Play:.
Solving the problems of medical brain drain
As they dominated financial services in the country, their expulsion was instrumental in causing future economic problems, for example the need for foreign bankers such as the Fugger family and others from Genoa. The war against the Turks and North African Moors affected internal policy in the uprising of the Alpujarras — and motivated the expulsion of the Moriscos in Despite being a minority group, the Muslims were a key part of the farming sector and trained artisans. Their departure contributed to economic decline in some regions of Spain.
This way, the conservative aristocracy increased its power over economically developed provinces. After this, many Huguenots estimates range from , to 1,,  fled to surrounding Protestant countries: England , the Netherlands , Switzerland , Norway , Denmark and Prussia —whose Calvinist great elector, Frederick William , welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and under-populated country.
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Many went to the Dutch colony at the Cape South Africa , where they were instrumental in establishing a wine industry. Many Huguenots and their descendants prospered. Henri Basnage de Beauval fled France and settled in the Netherlands, where he became an influential writer and historian. Abel Boyer , another noted writer, settled in London and became a tutor to the British royal family.
Henry Fourdrinier , the descendant of Huguenot settlers in England, founded the modern paper industry. Augustin Courtauld fled to England, settling in Essex and established a dynasty that founded the British silk industry. The exodus of Huguenots from France created a brain drain, as Huguenots accounted for a disproportionate number of entrepreneurial , artisan , and technical occupations in the country. The loss of this technical expertise was a blow from which the kingdom did not fully recover for many years.
Midth century Eastern European migration was significantly shaped by religious factors. The Jewish minority experienced strong discrimination in the Russian Empire during this period, which reached its maximum in the pogrom waves of the s. During the s, the mass exodus of more than two million Russian Jews began. Already before, a migration stream of Jewish people started which was characterized by highly skilled individuals. This pronounced selectivity was not caused by economic incentives, but by political persecution. The suppression of the Society of Jesus in Spanish America in caused the Jesuit vineyards in Peru to be auctioned at high prices but new owners did not had the same expertise as the Jesuits contributing to a production decline.
Also after the suppression of the Society of Jesus in the production and importance of mate producing regions which had been dominated by Jesuits began to decline. The plantation system of the Jesuits did however not prevail and mate continued chiefly to be harvested from wild stand through the 18th and most of the 19th century.
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Antisemitic feelings and laws in Europe through the s and s, culminating in the Holocaust , caused an exodus of intelligentsia. Notable examples are:. Besides Jews, Nazi persecution extended to liberals and socialists in Germany, further contributing to emigration. The Bauhaus , perhaps the most important arts and design school of the 20th century, was forced to close down during the Nazi regime because of their liberal and socialist leanings, which the Nazis considered degenerate.
They introduced the European Modern movement to the American public and fostered the international style in architecture and design, [ citation needed ] helping to transform design education at American universities and influencing later architects. Eugene Farkas engineer and creator of Fordson  tractor. Several were from Budapest, and were instrumental in American scientific progress e.
By , the Soviet Union had issued restrictions making emigration of its citizens to other countries almost impossible. We were afraid the thaw might unleash a flood, which we wouldn't be able to control and which could drown us. How could it drown us? It could have overflowed the banks of the Soviet riverbed and formed a tidal wave which would have washed away all the barriers and retaining walls of our society.
Even after the closing of the Inner German border officially in ,  the border between the sectors of East Berlin and West Berlin remained considerably more accessible than the rest of the border because it was administered by all four occupying powers. Human capital flight phenomena in Europe fall into two distinct trends. The first is an outflow of highly qualified scientists from ' Western Europe ' mostly to the United States.
Although the EU recognises a need for extensive immigration to mitigate the effects of an aging population,  nationalist political parties have gained support in many European countries by calling for stronger laws restricting immigration. In , over , Europeans emigrated to the United States , ,  Australia 40, ,  Canada 37,  and New Zealand 30, This is the highest rate of worker emigration since reunification , and was equal to the rate in the aftermath of World War II.
The country has lost Central and Eastern European countries have expressed concerns about extensive migration of skilled labourers to Ireland and the United Kingdom. Lithuania , for example, has lost about , citizens since , many of them young and well-educated, to emigration to Ireland in particular.
A similar phenomenon occurred in Poland after its entry into the European Union. In the first year of its EU membership, , Poles registered to work in England , joining an estimated , residents of Polish descent. The exodus is likely to continue, however. The rapid but small-scale departure of highly skilled workers from Southeastern Europe has caused concern about those nations developing towards inclusion in the European Union. Serbia is one of the top countries that have experienced human capital flight from the fall of communist regime.
In , people started emigrating to the closest countries, Italy and Greece, and with the passing of years began going farther, to the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. In the last 10 years, educated people and professionals have been leaving the country and going to other countries where they feel they can have better possibilities for better and secure lives.
This is a concern for Albania as well, as it is losing its skilled-workers and professionals. In the s, many skilled and educated people emigrated from Turkey , including many doctors and engineers. This emigration wave is believed to have been triggered by political instability, including the military coup. In later decades, into the s, many Turkish professionals emigrated, and students studying overseas chose to remain abroad, mainly due to better economic opportunities.
This human capital flight was given national media attention, and in , the government formed a task force to investigate the "brain drain" problem. There are a considerable number of people leaving the United Kingdom for other countries, especially Australia and the United States. Business industries expressed worries that Brexit poses significant risk of causing brain drain. Countries in Africa have lost a tremendous amount of their educated and skilled populations as a result of emigration to more developed countries, which has harmed the ability of such nations to get out of poverty.
Nigeria , Kenya , and Ethiopia are believed to be the most affected. I dream of the day when these, the African mathematicians and computer specialists in Washington and New York, the African physicists, engineers, doctors, business managers and economists, will return from London and Manchester and Paris and Brussels to add to the African pool of brain power, to enquire into and find solutions to Africa's problems and challenges, to open the African door to the world of knowledge, to elevate Africa's place within the universe of research the information of new knowledge, education and information.
In response to growing debate over the human capital flight of health care professionals , especially from lower income countries to some higher income countries, in the World Health Organization adopted the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel , a policy framework for all countries for the ethical international recruitment of doctors, nurses and other health professionals. African human capital flight has begun to reverse itself due to rapid growth and development in many African nations, and the emergence of an African middle class.
Between and , six of the world's ten fastest-growing economies were in Africa, and between and , Africa's economic growth is expected to outpace Asia's.
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This, together with increased development, introduction of technologies such as fast Internet and mobile phones, a better-educated population, and the environment for business driven by new tech start-up companies, has resulted in many expatriates from Africa returning to their home countries, and more Africans staying at home to work. The trend for young doctors and nurses to seek higher salaries and better working conditions, mainly in higher income countries of the West, is having serious impacts on the health care sector in Ghana. Ghana currently has about 3, doctors—one for every 6, inhabitants.
This compares with one doctor per people in the United States. Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing human capital flight in the past 20 years, since the end of apartheid. More recently, in a case of reverse brain drain a net , highly skilled South Africans returned to South Africa from foreign work assignments over a five-year period from to This was catalysed by the global financial crisis of and perceptions of a higher quality of life in South Africa relative to the countries to which they had first emigrated.
During the Iraq War , especially during the early years, the lack of basic services and security fed an outflow of professionals from Iraq that began under Saddam Hussein , under whose rule four million Iraqis are believed to have left the country. Israel has experienced varying levels of emigration throughout its history, with the majority of Israeli expatriates moving to the United States.
Currently, some , native-born Israelis including , Israeli Jews are estimated to be living abroad, while the number of immigrants to Israel who later left is unclear. Many Israelis with degrees in scientific or engineering fields have emigrated abroad, largely due to lack of job opportunities. From Israel's establishment in May to December , about , doctors and academics left Israel. In addition, the majority of Israelis who emigrate eventually return after extended periods abroad.
In , the Israeli government began a programme to encourage Israelis living abroad to return; since then, the number of returning Israelis has doubled, and in , Israeli expatriates, including academics, researchers, technical professionals, and business managers, began returning in record numbers.
Israel launched additional programmes to open new opportunities in scientific fields to encourage Israeli scientists and researchers living abroad to return home. These programmes have since succeeded in luring many Israeli scientists back home. By , the Arab countries were experiencing human capital flight, according to reports from the United Nations and Arab League. The reasons for this included attraction to opportunities in technical and scientific fields in the West and an absence of job opportunities in the Arab world, as well as wars and political turmoil that have plagued many Arab nations.
In , human capital flight was showing signs of reversing, with many young students choosing to stay and more individuals from abroad returning. In particular, many young professionals are becoming entrepreneurs and starting their own businesses rather than going abroad to work for companies in Western countries. This was partially a result of the Arab Spring , after which many Arab countries began viewing science as the driving force for development, and as a result stepped up their science programmes. Another reason may be the ongoing global recession.
There has been high rates of human capital flight from Malaysia. Major pull factors have included better career opportunities abroad and compensation, while major push factors included corruption, social inequality, educational opportunities,racial inequality such as the government's Bumiputera affirmative action policies. As of , Bernama has reported that there are a million talented Malaysians working overseas. In , colonialism in the Philippines ended with the election of Manuel Roxas. However Roxas, having spent his last 3 years as the secretary of finance and chairman of the National Economic Council and a number of other Filipino companies, was particularly concerned with the country's financial rather than health problems.
When the United States relaxed their Immigration Act laws in , labor export emerged as a possible solution for the Philippines. Since the s and s, the Philippines has been the largest supplier of nurses to the United States, in addition to export labour supplied to the UK and Saudi Arabia. Seeking access through the U. Pursuing economic gains through labour migration over infrastructural financing and improvement, the Philippines still faced slow economic growth during the s and s.
Studies show stark wage discrepancies between the Philippines and developed countries such as the US and the UK. This has led Filipino government officials to note that remittances sent home may be seen as more economically valuable than pursuit of local work. However, scholars have noted that economic disparities in the Philippines have not been eased in the past decades. The Philippines spent only 3. Of approximately schools providing bachelor's degrees in nursing,  the majority are privately controlled, in part due to the inability of the Filipino government to keep up with rising education demand.
However, private schooling has also been a lucrative business, fulfilling the dire need of Philippine labour looking for potential access to higher income. In addition to the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration POEA run by the government as a source of overseas recruitment agreements, and as a marketer of Filipino labour overseas, private nursing schools have acted as migration funnels, expanding enrolment, asserting control over the licensure process, and entering into business agreements with other overseas recruitment agencies.
Discussed in terms of numbers and financial gains, export labour migration has been suggested as a solution to the struggling Filipino economy, with labour transfers and remittance payments seen as beneficial for both countries. With physicians and nurses leaving en masse for greater financial promise abroad, the ratio of nurses to patients in the Philippines has worsened from 1 nurse per patients in to 1 nurse per patients in Once abroad, Filipino nurses have identified discriminatory workplace practices, receiving more night and holiday shifts, as well as more mundane tasks than non-Filipino counterparts.
Further critical enquiries into the success of export labour migration for the Philippines are needed. As noted, financial and economic statistics cannot fully describe the complexity of en-masse migration of nurses and physicians. It is important to understand the multitude of elements which combine to encourage a culture of migration. Brain-drain as a phenomenon can be currently applied to the Filipino situation; however, it is important to note, this does not suggest export labour migration as the primary causal factor of the country's current economic situation.
Lack of government funding for health care systems, in addition to the export labour migration culture, as well as other local factors, all contribute to what is described as the current brain-drain phenomenon occurring in the Philippines. It is important to understand the complexity of the nation's history with regard to labour export and government funding in order to determine benefits, costs, and perpetuated problems within the society's infrastructure.
Every year , youth are reported to leave Nepal for various reasons. They seek opportunity in its various manifestation — higher living standards, employment, better income, education, a luring western lifestyle, stability and security. Sri Lanka has lost a significant portion of its intellectuals, mainly due to civil war and the resulting uncertainty that prevailed in the country for the thirty-year period prior to the end of the conflict in In recent years, many expatriates have indicated interest in returning to Sri Lanka, but have been deterred by slow economic growth and political instability.
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