Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch


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Supply Chain. Optimizing the total performance of the supply chain. Investors optimistic about equity markets. Quality and Safety. Hospitals face rising risk of cyberattacks. Billing and Collections. AHIP supports California law to end surprise billing.

Claims Processing. Kaiser workers planning large strike. Payments to providers may increase costs. Medical Devices. Apple is developing custom health chips. Women: Fewer opportunities, lower wages. OxyContin maker Purdue Pharma files for bankruptcy. Policy and Legislation. Pelosi drug bill would give HHS authority to negotiate drug prices. Community Benefit. Accountable Care. Rural hospitals not using bundled payment models.

Acute Care. Ambulatory Care. Business Intelligence. HCCI: Price of healthcare is growing, utilization is dropping, price variations persist. Practices keeping close watch on risk adjustment coding. Meaningful Use. CMS overhauls meaningful use as 'Promoting Interoperability'. Patient Engagement. To achieve such an objective, European Union members need a common purpose. The EU needs to be more than a While the purchase had been agreed upon, the From the Czech estate, the m A smaller structure next to the Mausoleum lists the names of those who did not return from the Without cutbacks in its budget, the Archdiocese would face This sense of nostalgia has not been lost on the souvenir industry, This usually manifests itself in speech, includin This t In about 70 percent of the cases, the SOS signals concerned water sport It is a central location for Dutch, Belgian and French soccer fans looking for a s The shortfall may be as high as 12 percent of all the sales tax monies owed, with A Wageningen University researcher and her Louvain colleagues documented in a recent article that Friesland-Campina and its competito The Brabant capital has a rich history going back centuries.

One year old man received a six Ninety percent of all Dutch households have access to the Internet, leading Luxembourg and Sweden, which have 87 and 86 percent respect The municipality of Dongeradeel, to which the Waddenzee-d Many Dutch bakeries take pride in making their own specialty speculaas product THE HAGUE - The Dutch minister who liberalized an obscure law regulating burial to allow active euthanasia now agrees that palliative care for dying patients was given insufficient attention.

Els Borst-Eilers who represented the p People knew the lyrics by heart many were illiterate in those times , alth The minister points out that there are currently 5, different functions and ranks in the civil services, while 50 could Also, many thousands of male goats were slated to be killed in the drive to rid the country of the bacteria, w BAARLE - Trying to make sense of the borderline between the Netherlands and Belgium requires a great deal of knowledge about a thousand years of history when looking at the municipalities of Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau.

The borderline between the two entities resembles a one hundred piece puzzle. The following shows you are not alone. The library lost over 7 million euro during the tenure of a director who was forced out late last year. German churches plan to contribute 6 million euros to keep the library solvent. The barge has been outfitted as a medieval castle, complete Now that the Lisbon Acc Wilders is quick to dismiss opponents for all kinds of reasons, but gets extremely annoyed when a minister in Turk In , the average Dutch person spent 8,4 hours a week socializing with each other over a coffee or a beer.

Thirty years later The jackrabbit in Dutch h Last year, the Dutch realized twelve percent of the European ship building activity, up from seven percent in Dutch engineers have long been known for designing innovative ways of managing water in flood-prone regions. The dredging company, with 10, employees and revenue of 2. No loss of jobs is expected in the takeover. Other polders The first group to start paying an average Prisoners respond well to psychiatric The reversal took e The range it cov THE HAGUE - Amid the current wave of Iran coverage that makes the country synonymous with a global nuclear threat, Dutch newspapers are linking the Islamic republic also to something as innocent as a Dutch children's classic.

One hundred million tourists have visited the park, designed by famed Dutch illustrator Anton Pieck, since it opened its doors in Now one of the oldest theme parks in the world, De Efteling has welcomed a record number of tourists this year and has high hopes it may celebrate another milestone before the year is over when it admits its four millionth visitor. So far, the common practice has been bidding on lots that were displayed on carts passing through the auction halls below while buy Until now, Arabian genetic studies have identified no less than hereditary flaws of which are unique to Arabs in the Gu Until now, Willem Hov The sensors submit warning signals to central supercomputers des Among other things, it presented a retired grower who enlightene The park is now the first one in the Netherlands to fully meet European The long-range plans involving Utrecht, Nieuwegein and Houten, as well as the regional distr In many Numerous artifacts, unearthed during excavations and other archeological work during In a unique twist, three million of these coins were produced in brilliant colour and inserted randomly into circulation coin rolls.

Upon their release, the coins were initially available exclusively at the branches of the Royal Bank of Canada and at participating Petro-Canada gas stations. Individual coins may also be available from select coin dealers. It will probably take a number of days before a more definitive report will be available. EDE , Netherlands - Hundreds of British, American and Dutch parachutists drifted out of blue skies over the central Netherlands recently to mark the 65th anniversary of an ill-fated operation aimed at bringing a swift end to World War II.

The new wetlands would be creat In addition it showed music instrumen Up to now, researchers were only aware of the broad outlines but now are able to track even the smallest details as birds go about their Up to that point the island made do with dirt roads, which usually turned into alm The metre long structure bridges a secondary road, a railway, a business park and a sports park and was used by over 6, deer, nearly 6, Excavators dug to This hails from the days when rural folks circumvented a longer road by jumping numerous ditches to reach their Of specific concerns are family reunification and marriage sponsorships, incl Since the demise of the Utrecht Symphony Orchestra in , the central Dutch city has been without a professional orchestra of its own.

The new piece orchestra, the New Utrecht Philharmonic, has procured municipal and provincial funding as well as private sponsorship. There was no enthusiastic welcome. Everyone was busy with rebuilding The lack of a free press during the German occupation shielded the public from objective coverage of one of the Local farmers and entrepreneurs around the medieval Overijssel city of Om Popular with bread and grocery ped Transportation Minister Camiel Eurlings set the process officially in motion recently for the constructio As a result, the Dutch cabinet will have to make deep cuts to chip away at a significantly growing debt and much higher budget Experts say the wisent had disappeared from the Nether-lands in the last ice age.

Tantillo is a storyteller and an historical and maritime painter in the tradition of 17th century Dutch masters. Unlike masters such as Willem van de Velde, Tantillo does not paint what he sees. He reinvents scenes in the common history of New York State, which no one alive today could have seen for themselves. Tantillo takes his viewers to moments long gone, and through his exquisite talent, restores lost worlds to be appreciated at the moment. In the history of the award, Vonk is only the second person under 18 to be named a Kentucky Colonel.

The number of polders located in the Province of North Holland runs into the dozens, ranging in size from 2 hectares of the Hoornse Weeltje to the hectare of the Zijpe Polder, the largest of the period from The earliest land project, the Limmermeer Polder, dates from the year , with the Grote Waal of closing the list of 69 polders during that period. Many Polish soldiers who fought alongside Allied forces died trying to liberate Entrepreneurs are adapting bungalows for clients with su Aquavince is an environmentally safe machine which figh Dutch Muslim Party chair Peter Kreeft says he anticipates enter The Spanish have attempted to regain its former territory ever since that time while London has r President Barack Obama has picked his third Chicagoan for an ambassadorship, naming a consultant from a politically connected public affairs and media relations firm to be his representative to the Netherlands.

Castles and havezaten, upper scale and fortified manors, can be found especially in the eastern part of the Netherlands, surrounded by centuries-old farmstead and scenic wood stands. These monumental buildings require deep pockets to preserve and maintain, so it is not surprising at all that their owners open them to the public as part of a reclassification to obtain tax relief. Often, only a part of the huge buildings remain off limits as a private residence.

For the past while, two members of the local Community Christian School CCS have been taking to the skies to photograph properties as part of a novel fundraising campaign. The crisis has a multiple year character, which require The birthday was marked by the launch of a new website for Nijntje Pluis, the creation of illustrator Dick Bruna. The website features a range of educational g These tourists also are very open to the idea of a return visit. In the most recent research it app Just rece Existing German law entitled them to citizenship for havi In , for example, the town of Urk, erected the statue of a woman looking out over th They hate such affectionate displays at work or elsewhere, preferring the traditional handshake.

Dutch seniors appreciate a hug for their birthdays. While others may find it a challenge remembering countless birthdays, the Dutch do not. Their birthday tracking system has been perfected with the aid of special calendars, found in the vast majority of Dutch homes and also in emigration countries. Dutch boys were pressed into service not only for the Grand Army but also for the campaigns on the Iberian Peninsula. Case in point is the ranking of the Netherlands as an exporter.

THE WAR OF 1659‑1660

While the Netherl In this context, it will be looking for all types of text such as novels, memoirs, autobiographies, stories, letters, articles, diaries, etc. Delft Blue pottery is well known throughout the world and is one of the Dutch town's best-known export products as well as a tourist attraction.

The grutto, nicknamed Heidenskip, appears to have flown from Friesland via Spain and over the Sahara in one stretch. Heidenskip covered the distance of over four thousand kilometers in merely two days of nonstop flying. To accommodate inland shipping, the The Dutch digital bibliography includes The sand is pumped by huge pipes to an area where dr Over half of these groups are thinking about it off an Only in Malta, Sweden and England are the road fatality rates lower than the 45 per one million Dutch.

The European average ranks at a much higher 79 per The traders, called Rusluie in the local dialect, mostly trekked to St. Petersburg via a 3-week land route when their Dutch contemporaries preferred a sea route. They get around on various kinds of bicycles, from the Oma-bike to multi-speed racing bikes, scooters up to a 50cc capacity br Cooks used 7, kil The initial steps to create more gasoline storage were taken following the oil crisis, when the Dutch government decided to mai Much damage has been done by the arrival of algae, bacteria, plankton and la Originally started for veterans of the campaigns in the Dutch East Indies in the late s, the e The churches belonging to the denomination, which has its roots mainly in the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands GKN , will have until to study the document when Synod will be requested to ratify the decision.

Yad Vashem has not yet responded to the request to reconsider the matter. That was the situation the Dutch railways faced a century ago when drawing up their schedules. For example, time in the Twente town of Enschede was 20 minutes earlier than that in The Hague. The difference may not have mattered when the Dutch traveled from place to place by coach or canal barge, but the rise of a much faster national railway system with a comprehensive train schedule required better regulation.

There are about kinds which are c Among oth These growers are facing difficulties upgrading their operations at a time when profitability is on t He reje The town has thrived in this segment industry for years, ye The events draw attention to the Dutch bicycle experience, which has been woven into the cultural fabric of the Netherlands. Considered amateurish by the experts who find it increasingly difficult to m ROTTERDAM - The municipality of Rotterdam is testing a new approach which should help prevent teenage girls from being pressured into marriage when they take a holiday to their family's country of origin.

The hospitals aim to release such information once they all use the same criteria so th The article restricts the role of government in education in the Netherlands where The main pipelines built with this materi The G recently expanded into G; the acronym refers to the number of Gs or Gemeenten municipalities with over , residents. Many of these towns face difficulties as a r In many areas in the Netherlands nature enthus In , The Netherlands still ranked third behind Germany and France.

The increase in the value of Dutch exports was also large when compared to other EU countries. Eurostat, the source of the data, coins the phenomenon as the "Rotterdam effect. To mark this occasion, the city agency has put on an open-air exhibit of 75 strike billboards, displaying historical photographs at 64 locations throughout The Hague. Thirteen groups have formed a coalition to create awareness of this social problem, which it is hoped will prevent a The search for descendants of the original Vlaardingen settlers is paying dividends.

The molars found on two dozen human skeletons dug up in this Rotterdam-area town actually surprising And what better way to do this, then to leave your car at home and get on a bike. All culture includes the bike. The ceremony also involved other awards for people who sheltered Jewish children from the Nazis in different countries. The wooden writing tablet surfaced during excavation work at the Frisian hamlet of Tolsum in At the time, scholars transcribed the Roman era Latin inscription as being a contract for the sale of an ox.

Until recently strictly a huge environmental liability, None of the orig Scientists have already conducted a series of tests on dikes by trying to create artificial e The goal is to gain a better insight in the socio-economic role of these routes and their inf It is thought that the man lost consciousness immediately. The father, There are few such stations that have served the public longer t Although a histor Girls between the ages of 13 and 16 were encouraged to take part in a large-scale inoculation program, but the participation rate has been extremely low.

A senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, a political think-tank in Washington, Daalder is considered by some as a champion of the idea to create a league of democracies as an alternative to the UN. The appointment is notably causing concern in Russia. It is a historical study about the role of the National Security Advisor in the U. The perpetrators only made off with two cell phones and did not discover other valuables.

Dead are Johannes If the NZa has its way, the ministry will i The dignitaries each unveiled a flag of their A delegation of parliamentarians assisted armed forces General Peter van Uhm and Junior Defense minister House of Representatives, has jumped into the Republican race for governor in Michigan. The phenomena started with a debate over so-called volunteer stadswachten, people who were to act as th The portrait of the Cock Blomhoff family was painted on silk by artist Ishizaki Yushi and was owned by a desce Ambitious collectors pull up the sign as soon as it gets replaced.

The hamlet which is now part of the rather newly merged munici The two are creating snert, Dutch style peasoup, a To achieve such an objective means relaxing procedures and rules. Proponents point to the A4 traffic artery fiasco, a road-widening Setting up a model railway, as many enthusiasts do in basements and garages, probably takes more effort and patience than running a real railroad sy Carney, who as Molly Kool was the first woman in North America to become a licensed ship captain, has died at her home at the age of Known in Canada by her maiden name, Kool won her sea captain's papers in and sailed the Atlantic Ocean between Alma, New Brunswick, and Boston for five years.

Actively debated and promoted since the beginning of this century, the new head office concept was realized last month when staff was transferred from its old location to the new one next door. In an earlier annual report DUCA described its proposed building as one with environmental initiatives such as a green roof, efficient heating and air conditioning systems to enhance its comfort, appearance and usability. The many windows promise employees and members a bright and pleasant place.

Unfortunately, the 4,5 high metre site was leveled between and although Officials of the Amersfoort Camp, a Dutch national monument, recently learned that the digital data bases at Bad Arolse China in particular has been questioned about its policies towards groups of unregistered Christians, There is a significant decline however in the number of hectares planted with daffodils, crocuses and irises. The decline in hyacinths i Vermeer, who last year celebrated the 60th anniversary of his equipment manufacturing business, recently died at the age of Talk of an isolated settlement called Holanda, a community of descendents of Dutch immigrants in the coastal state of Espirito Santo, prompted a couple doing mission aid work on behalf of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands to check out the story.

The arrival of Ton Roos and his wife Margje Eshuis in Holanda was seen as an answer to prayers by descendents of Zeeland colonists who in the late s had been lured to Brazil under false pretences. Impoverished and with no one to help, they had no way of returning home. Successive generations had kept the hope alive that one day their Zeeland kinsmen would find them. This is primarily because newcomers either c The police used their bicycles as barricades to block the To better deal with tragedies, the Dutch government should develop a defined policy for follow-up treatment and care of victims.

According to lawyer Karin Ammerlaan, Historian J. Rozendaal notes in Cross border cooperation in various forms is on the rise. The decision by the two regional newsp Gies was employed by the Franks at their spice business. The northern Dutch chapter of the Society of Traffic Victims posts photographs and accompanying st Founded by Bible dist The ser Prescribing special protein-rich powders or liquids were found to have no extra benefit in maintaining muscle power. According to a study by Ma Neighbouring countries Romania and Ukraine both claimed 12, square ki Scheveningen fishermen are joining those of Delfzijl and IJmuiden in their efforts to clear the sea of garbage.

Previously, gar KAMPEN - Rising waters from a flash flood need no longer be a threat after a novel Dutch invention has been installed as a self-activating protective system. Invented by Johann van den Noort, a civil engineering consultant living in Kampen, the Netherlands, the automatic dam, made of lightweight foam-core polyester, sits in a casing installed around buildings or other projects, buried in the ground. Dubbed by the local population Big Shorts, grote onderbroek, the headquarters of China Central Television, is a skyscraper in the Beijing central business district.

The fiction story by widely read author Hella S. Haasse is about two boys in the Ford placed second with 43, cars, pushi Bos, a teacher in Groningen. The first edition with hand-drawn maps was published in , titled Bos' Schoolatlas der geheele aard Hoekstra, a former furniture company executive, has confirmed an interest in possibly making a bid for the governorship of Michigan. Their visit underscores the commitment the Netherlands has for the governance of the Antarctic region.

They will be guests of the British at the Rothera Research Station. The jobs are frequently in rural areas where living quarters are often in makeshifts rooms in barns or small campers. Farmers or growers are al The treasure had been ordered by Czarina Catherine the Great and included 27 paintings b Many people have put some photographs on dedicated image banks such as www. Housing offici On January 1, , 1. This number is nearly three times as high as on January 1, She recently arrived in Capetown on the way to the next leg of her itinerary, if funds allow it, as part of an expedition to the South Pole.

Long frustrated in its search for information on the crew of a Wellington bomber that crashed in the early hours of July 25, in a field near the village of Boazum in central Friesland, the group gained the help of the editors at The Sunday Express recently.

The conditional merger of the two firms, which together have 17, members, has now obtained final approval from the memberships. Farmers obviously were not first to traverse the meadows along the old Rhin The Eindhoven group wrote a program to crack Kramer won three 5k, Last year, nearly one in five baked their own oliebollen, called Dutch donuts by some bakers in North America who put thei The year ranks ninth on the list of the warmest year Since , watching TV programs online has become increasingly popular. This year, mobile television was introduced.

Dutch local authorities have limited taxation autonomy and largely depend on central government funding. Belgian premier Yves Let On January 1, the country had 40, businesses more than a year earlier. Leading was construction up 10, and business service One such qualification is the licensing requirement. Many prostitution operators and prostitutes failed to properly register and have made t For the first time in their long history, Contractors with barges that are outfitted with tractors and their specialized long-arm equipment, saf Built in the early s to accommodate a great influx of newcomers, the grachtengordel or canal belt of which the Keizersgracht is a part, the stately canal house was for decades the home of the patrician Van Loon family.

The ministers reached their agreement following recent all-night negotiations. Age 43, Mayor Calvin Kruk lost his battle with lung cancer less then six weeks after he was diagnosed with an aggressive type of the illness. The Baptists had become concerned over the direction According to EU-statistics, that places the Netherlands near of the bottom of The fact that only a few Muslim females in the Netherlands wear this all covering dress to sc The hobby has taken De Does on a publicist track, as an exhibitor of his vast photo and slides collect Initially, many of the vacancies were filled by newcomers from Spain Back then, the when Dutch merchant ship De Halve Maen landed there to explore the coast for a passage to the East Indies and to take in fresh water.

The route, Replying by letter is a customary procedure when formal The Dutch may soon build taller high rises and develop large urban parks. The Balkenende cabinet recently reached consensus on the report Future Vision Organizers of a march against the Dutch Sinterklaas tradition were inundated with angry calls, in support of Sinterklaas and opposing the demonstration. Organ fans marvel over the quality of the instruments while those with an eye for design and architecture can find much to cherish Air Force personnel, has reached the point of no return now that the squadron Alouette III-helikopters has left for its new location at Gilze-Rij The total number needing medical attention, some urgently, numbers about Each year, the numbe The country is d Officials at the Frisian provinc It should be no surprise to anyone that numerous Dutch surnames can be traced to the interaction of people with water or water-related events.

Surnames derived from rivers and creeks perhaps are obvious to those with knowledge of Dutch geography and language but, in many cases, the small and obscure water bodies, that are well-represented in Dutch society, often leaving people guessing for their origin and meaning. It was never particularly effective, the use of straw men as scarecrows. Neither were booming air cannons which proved to be very problem-some for the neighbourhood.

Birds soon figured out that nothing much happened beyond the initial scare, leaving growers with double pain, loss of crop and unhappy neighbours. Along with hundreds of people who were killed during this brutal act of agg Theft of s In , the first Baptists, who were refugees from England, met in the backroom of an Amsterdam bakery in order to read the Bible together. They founded the first Baptist-minded congregation. It is anticipated that 1. The builder plans to exhibit his second ark during Sail in A The crew landed their fish net a bit too hard on the deck The chain also promised to reveal the amount of salt in all its in-house brand products.

Those moves follow the recommendations of the Baantjer the lead character always is Inspector DeKok , who was on hand to officially open the facility. At age 84 a retired police detective, Baantjer recently submitted his 70th manuscript for publication. Rising real estate costs make growing flowering bulbs elsewhere in the Netherlands financially more attractive, while owners sell the traditional bulb fields to build new subdivisions. The memory of the colourful Bollenstreek will live on, thanks to a newly created, huge art scene: the Bollenstreek Panorama. Sponsored by a local history group, artist Leo van den Ende painted a million tulips on canvases complete with the landscape that increasingly is being lost.

The rise in the volume of imports was only 4 percent during the same month, according to the Central Bureau for Statistics CBS. THE HAGUE - Dutch college and university students seem more interested in the adventures of Donald Duck than in global politics, international problems or in thought-provoking intellectual questions. Archeologists have already discovered six wrecks of Roman ships that were preserved in Dutch soil, waiting for discovery.

The latest All forms of the sex trade will need to register in the future. This approach could help The list, which is headed by the Danish Faroe island constellation, awards Texel a shared seventh spot. The magazine says of Texel that its "historic structures e. Tourists bicycle everywhere. Very appropriate for the character of the area. Very nice and quite pricey accommodations, and great management of the extensive dune systems, where most visitors tend to stay on the beautiful tracks and boardwalks. The minister is partic Opening homes to strangers during wartime already had a history, but without the severe penalti Giving the store a finger will do.

That is at least the case at the local Albert The lack of su UTRECHT - Dutch tourism promoters, which have used Rembrandt, Van Gogh and De Ruyter anniversaries in the past to attract tourists, are discovering there is potential as well in celebrating anniversaries of international peace tre The area, which is ideally suited for growing potatoes, produces approximately ten percent o Tourists wanting an upscale experience, something normally reserved for the upper class, a The group received the help of a Radboud University historian.

The website, which will be updated as more details on the victims become available, was launched by Nijmegen mayor Thom de Graaf. It intends to put a face to the victims who otherwise would be forgotten. The problem surfaced Dekkers received the contract for the first time in when the late Dutch priest and professor Titus Brandsma, a Carmelite who was Just as many people think that their fellow citizens could take a bit more pride in their country. He is also wants to simplify the inheritance tax law. Its landing was even more dramatic, when the RoboSwift crashed into a tree.

The craft flew for a total of about five minutes at an altitude of some meters under windy conditions. They called the coastal lowlands, the region roughly between Northern France and Denmark, Frisia. When arriving in Rome, the Lowlanders were expected to stay at the Frisian Quarter, which also had its own church, the Friezenkerk. Numerous weary travelers over the centuries attended services in this church.

It was not until last month that the entire executive of the Frisian Provincial Estates, along with two of its top bureaucrats, made it to Rome to check out the year old building. Reburial of wartime military casualties still occur The site, which was already used for rope manufacture as early as , may be turned into a new pedestrian route. Vlaardingen and its neighbour Rotterdam were major port cities, which constantly required heavy ropes for ships.

Rope makers at the lijnbaan laboured in the open air for more than two centuries. The structure, which is seven metres wide, has been neglected far too long and requires a major restoration. The Netherlands not only is home to numerous churches, chapels and monasteries, it also has been bestowed with monumental grave markers, priceless interior art, and other related historic sites. The religious heritage theme, the Dutch focus on a different theme each year, castles, farmsteads and windmills , draws attention to a cultural heritage which in a secularized society relies on a dwindling number of people for financial support.

The odds were high that those brave souls would meet an early death, either during the dangerous sea voyage—when storms often alternated with periods of little wind, when food and water would go bad and sickness rampaged through the passenger holds—or from disease, Indian attack, or even starvation once they arrived in the New World. They came for a variety of reasons, but all wanted a better life. Carving a better life out of the vast wilderness the early colonists found in North America challenged even the hardiest of those early pioneers.

As far as is known, the first to arrive on the continent of North America were from Scandinavia. The Norse explorer Eric the Red traveled through Greenland and founded a settlement around the year His son Leif Ericsson also explored the area of what is now Northeastern Canada and spent some time in that region. It is possible that Viking explorers sailed farther south along the Atlantic coast, perhaps as far as the Caribbean islands.

Some evidence has been found in North and South America to suggest that other contacts occurred between North America and explorers from either Europe or Asia, but all such ideas remain in the realm of speculation pending further evidence. He probably had a better publicist than Columbus. But Columbus was the first to arrive after The great irony of Christopher Columbus, of course, is that he never really knew what he had discovered; indeed, he never set foot on the continent of North America. Yet the first explorations of the area that eventually became the United States started from the Spanish settlements begun by Columbus in the Caribbean.

The oldest settlement in North America is the city of St. Augustine in Florida. Spanish explorers such as Hernando De Soto and Francisco Coronado ventured widely into the southeastern and central parts of North America and as far west as Colorado and the Grand Canyon. Lawrence River, establishing the French claims on what became Canada. In the broadest sense the American colonial experience was not unique in history.

Second, the acquisition of colonies would enable them to solve various social problems such as overpopulation relative to available land and food supplies , poverty, and the crime that was often associated with chronic lack of work for the. Third, a general sense prevailed among prosperous members of society that since the poorer classes knew they had little chance of improving their lives, which might tend to make them rebellious, colonies could serve as a sort of escape valve for pent-up frustrations.

Whatever the motivations, most major European nations vigorously pursued colonial policies. England began to venture out into the North Atlantic in the latter half of the 15th century, in search of gold and other precious metals, better fishing areas and, possibly, a short route to Asia, the mythical northwest passage. Although little is known of the Roanoke colony, it was where the first English child born in America first drew breath—her name was Virginia Dare.

But those English colonies included numerous immigrants from other nations. Along the Delaware River was a small colony known for a time as New Sweden, and in parts of Pennsylvania there were more German settlers than English. Within the English communities one could find diversity of another sort—Puritan Congregationalists in New England, Catholics in Maryland, Anglicans in Virginia and the other southern colonies, Presbyterians in the regions settled by Scottish and Irish Protestants from Ulster Northern Ireland , Jews in Rhode Island, Quakers in Pennsylvania, along with German pietists, and a smattering of Methodists, Baptists, and other Protestant sects throughout moat of the colonies.

Religious differences were more important than they are in the United States today, and were often the source of conflict. No matter the religious or ethnic makeup of each colony, whether they were proprietary colonies governed by entities such as the London Company, or Crown colonies under the direct control of the British government, all were governed according to British law. We have already discussed the push-pull factor, forces operating in both directions, east and west. The English and other colonists who came to America voluntarily came for different reasons, but virtually all could be boiled down to one essential point: They wanted to improve their lives.

Behind that self-evident fact was the additional idea that they had different backgrounds and different primary motivations. Some were seeking economic advantage—most of all, a chance to become landowners. The decision to emigrate was also often spurred by conditions in England and elsewhere in Europe—during times of strife or economic hardship, the impetus for emigration was stronger than in good, stable times. Some emigrants were moderately prosperous, and saw the New World as an opportunity for investment that would allow them to move up a few notches on the economic scale.

In general, however, the very well-to-do did not emigrate because they had everything to lose and could gain only at great risk. The very poor did not come at first because they had nothing to offer—no skills, no money for passage, and so on. To obtain a contract as an indentured servant, one had to have something to offer—a skill such as blacksmithing or farm experience or the price of passage—so the poorest of the poor, who were generally chronically unemployed and had no skills to speak of, tended not to be among those who came voluntarily.

Later many poor people came against their will—some were prisoners who were offered a chance to go to America in lieu of a prison sentence, and others came as indentured servants, some sold into that temporary form of servitude by parents or families. Both convicts and indentured servants had a chance to succeed because labor was dear in America and they were valued far more than they might have been at home.

The person entitled would get a certificate entitling him to a tract of 50 acres. People already settled in Virginia would get two headright grant, or acres. The purpose of the headright system was to encourage immigration, a measure of how valuable labor was where land was cheap. The United States government later used a similar policy to stimulate settlement of the West. Things began slowly. By maybe 2, colonists existed in all the English colonies in North America.

A great migration of Puritans and others occurred from to The fundamental economic fact about America was the opposite of what existed in Europe: America was land rich and labor starved—much of Europe almost an exact mirror image. Some settlers came to America for religious freedom, to be able to practice their faith as they wished. But as we shall see, however, the desire for religious freedom did not necessarily mean the desire to have everybody share that freedom.

In Puritan Massachusetts, for example, members of other faiths were not welcome. And in Anglican Virginia, it was virtually impossible up to the time of the Revolution for a minister other than Anglican to obtain a license to preach. Maryland became a refuge for Catholics, and the religious diversity of Pennsylvania was an exception. By the time the first English colony in North America was established in Jamestown in , Spain and Portugal had colonized much of what we now call Latin America, and French and Dutch settlements were being established in the Caribbean area as well as in East Asia and elsewhere around the globe.

By the time of the American Revolution, Great Britain possessed thirty-one colonies around the world, including some—Canada, Florida, and New Netherlands, for example—wrested from colonial competitors such as France, Spain and Holland. Thus the American colonies in were but thirteen small parts of a vast colonial empire that had been growing since the s. But Florida had a negligible English population and did not participate in the Revolution.

Florida reverted to Spain in , and was later added to the United States in a treaty negotiated by John Quincy Adams with Spain in Acknowledging the debt Americans owe to the past, we can still assert that in many ways the American experience was unique, as are all national experiences. What brought about the American colonial experience? What was its character? What was the colonial experience really like? The Mayflower voyage was cramped and tumultuous, by Mike Haywood. Imagine climbing aboard a ship in which you and about one hundred other people, mostly strangers, have not much more space than exists in your college classroom or perhaps a small house, carrying only as much personal property as you can fit into a medium sized suitcase.

Decoding the Dutch

You sit in that ship in port for days or even weeks until suitable winds and tides take you out to sea, and then you toss and rock for more weeks or months, as food spoils, water becomes foul, people get sick and often die, storms threaten life and limb of everybody on board. If you survive that ordeal, you finally arrive on a distant shore, disembark with whatever provisions have not been ruined by saltwater, and set out to make yourself a life. Particularly in the earlier years of colonization, there was not much on those shores to greet you when you arrived.

Try to place yourself in that time: Imagine: No hotel to check into, no shops in which to purchase what you need even if you had money , no restaurants, hardware stores, or theaters—not even a 7-Eleven! The second point about the colonial experience has to do with the people who came.

Of all the things that can be said about the settlers who came to America, one thing can be claimed without much fear of contradiction: Those who came differed from those who did not. Those who were prepared to take the necessary risks came. Those who could not face those odds stayed home. We should remember that what happened in the colonial world two to three hundred years ago helped to shape us into the nation we are today. Those early colonists were our spiritual ancestors, and the things we admire in them are aspects of our own character that we would emphasize.

Their flaws are often shared by us. If we wish to understand who we really are, we must know where we came from. The physical and emotional demands of colonization were such that one needed to be a certain type to try it—one had to be a bold, adventurous spirit, with a work ethic and a determination to prosper—and those traits became basic elements of the American character. In a real sense the broad outlines of the American experience were formed before the colonists left their homeland because of the differences between those who were willing to take that gamble and those who were not.

Thus the first seeds of the American Revolution were planted among those early risk takers and their offspring. Many came voluntarily, many came under duress of some kind. We will discuss the African experience, which brought thousands of slaves to the New World, below. Those who came voluntarily thought they could make a better living. They dreamed of finding gold or silver, or of a life that would reward them in ways that were impossible in their circumstances at home. Some felt oppressed by political conditions that required obedience to king, duke or other landlord, which many found intolerable and which often involved involuntary military service.

Those who came involuntarily, aside from African slaves who were brought to America, included prisoners, debtors, young people who were sold by their parents or people who sold themselves into indentured servitude. The text of an advertisement about two run away indentured servants. The development of the indentured-servant system allowed Europeans who could not afford the voyage across the Atlantic Ocean the opportunity to immigrate to the Pennsylvania Colony in exchange for labor.

Immigrants who entered into indentured-servant contracts were temporarily limiting their freedoms and worked in strenuous working conditions for up to seven years to gain skills, tools, clothing, and land. Although contractually obligated to finish their term, some indentured servants ran away from their masters.

This advertisement offers an eight-dollar reward for two runaway indentured servants named William Quirk and John Dyllywy. One method of addressing the problem of labor shortages in America was that of indentured servitude. An individual or a family wishing to migrate to America but lacking funds to pay for the voyage might offer their services by means of a labor contract under which they would agree to work for a specified period of time for whoever owned the contract. Such contracts were negotiable in the sense that they might be signed with the owner of a vessel heading to America who would then sell the contract to someone in need of labor.

Needless to say, it was an imperfect system subject to various kinds of abuse. Some indentured servants—say, a young married couple with skills to offer, the husband perhaps as a carpenter and the wife a seamstress—might make a decent bargain for themselves, and given a decent person for whom to work, come out of the experience with a little money, some land, an animal or two or perhaps a set of tools that they could use to start their own lives. Periods of service varied from two or three to seven years or more, depending on all kinds of variables.

Quite often, possibly in the majority of cases, indentured servants found their lives less than ideal. Laws tended to protect the masters, punishments for laziness or attempting to run away were frequently harsh, and both men and women were subject to various kinds of abuse. For most, the period of indenture was most likely seen as a trial to be endured as best one could, with a reasonable hope of some sort of a stake in the future when the service was complete. In some cases, very warm relationships no doubt developed between servants and owners, and indentured servants might find themselves more or less adopted into the family, perhaps through marriage or formal or informal adoption.

Whatever the odds may have been at any given time for any person or group, indentured service was a gamble. When the contracts were signed in Europe, those offering themselves for service had little knowledge or control over who might eventually buy those contracts. If they survived the voyage to America, they then had to go through a period of acclimatization, and if they were not brought down by diseases to which they had never been exposed, then they had at least several years of hard work before they could again call their lives their own.

Two documents about the experience of indentured servants can be found on the Academic American web site and in the appendix for this section. Both of the above documentary descriptions of the lives of indentured servants present an extremely negative view of the experience. In many cases that description would have been accurate.

Most of the cases of indentured servants probably fell between the extremes of abusive, exploitative contract owners and those who, with a generous spirit, for all practical purposes adopted the indentures into their families. Where indentured servants got along well with the contract owners, both parties undoubtedly benefited.

The birth of New Netherland

The host benefited from the labor provided by the indentured servants, and the indentured servants honed the skills they would need to survive on their own and built up some sort of equity upon which they could trade when their indenture was completed. We know little about the many individual cases of indentured servants, but we have a sense that many landowners in the later colonial period and in the years after the Revolution had risen from the ranks of those who temporarily sold their services to another person.

The practice continued in somewhat modified forms well into the 19th century. Tenant farmers in the Reconstruction era had something like indentured contracts. And even in modern times, those who contract with an employer to provide services over a fixed period are entering into a similar type bargain. The point here is simply to observe that the Frethorne letter and the description written by Gottlieb Mittleberger do not tell anything like the whole story.

As Page Smith makes clear in his history of the American Revolution, many poor people, including those sent to America as prisoners, managed to prosper because labor in America was so valuable. Many prisoners were also sent to America by the English courts, generally as a means of ridding the mother country of the chronically unemployable or incorrigibly criminal.

So many were sent in one period, in fact, that the governor of Virginia sent a letter of protest to England complaining about the influx of lawbreakers. Given the conditions of chronic underemployment and want, the vast majority of crimes at that time were property crimes, sometimes accompanied by violence. Many imported thieves, however, finding opportunities available in the New World that did not exist in the old, managed to go straight and become productive citizens. Others, of course, continued their disruptive ways, to the consternation of the colonial population.

The idea is no different from what occurs today when people invest in the stock market, rental properties or businesses. People who put part of their earnings into k plans are practicing basic capitalism. The early colonial stock companies were based upon the same principle. Investors in the London company expected that the colonial economy would make a profit, and that they would share in that profit. The fact that many investment ventures could not prove to be profitable does not undermine the basic theory. Throughout history businesses have failed; companies have gone bankrupt; schemes and scams have cost investors millions upon millions of dollars; areas of the market that proved extremely profitable for a time eventually ceased producing wealth; but over the course of the years, wealth has been used to create more wealth, and putting money to work has always had an appeal to investors.

From mercantilist beginnings America became the most successful capitalist nation in history, partly based on the Protestant Puritan work ethic and the notion that God helps those who help themselves. The institution of capitalism flourished in America with its valuable labor supply, seemingly endless natural resources, broad rivers and sheltered harbors, all of which fostered a booming trade both within the colonies and with the rest of the world.

Mercantilism was a system of government moderated capitalism—discussed further in a later section. Over the years people have tried to create formulas to ensure profitable investments, but capitalism is a human endeavor, and human beings, imperfect creatures that we are, do not always make wise decisions. As a result, the progress of capitalism has not been an upward moving curve, but rather a jagged line with highs and lows, rises and falls. For the early colonists the most reliable form of investment was to engage themselves in hard work. Much that is uniquely American derives from the colonial period.

To start with, we should recognize that the development of America was rooted in competition. Yet life in the early modern world was often about survival, and survival involves competition, both as a personal and family level, and at higher levels of political society. The early impetus for colonization in England was about competition with Spain and Portugal and later with Holland.

In order to be great, England felt she needed colonies, not only in America but everywhere.


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The English had multiple goals: to produce, consume, and protect the British economy against weaker rivals, and to convert the heathens to Christianity by carrying out the missionary spirit. The English colonies were also exercises in an early form of capitalism, which is essentially the creation of wealth through investment. That entrepreneurial spirit was seen not only in the investors who sunk their pounds into the chartered companies, but also in the colonists themselves.

People in those times, not unlike today, wanted to improve the material quality of their existence, not so much out of greed or a desire to accumulate luxury items, but simply to make the bare survival for existence less burdensome. The joint stock companies hoped that by investing in colonial enterprises they might get rich quick through the discovery and mining of gold and silver.

But the colonists quickly discovered, sometimes more rapidly than their proprietors, that the real gold in America was the land—land that produced tobacco, rice, timber, and later cotton and other crops. The quest for religious freedom is often stated as a motivating factor in the colonization of North America, but its exact nature is often misunderstood.

Our concept of religious freedom today means that people of all faiths Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Muslim, or any other, including those who lack faith, should be free to follow their own religious inclinations without interference from others and especially not from the government. During a time of colonization England and the rest of Europe were in the throes of monumental religious controversies. The religious tension was more than just Catholic and Protestant; Puritans, Presbyterians, Quakers, Methodists, Baptists and others all had their own particular forms of worship and systems of belief.

People who came to America in the 17th and 18th centuries were not seeking land of religious freedom for all so much as a land where they could practice their own form of religion free of interference from rival denominations. One overriding theme of religion in colonial America was hatred of everything connected with the Roman Catholic church. When the Protestant Elizabeth came to the throne, she was constantly advised to be wary of Catholic suitors for her hand as well as Catholic threats to English sovereignty.

That religious tension was carried into the colonies, as much of British colonial policy—such as it was—was directed against Spain. Catholic Maryland was an exception to religious exclusivity, but even there problems existed, as tension existed between Maryland and surrounding colonies.

Decoding the Dutch

The famous Maryland Act of Religious Toleration passed in was repealed before very long. In a word, colonization involved exploitation—exploitation of human and natural resources. Life was fragile, and the first step people took before coming to America was often making a will. Colonization had a fearful price; it has been said that more people died as a result of colonization than perished on all the beachheads of World War II. In one single year in Jamestown, 80 percent of the population perished.

The colonists were gradually liberalized—they got used to doing things their own way, all the while realizing that cooperation with others was necessary for survival. Experiments in communal living, however, failed. The King of the Maquas or Mohawk tribe is depicted with black linear patterns covering his chest and lower face, At the time Columbus discovered America millions of Indians had been living in the Western Hemisphere for tens of thousands of years. During the latter part of the Ice Age, a land bridge existed between Asia and Alaska across what is now the Bering Strait, and all evidence indicates that the Native American tribes migrated from Mongolia, through Alaska and Canada and eventually all the way down to South America, with some settling in favorable locations in the north and others moving on.

Over time, they developed into distinct, separate Indian cultures. Thus North and South American Indians were extremely diverse, with varied physical traits, linguistic groupings, ethnic characteristics, customs, cultures, and so on. Indeed the Indians in North America were probably far more diverse than the people of the nations of northwestern Europe in In Central America the Aztecs had a large powerful empire, while along the eastern coast of North America Indians lived in smaller tribes and subsisted by both agriculture and by hunting and gathering.

Farther south the Mayas and Incas had advanced civilizations that had progressed far in mathematics, astronomy, and engineering. In the western part of North America nomadic tribes roamed over the Great Plains in search of buffalo and other game and often came into conflict with other tribes over the use of their hunting grounds.

When game became more scarce, perhaps due to over-hunting or from other causes, many American Indian groups turned to agriculture as a means of subsistence. In so doing American Indians became perhaps the best farmers in history, developing new crops and refining farming methods that they later shared with the colonists from Europe. Dozens of foodstuffs consumed in the world today, including corn, potatoes, various beans, squash, and so on, were developed by Native American farmers. When the European colonists first arrived, their survival often depended on their adoption of Indian hunting and farming practices.

Indians also understood the use of natural medicines and drugs, and many of their healing techniques are still used by medical people today. A thorough investigation of Native American cultures, even those in North and Central America, is an apt subject for lengthy study; the literature on pre-Columbian America is rich indeed.

What is important to know is that Indian and European cultures affected each other profoundly, a phenomenon that has been called the Colombian Exchange—the exchange of habits, practices, living techniques, and resources between the Indians and the Europeans. The Native American cultures in the Western Hemisphere found their societies disrupted or even destroyed by the impact of the Europeans, some of which was deliberate, and some of which was a result of the transmission of diseases to which the American Indians were not immune.

The introduction of firearms, alcohol, and other European artifacts also had deep and unpredictable effects. But the impact of the Indians on European culture was also deeply significant.

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For reasons that are not fully understood, some groups of Indians vanished without being affected by the Europeans. One such group were the Anasazi of the southwestern United States. They built spectacular dwellings in the cliffs in New Mexico; some of their settlements carved into the rocks contained hundreds of rooms. But somewhere around the year they left their rock palaces, never to return, for reasons unknown. Colonial settlement distribution adapted by Herman R.

Friis, A series of population maps of the Carolinas and the United States, , rev. Notice most of the bands have not moved a great deal.

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Other that the Shakori having gone inland since Spanish times, and we see the Saponi have moved further south, most of the rest as in virtually the same place. Ironically, in North America the presence of the native cultures made it possible for the first English settlers to maintain a foothold on the new continent.

The Jamestown colony and the New England Pilgrims certainly owed their mere survival to the help and assistance of Indians. The Indian cultures that the Europeans encountered were in many ways just as sophisticated, or in some instances even more sophisticated, than the European cultures that arrived in the first ships.

The Indians never thought of themselves as inferior to whites; in fact, the opposite was often the case. The arrival of the Europeans also upset the balance of power among the North American Indian tribes, both in the eastern woodland regions and later on the Great Plains and in the deserts of the Southwest. In eastern tribes women frequently held power, and in fact some were tribal chiefs.

Europeans often rated Indians as inferiors, which then justified their harsh treatment of the Indians later on. Probably the greatest misunderstanding between Europeans and Indians was their differing concepts of land, or land ownership. The European believed that you could drive four stakes in the ground, parcel off a square of land, and claim ownership of that piece of ground.

Such individual ownership of a section of land was completely alien to the Indian way of thinking. Certainly Indian tribes fought over the use of land on which to hunt or fish or even practice agriculture, though the agricultural tribes tended to be less warlike than hunting tribes. For some Indians the land itself was sacred, held as a mother goddess. For many Indians the idea of plowing soil to plant crops was as good as blasphemy, and many aspects of nature—rivers, ponds, even rocks—performed similar functions as the saints in Christian cultures.

Even after they had made deals with the Europeans for the purchase of land, the meaning of what they had done was often unclear and led to further conflict. Many Indians tribes were traders and had built complicated economic relationships with their neighboring tribes, so they understood the idea of commerce as is existed within their own system of barter and exchange. The European impact on this trading culture was often destructive, however, as the Europeans sought to trade and exchange different kinds of goods from what the Indians were used to.

The nature of warfare also illustrated cultural differences and heightened the conflict between Europeans and Indians. Native Americans fought hard, and the ability to sustain pain and suffer physical punishment with stoicism was a sign of honor. The loot in Indian warfare was often the capture of women and children of enemy tribes, especially when the population of an aggressor tribe was threatening for some reason. Thus many Europeans saw Indian ways of warfare as primitive and barbarous, while Indians in turn thought European practices such as hanging were destructive of the soul.

Despite all the conflicts, in certain ways the Indians benefited from the contact with the Europeans. The horse, for example, had become extinct in North America long before the Spaniards arrived. But when the Spaniards brought their superior breed of Arab horses to North America, within a few generations the Indians of the Southwest had taken to the horse with amazing speed. The horse transformed the culture of the Plains Indians almost immeasurably; consider the difficulty of tracking and killing a fast-moving buffalo on foot, compared with the ability to run down one on horseback.

Plains Indians became the greatest light cavalry in the history of the world. Armed with rifles or bows and arrows, Plains Indians could hold their own against any cavalry detachment anywhere on the open plains. That they eventually succumbed to the superior military power of the United States was less a factor of individual skill than it was of organization and numbers. The history of the interaction between the Indians and whites begins with Columbus, and the story is a long, tragic tale of greed; relentless pushing, shoving, and grabbing of land; insensitivity; xenophobia; and even genocide.

The cultural differences between Indians and Europeans and their American descendants continue to this day. As we go through the history of Americans and the United States, we will pick up the thread of this story again. Some religious groups saw the Indians as the lost tribes of Israel. The conflict between Indian and white society has continued into modern times. Despite the pressure toward egalitarianism, some elitism existed in the colonies. Social mobility was more possible than in England, but was still seen as threatening.

Probably the most important point in considering the development of America was that the North American English as well as other European colonists were freer than their European counterparts. The colonists were European in character but were nevertheless different; early on they developed a sense of independence and to a certain extent contempt for authority. Flexibility was an American characteristic. The frontier experience tended to favor individualism and a certain egalitarianism. It mattered less who your parents were than how well you could survive.

It is not easy to make the case here in the 21st century that the colonial American experience influences the way we live today. There can be no doubt that events since the turn of the millennium in the year have shaken our perceptions of our place in the world. Nevertheless, the past is still part of us; our roots are deep. And no matter the origins of our most recent wave of immigrants, men and women who come to America inevitably become connected with our history. For many, in fact, the opportunity to achieve the connection with our deepest roots is the reason why they have come.

Among the passengers was John Smith, who later wrote the first account published of what is now called Virginia. The source was a letter Smith wrote in to an unidentified person in England, and the Virginia Company rushed the letter into print. Despite the terrible reality of life in the struggling colony, Smith gave an optimistic report of his explorations and encounters with the Indians. The company was formed into two groups, the London and Plymouth companies, and each was given rights to colonize the North American coast from south to north, with some overlap.

The company soon discovered that the gold in America was the land, but that money and labor were needed to exploit it. As has been noted already, the problem in Europe was finding enough land for the people: in America, the reverse was true—there was plenty of land but too few people to develop it profitably. The fact that labor was more valuable than land constantly undermined traditional European ideas of class and position in America; in fact, one can detect early seeds of rebellion and faint democratic stirrings even in the early colonies.

Many plans were used to try to increase the labor supply, including the use of Indians as slaves. The critical shortage of labor also contributed to the growth of slavery. While the Indians were excellent farmers, they did not take to slavery, and because they could easily escape, that experiment failed. Even as farmers, Indians were not as wedded to the idea of land ownership as Europeans; in fact, most Indians did not understand the concept of individual ownership of land.

Furthermore, idleness was a virtue among male Indians.

Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch
Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch
Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch
Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch
Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch
Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch Broken Chain: How the White and Indian Worlds Remembered Henry Hudson and the Dutch

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