Automated systems crawl the DarkWeb to find Zero-Days.
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Dark Web: Exploring and Data Mining the Dark Side of the Web by Hsinchun Chen (auth.) - PDF Drive
Dark Web research overview -- 2. Intelligence and security informatics ISI : research framework -- 3. Terrorism informatics -- Part II. Forum spidering -- 5. Link and content analysis -- 6. Dark network analysis -- 7. Interactional coherence analysis -- 8. Dark Web attribute system -- 9. Authorship analysis -- This makes it to conceal user information and avoid any possibility of monitoring activities. Dark Web also has negative effects by allowing criminals to commit cybercrime and conceal their traces .
The onion technique 1 enables anonymous communications through a network of computers. Messages are sent encrypted using the asymmetric encryption then they are sent through some nodes of networks known as onion routers. When the message is sent to the onion routers, each onion router deletes the encryption layer in the same way as remove the onion peeling to not discover the routing instructions, so a message is sent to the other router and this process is repeated until it is sent to a specific destination Figure 2.
TOR is used to enable private, anonymous and secure communications and activities for specific purposes  . In the following are given some examples that they are related to above mentioned elements:. Figure 2. The message routing by using the onion technique 2. To avoid censorship and to reach certain destinations or contents that they are blocked in one or another way, TOR considers as an adequate tool.
It enables individuals to access contents that may be blocked in certain parts of the world. To stop it, some governments have established rules for using TOR, or blocking access to TOR for the specific time periods. TOR is also used by political dissidents to secure and maintain their anonymous communications and locations. Such a case is the movements of dissidents in Iran and Egypt . If the individuals want to access in chat rooms or forums and they like to do the sensitive communications for personal or business purposes, this is enabled by TOR.
It is used to protect children online the Internet browsing to avoid them from abuse activities by hidden IP addresses of their devices. This tool can be used by businesses to protect their projects and to fence spies from their competitors   . TOR can be used from journalists to communicate securely with informers and dissidents  .
Individuals have the possibility to communicate and share documents anonymity with publishers thought TOR, e. He has reported and communicated to journalists for disclosing the classified documents about defense programs of the USA. Because of the anonymity provided by Tor and other software such as I2P, the Dark Web can be a playground for nefarious actors online.
As noted, however, there are a number of areas in which the study and use of the Dark Web may provide benefits. Anonymity on the Dark Web can be used to shield military command and control systems in the field for identification and hacking by adversaries. The military may use the Dark Web to study the environment in which it is operating as well as to discover activities that present an operational risk to troops. In its battle against IS, the Department of Defense DOD can monitor these activities and employ a variety of tactics to foil terrorist plots .
TOR software can be used by the military to conduct a clandestine or covert computer network operation such as taking down a website or a denial of service attack, or to intercept and inhibit enemy communications. These activities may be conducted either in support of an ongoing military operation or on a stand-alone basis . By sweeping websites that are often ignored by commercial search engines, and capturing thousands of hidden sites on the Dark Web, the Memex project ultimately aims to build a more comprehensive map of Internet content.
This is intended to help law enforcement target their human trafficking investigations . It could use factors such as actor behavior models and black market sales to help forecast and detect cyber events . Bitcoin is the currency often used in transactions on the Dark Web . It is a decentralized digital currency that uses anonymous, peer-to-peer transactions .
Dark Web: Exploring and Data Mining the Dark Side of the Web
When a bitcoin is used in a financial transaction, the transaction is recorded in a public ledger, called the block chain. The information recorded in the block chain is the bitcoin addresses of the sender and recipient. An address does not uniquely identify any particular bitcoin; rather, the address merely identifies a particular transaction . The address for a transaction and a cryptographic signature are used to verify transactions . The wallet and private key are not recorded in the public ledger; this is where bitcoin usage has heightened privacy. Wallets may be hosted on the web, by software for a desktop or mobile device, or on a hardware device .
Results are derived based on research questions RQ mainly focused on TOR metrics information and different reliable Dark Web privacy anonymity reports and information. Through of them are given arguments about anonymity and privacy for different cases. We have given eight RQ as follows:. This cipher is increased and decreased during this period of time Figure 3. Based on the TOR metrics, the daily users in the world that they have used the Internet anonymously during January to December was above 4 million in the two first months of and this cipher has fallen off after second month of the same year Figure 4.
According to the study of University of Portsmouth results that researchers have worked with 40 relays computers that ran on TOR network and they have collected above Researchers have identified 5. According to TOR project estimated that the traffic of hidden services is 3. In March to March have existed between Figure 3. Figure 4. We cannot say that anonymity is completely verified on the Dark Web.
TOR has purposed to enable anonymous activities, but researchers and security experts are continually working to develop tools through which they can identify individuals or hidden services and de-anonymize them. There are many cases examples about anonymity, but to elaborate this research question are considered two of them:. Users who placed these data on the Freedom Hosting could easily be identified. RQ5 How the number of users is retrieved from the directory requests through TOR and in what way does their calculation become?
There are mechanisms in the TOR that make assumptions that clients make on average ten requests per day. RQ6 How do we know from which countries are the Dark Web users and in what way does their reporting become? The directories disassemble IP addresses according to country codes from where comes the access to them and report numbers in aggregate form. These numbers indirectly represent the Dark Web users. There is an anomaly-based censorship detection system 6 that calculates the number of users over a series of days and predicts how many users may be in the next few days.
If the current number of users estimated to the above system is high, it can be concluded that there are possible censorship events, otherwise no. For more details about this issue please refer to the relevant report 7. According to the TOR metrics 8 , the number of users is not directly calculated, but the requests of directories are numbered frequently for the clients and in this case the relay list is updated. Therefore, based on the above elements, indirectly counts the number of users in an anonymous network.
Dark Web is a growing asset, especially in terms of the illicit services and activities.
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Security mechanisms should be vigilant to these problems and take measures to eliminate them. The evolving technology with encryption security and anonymity like the Dark Web and its special software has put law enforcement and policymakers in challenge to effectively struggle harmful actors who are operating in the cyberspace.
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