Mikhajlov, E. Jul ed. Brussels, Belgium, July , Proceedings, in G. Goos, J. Hartmanis, J. Mens, P. Steyaert, C. Verlag, Nygaard, O. Naur, B. Randell, J. Buxton eds. Ponder, B. Persson: The Quest for the Software Chip. Bosch, G. Hedin, K. Bruun Kristensen eds. Persson: Wisps of Realistic Computing. Bosch ed. Petzold: Programming Windows 5 th ed.
Pfister: Component Software. Pountain, C. Pfister, C. Richter: Advanced Windows 3 rd ed. Rogerson: Inside COM. Sakkinen: Disciplined Inheritance, in [Cook89] pp. Stata, J. Lucas, K. Mens, T. Meyrowitz ed. September 29 - October 2, Stein: Delegation Is Inheritance, in N. October 4 - 8, Bergin, Jr. Gibson, Jr. Szyperski: Component Software. Ten Dyke, J. Venners: Interview. Vellon, K. Also explain the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS. The basic building block his computer equivalent of information-on-paper is called data.
Data is information in its simplest form, meaningless until related together in some fashion so as to become meaningful. A particular file can be searched electronically, even if only remembering a tiny portion of the file contains. A database, generally defined, is a flexible, hierarchical structure for storing raw data, which facilitates its organization into useful information. All data on computer is stored in one kind of database or another. A spreadsheet is a database, storing data in an arrangement of characters and formatting instructions.
What a database does, then, is breakdown information into its most fundamental components and then create meaningful relationships between those components. We depend on databases of varying configurations and complexity for all our computerized information need. Distributed database system: Geographically or administratively distributed data spreads across multiple database systems. Parallel database system: Parallel processing within computer system allows database system activities to be speeded up, allowing faster response to transaction; queries can be preceded in a way that exploits the parallelism offered by the underlying computer system.
Centralized database system: Centralized database systems are those run on a single system and do not interact with other computer systems. They are single user database systems on a PC and high performance database system on high end server system. Without the database, servers would be impractical as business tools. True, you could still use them to share resources and facilitate communication; but, in the absence of business database, a peer-to-peer network would be a more cost effective tool to handle these jobs.
So the question of client server becomes a question of whether or not your business needs centralized database. Sharing and communications are built on top of that. Therefore, the client computer resources are available to perform other system chores such as the management of the graphical user interface.
Data may be stored in one site or in multiple sites. The network links each of these processes. The client computer, also called workstation, controls the user interface. The client is where text and images are displayed to the user and where the user inputs data. The user interface can be text based or graphical based. The server computer controls database management. The server is where data is stored, manipulated, and stored. Business logic can be located on the server, on the client, or mixed between the two.
This type of logic governs the processing of the application. This is unlike mainframe- based systems, which typically use proprietary components available only through a single vendor. Therefore, it is possible to build an application by selecting an RDBMS from one vendor, hardware from another vendor. Customers can select components that best fit their needs. Mainframe computing was notorious for tracking huge amounts of data that could be accessed only by developers.
Instead, data access is providing by common software products tools that hide the complexities of data access. Interaction between client and server is in the form of transaction in which client makes database request and receives a database response. In the architecture of such a system, server is responsible for maintaining the database, for that purpose a complex database management system software module is required.
Importance of such architecture depends on the nature of application, where it is going to be implemented. And the main purpose is to provide on line access for record keeping. Suppose a database with million of records residing on the server, server is maintaining it. Some user wants to fetch a query that result few records only. Then it can be achieved by number of search criteria.
An initial client query may yield a server response that satisfies the search criteria. The user then adds additional qualifiers and issues a new query. Returned records are once again filtered. Finally, client composes next request with additional qualifiers. The resulting search criteria yield desired match, and the record is returned to the client. On the other hand, in case of single user workstations such a storage space and high power is not required and also it will be costlier.
As a result, consumes more memory and CPU resources than other schemes and slower because of process context switches and IPC overhead but the use of a TP Monitor can overcome these disadvantages. Performance of Process-per-client architecture is very poorly when large numbers of users are connecting to a database server. But the architecture provides the best protection of databases.
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Provide the best performance by running all user requests in a single address space. But do not perform well with large queries. Multi-threaded architecture conserves Memory and CPU cycles by avoiding frequent context switches. There are more chances of portability across the platforms. But it suffers by some drawback first in case of any misbehaved user request can bring down the entire process, affecting all users and their requests and second long-duration tasks of user can hog resources, causing delays for other users.
And the architecture is not as good at protection point of view. Also provides the best balance between server and clients. And finally, send it back to client when response returned from the database. This middleware software is divided into three main components. As shown in the Fig.
These components or their functions are generally distributed among several software layers that are interchangeable in a plug and play fashion. The application-programming interface is public to the client application. The programmer interacts with the middleware through the APIs provided by middleware software. In other words, the middleware API allows the client process to be database independent. Such independence means that the server can be changed without requiring that the client applications be completely rewritten.
The database translator translates the SQL requests into the specific database server syntax. Because a database server might have some non-standard features, the database translator layer may opt to translate the generic SQL request into the specific format used by the database server. The network translator manages the network communication protocols. Remember that database server can use any of the network protocols. Figure 4. The database translator layer of middleware software contains two modules, one for each database server type to be accessed. The network translator layer takes care of using the correct network protocol to access each database.
When the data from the query are returned, they are presented in a format common to the client application. The end user or programmer need not be aware of the details of data retrieval from the servers. Actually, the end user might not even know where the data reside or from what type of DBMS the data were retrieved.
The differences in these two can be easily understood by the two figures 4. Distributed data refers to the basic data stored in the server, which is distributed to different members of the work team. While distributed processing refers to the way different tasks are organized among members of the work team. Within a replicated distributed database, the scenario depicted in figure 4. The user does not need to know the data location, how to get there, or what protocols are used to get there.
Data accessibility increases because end users are able to access data directly and easily, usually by pointing and clicking in their GUI-based system. End user can manipulate data in several ways, depending on their information needs. For example, one user may want to have a report generated in a certain format, whereas another user may prefer to use graphical presentations. The data request is processed on the server side; the data formatting and presentation are done on the client side.
The database server will take care of locating the data; retrieving it from the different locations, assembling it, and sending it back to the client. In this scenario, the processing of the data access and retrieval. The client TP interacts with the end use and sends a request to the server DP. The server receives, schedules, and executes the request, selecting only those records that are needed by the client.
The server then sends the data to the client only when the client requests the data. The database management system must be able to manage the distribution of data among multiple nodes. Number of relational DBMS, which are started as a centralized system with its components like user interface and application programs were moved to the client side. With standard language SQL, creates a logical dividing point between client and server.
Hence, the query and transaction functionality remained at the server side. Exactly how to divide the DBMS functionality between client and server has not yet been established. Different approaches have been proposed. One possibility is to include functionality of a centralized DBMS at the server level. Each client must then formulate the appropriate SQL queries and provide the user interface and programming language interface functions. The client may also refer to a data dictionary that includes information on the distribution of data among the various SQL servers, as well as modules for decomposing a global query into a number of local queries that can be executed at the various sites.
Each site query is sent to the appropriate server site. The interaction between client and server can be specified by the user at the client level or via a specialized DBMS client module that is part of DBMS package. For example, the user may know what data is stored in each server, break-down a query request into site subqueries manually, and submit individual subqueries to the various sites. The resulting tables may be combined explicitly by a further user query at the client level. The alternative is to have the client module undertake these actions automatically.
In a typical DBMS, it is customary to divide the software module into three levels: L1: The server software is responsible for local data management at site, much like centralized DBMS software. L2: The client software is responsible for most of the distributions; it access data distribution information from the DBMS catalog and process all request that requires access to more than one site. It also handles all user interfaces. L3: The communication software sometimes in conjunction with a distributed operating system provides the communication primitives that are used by the client to transmit commands and data among the various sites as needed.
This is not strictly part of the DBMS, but it provides essential communication primitives and services. The client is responsible for generating a distributed execution plan for a multisite query or transaction and for supervising distributed execution by sending commands to servers. These commands include local queries and transaction to be executed, as well as commands to transmit data to other clients or servers.
Hence, client software should be included at any site where multisite queries are submitted. Another function controlled by the client or coordinator is that of ensuring consistency of replicated copies of a data item by employing distributed or global concurrency control techniques. The client must also ensure the atomicity of global transaction by performing global recovery when certain sites fail. One possible function of the client is to hide the details of data distribution from the user; that is, it enables the user to write global queries and transactions as through the database were centralized, without having to specify the sites at which the data references in the query or transaction resides.
This property is called distributed transparency. Some DDBMSs do not provide distribution transparency, instead requiring that users beware of the details of data distribution. DDBMS use distributed processing to access data at multiple sites. It is obvious that all kinds of information the corporate world is providing through web pages.
Also through links on home page they provides the facilities to enter into the corporate intranet, whether it is finance, human resource, sales, manufacturing or the marketing department. Departmental information as well as services can be accessed from web pages Even the web is powerful and flexible tool for supporting corporate requirements but they provides a limited capability for maintaining a large, change base of data. Web-database integration has been illustrated in Fig. This reference triggers a program at the web server that issues the correct database command to a database server.
The output returned to the web server is converted into a HTML format and returned to the web browser. The addition of a new type of database server does not require configuration of all the requisite drivers and interfaces at each type of client machine. Instead, it is only necessary for the web server to be able to convert between HTML and the database interface.
Which relieves the developer of the need to implement graphical user interface across multiple customer machines and operating systems? In addition, developers can assume that customers already have and will be able to use browsers as soon as the internet web server is available.
Avoiding deployment issues such as installation and synchronized activation. In addition, the text based tags of HTML allow for rapid modification, making it easy to continually improve the look and feel of the application based on the ser feedback. By contrast, changing form or content of a typical graphical-based application can be a substantial task.
Typically, the web server keeps no information between transactions to track the states of the user. Is the structure of the data important to consider for processing environments? Explain with example. Compare the object-oriented and relational database management system. Discuss some types of database utilities, tools and their functions. What are the responsibilities of the DBA and the database designers? Also discuss the capabilities that should be provided by a DBMS.
The predominant vision is that of an electronic bazaar of planetary proportions replete with boutiques, department stores, bookstores, brokerage services, banks, and travel agencies. Like a Club Med, the mall will issue its own electronic currency to facilitate round the clock shopping and business to business transactions. Electronic agents of all kinds will be roaming around the network looking for bargains and conducting negotiations with other agents.
Billions of electronic business transactions will be generated on a daily basis. Massive amounts of multimedia data will also be generated, moved, and stored on the network. Most nodes on the network should be able to participate in a secured transaction; super server nodes will handle the massive transaction loads. Consumers will have personal agents that look after their interests; businesses will deploy agents to sell their wares on the network; and sniffer agents will be sitting on the network, at all times, collecting information to do system management or simply looking for trends.
Agent technology includes cross-platform scripting engines, workflow, and Java-like mobile code environments that allow agents to live on any machine on the network. Again, most nodes on the network should provide compound document technology — for example, OLE or OpenDoc — for doing mobile document management.
Of course, this environment must also be able to support existing record-based structured data including SQL databases. To avoid doing this, we need distributed software that knows how to manage and configure itself and protect itself against threats. The middleware must create this Houdini-sized illusion by making all servers on the global network appear to behave like a single computer system.
Users and programs should be able to dynamically join and leave the network, and then discover each other. You should be able to use the same naming conventions to locate any resource on the network. Among them five common types of solutions are as given below. It is the earliest form of computing over a network. In file sharing, a client computer simply sends a request for a file or records to a file server. The server, in turn, searches its database and fills the request.
Usually, in a file sharing environment, the users of the information have little need for control over the data or rarely have to make modifications to the files or records. File sharing is ideal for organizations that have shared repositories of documents, images, large data objects, read-only files, etc. This differs from simple file sharing in that a database centered system not only allows clients to request data and data-related services, but it also enables them to modify the information on file in the database.
In such systems, the database server not only houses the database itself; it helps to manage the data by providing secured access and access by multiple users at the same time. Database-centered systems utilize SQL, a simple computer language which enables data request and fulfillment messages to be understood by both clients and servers. Both provide data on request but differ in the kinds of information needs they fulfill.
Users of an OLTP system typically require mission-critical applications that perform data access functions and other transactions with a one to two seconds response time. Airline reservations systems, point-of-sale tracking systems i. It is a simple set of commands which allows users to control sets of data. Originally developed by IBM, it is now the predominant database language of mainframes, minicomputers, and LAN servers. It tells the server what data the client is looking for, retrieves it, and then figures out how to get it back to the client.
The collaborative activity is virtually concurrent meaning that clients on the network, wherever they may be, can contribute, produce, and modify documents, and in the end, using the management and tracking features, synchronizes everything and produces a collective group product. Multimedia document management MMDM allows them to take those documents and modify them. The modifications can take place in real time with several clients making changes and modifications simultaneously, or they can be modified, stored on the server for review or future action by other clients. MMDM is, in essence, an electronic filing cabinet that holds documents in the form of text, images, graphics, voice clips, video, and other media.
It determines what needs to be done to complete a task or project, then merges, transforms, and routes the work item through the collaborative process. Workflow is especially applicable to routine tasks such as processing insurance claims or income tax return preparation. Scheduling or Calendaring Scheduling or calendaring is native to groupware technology. It can work with the workflow function to monitor progress on a project i. Conferencing Conferencing is another native groupware application. Electronic Mail E-mail E-mail is an essential element of groupware technology.
It facilitates communication among clients on a network. Its goal is to provide users with single-image, easy-to-use, virtually transparent applications. But the exact distribution of data and application programming depends on the nature of the database, the type of application supported, the availability of interoperable vendor equipment, and the usage patterns within an organization. A considerable fraction of the load is on the server, so this is also called fat server model shown in Fig.
Some of the sophisticated database logic functions residing on the client side. It enables the user to employ applications tailored to local need shown in Fig 5. A considerable fraction of the load is on the client, so this is also called fat client model. In case of some application development tools this model is very popular shown in Fig. These are considered as power factor of computer, hence, as a result, more sophisticated applications can be run from the workstations.
In case of, network environment LAN, WAN workstations also avails the services provided by the network operating systems. Client workstations request services from the attached server. Whether this server is in fact the same processor or a network processor, the application format of the request is the same. Network operating system translates or adds the specifics required by the targeted requester to the application request.
User input and final output, if any, are presented at the client workstation. Local editing, automatic data entry, help capabilities, and other logic processes can be added in front of the existing host server application. But in client server model one thing is very obvious that the services are provided by combination of resources using both the client workstation processor and the server processor. For an example, let us take very common example of client server application, a database server provides data in response to an SQL request issued by the workstation application. Local processing by the workstation might calculate the invoice amount and format the response to the workstation screen.
Now, it is important to understand that a workstation can operate as a client in some instances while acting as a server in other instances. For example, in a LAN Manager environment, a workstation might act as a client for one user while simultaneously acting as a print server for many users. The alternative way of communication is the process of the interprocess communication. The simple mechanism of this is synchronizing their action and without sharing the same address space. This play an important role in the distribute processing environment. While signals, pipes and names pipes are ways by which processes can communicate.
The more redefined method of inter process communication are message queues, semaphores and shared memory. There are four types of mechanisms, involved for such a communications:- i Message passing. At least, there are two processes involved in an IPC. Messages sent by the processes are of two types, fixed and variable. For the communication to be taking place, a link is to be set in between the two processes.
The indirect communication can also communicate with other processes via one or more mailbox. Communication between the processes takes place by executing calls to the send and receive primitive.
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The essence of the technology is to allow programs on different machines to interact using simple procedure call or return semantics, just as if the two programs were on the same machine. It is based on extending the notion of conventional or local procedure calling, so that the called procedure need not exist in the same address space as the calling procedure.
The two processes may be on the same system, or they may be on different systems with a network connecting them. That is, the procedure call is used for access to remote services. This client server binding specifies how the relationship between a remote procedure and the calling program will be established. By using RPC, programmers of distributed applications avoid the details of the interface with the network.
The transport independence of RPC isolates the application from the physical and logical elements of the data communications mechanism and allows the application to use a variety of transports. Like a function call, when an RPC is made, the calling arguments are passed to the remote procedure and the caller waits for a response to be returned from the remote procedure.
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The client makes a procedure call that sends a request to the server and waits. The thread is blocked from processing until either a reply is received, or it times out. When the request arrives, the server calls a dispatch routine that performs the requested service, and sends the reply to the client. After the RPC call is completed, the client program continues. RPC specifically supports network applications. A program may consist of one or more versions. Each version consists of a collection of procedures which are available to be called remotely.
Version numbers enable multiple versions of an RPC protocol to be available simultaneously. Each version contains a number of procedures that can be called remotely. Each procedure has a procedure number. Procedure may or may not be transparent to the user that the intention is to invoke a remote procedure on the same machine. This stub procedure creates a message that identifies the procedure being called and includes the parameters.
Stub procedure provides a perfectly local procedure call abstraction by concealing from PROM programs the interface to the underlying RPC system. RPC provides method for communication between processes residing over a distributed system. Procedure call is used for access to remote services. Basic concepts about this technique is that allowing programs residing on different machines to interact using simple procedures in a similar way like two programs running on the same machine.
That is programmers feels an isolation from the network intricacies and got easy access to network functions by using RPC systems services. They allows individual processing components of an application to run other nodes in the network. Distributed file systems, system management, security and application programming depend on the capabilities of the underlying RPC mechanisms. Server access control and use of a directory service are common needs that can be met with RPCs. RPCs also manage the network interface and handle security and directory services.
The mechanism of RPC can be considered as a refinement of reliable, blocking message passing. Thus, when the client invokes the remote procedure RPC calls the appropriate stub, passes the parameters to it, which are then provided, to remote procedure. This stub locates the port on the server and marshalling involves packaging the parameter into a form, which may be transmitted over network. The stub then transmits a message to server using message passing. Now the message sent by the host is received at the client side with the help of similar type of stub.
RPC requires synchronous connections. If an application uses an RPC to link to a server that is busy that time then application will have to wait for the data rather than switching to other task. Local procedure call fails under the circumstances where RPC can be duplicated under and executed more than one, which is due to unreliable communication. The communication in between the client and server is done with help of the standard procedure calls; therefore some binding must take place during the link load and execution, such that the process is replaced by the address.
The RPC binds the same thing to the client and server. A general problem that exists is that there is no shared memory in between them so how they can come to know about the address of the other system. The binding information may be predetermined in the form of the port address, at the compile time, a RPC call, that has a fix port number is associated with it. Once a program is compiled, it then cannot change its port number. Binding can be done dynamically by rendezvous mechanism. Typically an operating system provides rendezvous demon requesting the port address of RPC, it needed to execute.
The port address is then returned and the RPC call may be sent to the port until the process terminates. The workstation is responsible to provide various remote services. Among them some services like remote login, remote command execution, remote backup services, remote tape drive access and remote boot services, and remote data access are important.
Software available with Network Operating System is responsible to run on the client workstation to initiate all these remote services. Client server technology supports full-powered workstations with the capability for GUI applications consistent with the desktop implementation. Remote command execution is when a process on a host cause a program to be executed on another host, usually the invoking process wants to pass data to the remote program, and capture its output also. From a client workstation backup services may be invoked remotely. Some of the business functions such as downloading data from a host or checking a list of stock prices might also be invoked locally to run remotely.
To run the application, some of the workstation clients like X-terminals do not have the local storage facility. This is known as remote boot service provided by client workstation and X-terminals. Using RDA technology, any client running an application will be able to access more than one database residing at the different servers.
This is very helpful in implementation of several applications because a client workstation may have several windows open on-screen at a time. And also, all these applications interact with message services provided to notify the user of events that occur on a server. Application programs running on workstations have been written with no windowing sensitivity. These application programs are written under virtual screen assumptions, that virtual screens are generally dissimilar to the actual available physical screens.
Now with the help of interface software client application places data into virtual screen, and then the windows services handles manipulation and placement of application windows. Thus, pursuing that way application development has been enhanced tremendously due to developers less involvement in managing or building the windowing services.
The client user is fully in grip of his desktop and can give priority to the most important tasks at hand simply by positioning the window of interest to the workstation. Print complete, E-mail receipt, Fax available, and application termination are examples of alerts that might generate a pop-up window to notify the client user. As we know that the client program is on that requests receives the information, and the server is the one that response supplies it. For an example, if an application wants to connect a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet with Microsoft Word for windows report in such a way that changes to the spreadsheet are reflected automatically in the report, in that case Microsoft Word for windows is the client and Microsoft Excel is the server.
A DDE conversation always concerns a particular topic and a particular item. The topic and item spell out the nature of the information that the client is requesting from the server. With most server programs, some times it requires to save data in a disk file before to paste it into a client programs.
Some programs that act as DDE clients have commands that allow you to set up a DDE connection without first putting the source data on the clipboard. This is true with MS Excel, Word, Powerpoint, dynacomm, and many other advanced windows applications. A DDE link may be automatic or manual. An automatic link is refreshed whenever the source data changes, provided both the client and server applications are running. A manual link is refreshed only when you issue a command in the client application. OLE is a software package accesses data created from another through the use of a viewer or launcher.
These viewers and launchers must be custom built for every application. With the viewer, users can see data from one software package while they are running another package. Launchers invoke the software package that created the data and thus provide the full functionality of the launched software. Then use the paste link command in another OLE supporting program.
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To embed, follow the same procedure but use Paste instead of Paste Link. Both programs must support OLE, the program that supplies the data must support OLE as a server application, and the one that receives the data must support as a client application. Some program may support OLE in one mode or the other, it means either as a server or as client only. For an example, Paintbrush can act only as a server.
Write and Card file can act only as OLE clients. Some other programs are also available which support OLE in both modes. The toolkit greatly simplifies OLE integration into third-party, developed applications. OLE 2. This object can then be dragged and dropped into other applications and edited without the need to switch back to the application which created it. This provides a more seamless interface for the user.
In OLE 2. The user deals only with the object, with no need to be aware of the multiple software being loaded.
Generally, the OLE is known as an extension to DDE that enables objects to be created with the object components software aware a reference to the object or one of its components automatically launches the appropriate software to manipulate the data. If a component creates an object and provides other components with visibility to that object i.
Thus, a CORBA server means the components execute methods for a particular object on behalf of other components Clients. An application component can provide services to other application components while accessing services from other components. In that scenario, the components is acting as a client of one component and as a server to the other components i. In that task network operating system helps the client to generate the requests. Whether you do enforced the online or slightly, if you give your fabulous and medical results also kids will worry due books that think always for them.
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