Compliance as a Service CaaS is a cloud service service level agreement SLA that specified how a managed service provider A data protection impact assessment DPIA is a process designed to help organizations determine how data processing systems, A computer worm is a type of malicious software program whose primary function is to infect other computers while remaining Single sign-on SSO is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials e.
Medical practice management MPM software is a collection of computerized services used by healthcare professionals and Remote patient monitoring RPM is a subcategory of homecare telehealth that allows patients to use mobile medical devices or A business continuity plan BCP is a document that consists of the critical information an organization needs to continue A disaster recovery team is a group of individuals focused on planning, implementing, maintaining, auditing and testing an Cloud insurance is any type of financial or data protection obtained by a cloud service provider.
Kilo, mega, giga, tera, peta, exa, zetta are among the list of prefixes used to denote the quantity of something, such as a byte Social networking services and websites are an emerging area for e-democracy. Proponents of e-government perceive the government's use of social networking as a medium to help the government act more like the public it serves.
Examples can be found at almost every state government portal through Facebook , Twitter , and YouTube widgets. Government and its agents also have the opportunity to follow citizens to monitor satisfaction with services they receive. Through ListServs, RSS feeds, mobile messaging, micro-blogging services and blogs, government and its agencies can share information to citizens who share common interests and concerns.
Government is also beginning to Twitter. Caprio is offering daily tweets of the state's cash flow. Government 2. The government's role is to provide open data , web services, and platforms as an infrastructure. Following the transition from the longstanding Kenya African National Union government to the National Rainbow Coalition government in December , in January a Directorate of e-government was established after an executive cabinet session. The newly created department had the duty to draw the plan of action for future ICT implementations.
Like many other African nations, Kenya has embraced the high mobile penetration rate within its population. Even people living in remote areas that did not have access to traditional telecommunications' networks can now communicate with ease. The fact of the same has, and continues to have, a great impact on the governments' strategies in reaching out to its citizens. Such services include Kipokezi which allows subscribers to do online chatting and also exchange electronic mails via standard mobile phones , and M-Pesa which allows the subscribers to send and receive electronic cash.
Such services have even appealed to the majority of Kenyans, as they support the branchless members of the society too, in undertaking normal and secure businesses via M-Pesa. Website: Open Kenya Transparent Africa. The eGovernment web portal has been developed to provide more convenient access to various government services and information through one window. Services can now be delivered to people at their convenience, and more importantly, now have a lot more weight on transparency and accountability of public services. Indian government has launched many e-governance initiatives, including a portal for public grievance,  MCA21 Mission Mode Project ,  e-Filing of income tax,  e-gazette,  Project Nemmadi ,  and their overall digital India policy.
Furthermore, e-government should have been introduced for different purposes in government offices. As one of the ISO member countries, Indonesia gives more attention to facilitating the activities of standardization. However, based on the reports by UN bodies, Iran has failed in recent years to meet the average standards of e-government.
In , the Supreme Council of Information released a report which criticized the government for its poor advancement in employing new communication technologies for administration purposes. In , Iran launched the National Information Network and improved the quality and speed of internet access. The Iraqi E-government citizen program was established to "eliminate bribery and favoritism and end the citizens' suffering in going back repeatedly to directories", the interface lets the citizen send requests and complaints, it can also be used for issuing identity cards, driving licenses and passports .
Electronic government is an initiative aimed at reinventing how the government works. The Yangon City Development Committee consists of 20 departments. Its headquarters was on the Yangon City Hall. The committee's chairman is also the city's mayor. The main purposes of the city's e-Government program are to provide easy access between the government and the city's citizens via the Internet, to reduce paper usage, to reduce the city budget, to build the city's fiber ring, to provide timely public information, to store public data and to develop and expand G2G, G2C, G2B, and G2E programs.
In January responsibility for e-Government was divided between the e-Government Administration Committee and the e-Government Processing Committee. The e-Government Processing Committee includes the Head of Public Relation and Information Department as Chief and the other 20 deputy head of department officers as chairmen. The official web-portal is www. Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Myanmar Burma. In , Mandalay Region Government developed www. On 21 July www. That portal includes 2 e-services, topics from 70 agencies.
The committee develops a Regional Data Center too. That Datacenter will be opened in The e-Government practice has been slow both in adoption and practice in Nepal. The key functions identified by the NITB are: . While it clearly pursued efficiency gains and improved transparency, it also hoped to deliver "efficient and cost-effective public services to citizens of Pakistan.
Description of each module listed are:. NITB released a high-level diagram that describes the process of transforming Federal Government agencies and ministries to e-Office environments. Criticism: NITB's rollout of the e-Office suite across almost all federal agencies is not only overly ambitious but also likely to fail. It seems to put together a lot of lofty organizational efficiency goals with a set of delivery or citizen-facing targets. In fact, most of the services NITB has provided have been largely conceptual and not sufficient concrete.
The process outlined in the adoption process diagram seems devoid of any user-centric design or value proposition formulation. Instead of creating lots of MVPs Minimum Viable Products and taking advantage of an iterative and validated learning the process, the e-Office Suite seems to incorporate all the features and functions that various ministries and divisions may need or use.
It seems to focus more on the needs of the bureaucrats and government agencies rather than the needs of the end-user citizens of Pakistan and what services would they need that a ministry or division can provide. Sri Lanka have taken some initiative actions to provide the benefits of e-government to the citizens. To implement the principles of e-government, the Ministry of Information and Telecommunication Technologies of Thailand developed a plan for creating a modern e-services system during The next stage was the five-year project of the digital government, which began in and will be completed in In , Thailand ranks 73rd in the UN e-government ranking.
Jordan has established its e-government program since The e-Government was also established in Saudi Arabia , and it offers online government services and transactions. The "E-Government" framework was established in accordance with the "National Strategy on Information-Communication Technologies in the Development of the Republic of Azerbaijan " and implemented in the framework of the "E-Azerbaijan" Program.
The project is aimed to increase the convenience and efficiency of the activity of state agencies, simplify interactions between population, businesses, and government agencies, contribute to creating new citizen-official relations framework and ensure transparency and free flow of information. The main components of the e-government infrastructure are integrated network infrastructure for state bodies, E-government portal, E-government gateway, State register of information resources and systems, e-signature, e-document circulation and e-government data center under preparation.
State portal www. Through e-government portal, citizens can use more than e-services of 27 state agencies. Besides, a gateway between government agencies was established to ensure the mutual exchange of information, and most state agencies are connected to this infrastructure. The gateway allows users to efficiently use the existing government information systems and safe contact between them, issuing requests and rendering e-services, liberates citizens from providing same information or documents which are already available in information databases.
On 14 March , it was launched E-government Development Center. The service tries to utilize digital technologies, establish e-government to make state services operate more efficiently, ensure public services availability, and improve the living standards of the citizens of the country. It is government-to-citizen type of the e-governance. The e-government portal egov. Armenian e-government was established in E-government brings together all tools and databases created by Armenian state agencies and provides a user-friendly online environment for users.
It includes more than twenty services and tools. Under this initiative, "Interactive Budget"  and "State Non-Commercial Organisations' Financing"  sections are available for the first time. There are also twenty other tools, including search engines, allowing to find the Government's and the Prime Minister's decisions, the agenda of the next cabinet sitting, information on the state purchases, the electronic tax reporting system, the online application system of the Intellectual Property Agency, the information search system of the Intellectual Property Agency, as well as the Electronic Signature and Electronic Visa e-visa sections.
It is worth mentioning that the Electronic Signature is used in several other services when a user wants to submit an application or receive information. The Electronic Signature is universal system and is used both by the state officials and by citizens, legal entities. This system allows companies to submit an application for obtaining or terminating licenses regarding various activities pharmaceuticals, banking, construction, transport etc.
It also provides other services in respect of already obtained license. The Report Acceptance System for licensed persons enables to submit any report annually, monthly or quarterly on licensed activities. Electronic Payment System effectively processes online payments.
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This application is designed specifically for charging the state fees, local fees, the administrative penalties or services provided by state and local governmental bodies. The system enables to submit an application to the property cadastre and receives information on landowners, the surface of a plot of land, legal status of any property. The state electronic payment system is integrated into this tool.
Online applications for registration of rights and restrictions and related documents may be submitted by users who have a digital signature. It is designed particularly for publication any draft initiated by the Government or Member of Parliaments. The website enables them to search legal drafts, follow their further progress, and become familiar with the presented suggestions. The registered users can present suggestions, get informed with the "summary paper" of the suggestions to the draft, the adopted suggestions or the reasoning concerning the not adopted ones.
The system enables registration of legal entities, such as limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, foundations, and self-employed entrepreneurs. On average it takes twenty minutes to register a company depending on the entity's type.
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State fee can be paid through E-Payments system. The system also allows users to track the submitted applications and search existing companies as well as purchase full information about any company, including information about shareholders. This system allows users to find cases, search for laws of Armenia, as well as to follow the schedule of court hearings. The system is designed for public announcements. The state authorities are obliged to make public announcements under certain circumstances stipulated by law. This tool simplifies the tax declaration process for both taxpayers and tax authorities.
Any natural person or legal entity can submit tax declaration verifying it by electronic signature. Online submission of patent and trademark applications using electronic signature. Visas are issued within two days. The system allows users to verify the identity of the user and protect the submitted application. Any resident of Armenia, either a natural person or legal entity, can obtain an electronic signature and use it while applying E-Government systems.
Estonia has established its e-government program with the support of the European Union since with the introduction of e-Banking. Estonia conducts legally binding i-Voting at national and local elections and offers e-Residency to foreigners. The academy has trained over 4, officials from more than 60 countries and led or participated in more than 60 international ICT projects on the national, local and organizational levels. Estonia is widely recognized as e-Estonia , as a reference to its tech-savvy government and society.
On the Federal Law "On providing state and municipal services" , the strategy on development of Information Society in the Russian Federation, approved by the President , the Federal target programme "Electronic Russia" — years , approved by the Government , the State Programme "Information Society" , the Procedure on development and approval of administrative regulations execution of public functions public services , approved by the Government , the concept of administrative reform in the Russian Federation in - respectively, approved by the Government , on other orders, resolutions and acts in the Russian Federation was created electronic government or e-government.
The main target on creating e-government lies in the field of providing equal opportunities for all the Russians in spite of their living place and their incomes and make a more effective system of public administration. So e-government is created for reaching the useful system of public management accommodating the individual interests of every citizen by participation through ICTs in public policy-making. Nowadays Russian e-government includes such systems as: .
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The United interagency Interacting system using for providing of state and municipal services, exchange of information and data between participants of interagency interacting, quick approval of state and municipal decisions, etc. The United system for authentication and authorization providing evidence of the rights of all participants of e-government. United portal of state and municipal services and functions which are the "single window" for all information and services assured by government and municipals. The portal of public services is one of the key elements of the project to create an "electronic government" in the country.
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The portal provides a single point of access to all references on state and municipal services through the Internet and provides citizens and organizations the opportunity to receive these services electronically. Monthly visits by users of the public services portal range between , and , For example, citizens are now able to get or exchange a driver's license through this portal. Today Russian e-government elements are demanded in the spheres of e-governance, e-services e-health, e-education, e-library, etc. By the United Nations E-Government Survey E-Government for the People Russia became one of the 7 emerging leaders in e-government development, took 9th place in rating of e-government development in largest population countries, took 8th rank in Top e-participation leaders, after Norway, Sweden and Chile, Advancing 32 positions in the world rankings, the Russian Federation became the leader of e-government in Eastern Europe.
Evolution of ICT in the Russian Federation provided the raising of Russia in e-government development index to the 27 places. The main coordinating government body in matters of e-government is State e-Government Agency , which was established on June 4, The beginning of the state policy of the development of the information society was the adoption in of the Laws of Ukraine "On electronic documents and electronic document circulation", "On the national program of informatization", "On the electronic digital signature" and a number of state acts related to informatization.
Later, the Law of Ukraine "On the Basic Principles of the Information Society in Ukraine for ", "On Information Protection in Information and Telecommunication Systems" and some other legislative acts aimed at concretization and specification of these laws were adopted. This law emphasized the use of information and telecommunication technologies to improve public administration, relations between the state and citizens.
The next stage of e-government development began in after the adoption of the Agreement of parliamentary factions of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in and the adoption of the Development Strategy "Ukraine - ", which was approved by Decree of the President of Ukraine dated January 12, No.
The biggest achievement of the Ukrainian government in this area is a new public e-procurement system - ProZorro. The system appeared to be so effective and innovative that it won a range of international rewards: the annual prize of the Open Government Awards , the World Procurement Award WPA at Public Sector Awards etc. Second, several notable online tools were launched by civil society. These have included the notably successful Prozorro electronic procurement platform which in its first 14 months of operation already contributed 1.
The spending. E-petitions instruments were adopted by the Presidential Administration, by over local government authorities and more recently by the Cabinet of Ministers. Other external evaluations have done so as well.
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Chapter 4 in this report describes some empirical results on user attitudes and behavior generally. These analyses have compared Web offerings internationally among national governments , nationally in the United States across federal agencies , and also. See Darrell M. There have been studies that examined and compared social security administrations internationally as well.
Those studies that looked specifically at federal agencies gave positive weight to features such as online publications, online databases, and the availability of online transactions.
The agencies have steadily been taking steps to address shortcomings in their online presences. More effective grappling with broader issues is still needed, however, and a high score in the limited West evaluation scheme can certainly not be taken as a cause for complacency. In the. A recent study examined the impact of automation on social security administrations across 13 countries. While all 13 would likely be considered developed countries, some countries had different philosophies on their approach to social services provision i.
The historical perspective provided by the study is helpful in explaining that automation really came to these national-level social security organizations in the mids, with the U. SSA beginning around , third on the list of countries studied. The report examined the goals for these automation efforts between and and found, not too surprisingly, that the primary aims initially were very focused on cost cutting and productivity improvement. Between and , though, the list of goals grew considerably to include improving information for both in-house staff and outside users, preventing and reducing program fraud, and responding to user demand for online information and services.
A head-to-head comparison of the level of aggregate online functionality found the United States with the highest ranking—17 out of a possible 28 points—and the Netherlands coming in lowest with a score of Darrell M. While this comparison fails in some ways e. The index relies on a model that includes data on customer expectations, perceived quality, perceived value of information, and on customer complaints and customer loyalty. The ACSI started reporting separately on federal agency performance in , about the same time that federal agencies started enabling and promoting their e-government offerings.
The ACSI recently added an evaluation for e-government services among federal agencies. Not too surprisingly, the ACSI scores for federal government agencies have been going up gradually since the e-government index was created in late , with the aggregate satisfaction score in September being In addition to the company-level satisfaction scores, ACSI produces scores for the causes and consequences of customer satisfaction and their relationships.
There has been a similarly favorable response to the availability of online e-government transactions. While there are distinctions between the kinds of services that the SSA offers and its client base as compared with the services and client base of financial institutions, increased use of online financial services in the private sector may shape expectations, at least on the part of some, for a similarly broad availability of online transactions from agencies such as the SSA that provide important financial services.
The IRS worked with third-party vendors to implement electronic filing see Chapter 4 in this report. The assessment by the Committee on the Social Security Administration's E-Government Strategy and Planning for the Future was based on 1 its examination of the SSA's current e-government strategy, including technological assumptions, performance measures and targets, planned operational capabilities, strategic requirements, and future goals; 2 its consideration of strategies, assumptions, and technical and operational requirements in comparable public- and private-sector institutions; and 3 its consideration of the larger organizational, societal, and technological context in which the SSA operates.
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