Go to Conservation Land Management. Click to have a closer look. Select version. About this book Contents Customer reviews Related titles. Images Additional images. About this book Microorganisms are widely used in various beneficial applications, including food, pest control, bioremediation, biodegradation, biofuel processes, and plant symbiosis and growth stimulation. Contents 1. Understanding public risk perception for the use of beneficial microorganisms Customer Reviews Review this book.
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First, the technology product has to fit the context and stakeholder preferences. Second, the price of the technology has to be reasonable to adopters. Third, the promotion of the technology has to be communicated well and at the right platforms. And, fourth, the technologies have to be available at the right place and time. However, these four Ps are not enough. Many other critical factors also need to be considered for the technologies to be sustainable environmentally, socio-economically and politically. These factors include: the right crop type; good agronomic practices for fertilizer and seed; pest and weed management; access to markets for farmers to sell produce; resilience mechanisms such as insurance; equity considerations for gender and youth; and related policies.
This paper considers characteristics of small farms that grow different row crops. These structural characteristics are then related to adoption rates for various precision agricultural technologies on small farms. Taking the smallest percent of a nationally representative sample of farms growing each crop, small rice and wheat farms are over twice the size of small maize and soybean farms, and field sizes on these farms are much larger. This means that small maize and soybean farms have many more fields to manage using precision technologies. Soybean fields tend to be larger than maize fields on small farms.
Higher national adoption rates for precision practices on larger farms indicates that the smallest farms, and those with the most fields, may find adoption more difficult.
Soil mapping adoption is higher on mid-sized small farms for most crops. Guidance is more widespread on all sizes of small wheat and rice farms, and they have the largest average field sizes. VRT seed, chemical, and fertilization are likewise more popular on larger small wheat and rice farms. The results indicate that there is some use of each technology in most of the size categories of small farms. This is despite the fact that adoption increases with farm size for all row crops examined at the national level.
Small farm adoption of PrecAg only goes to zero on the smallest farms for one crop — maize.
This is the crop with the highest national adoption levels. Sorghum is the fifth most widely grown cereal crop worldwide and also an attractive system for the development of bioenergy feedstocks. It has innate resilience to drought and heat stresses, versatile end-uses, and a rapidly developing suite of genetic, genomic and phenomic tools. Our approach has included sequencing and analyzing the genomes of several hundred racially, geographically, and phenotypically diverse sorghum lines representing all five major sorghum races. Our work also leverages a field-based phenotyping infrastructure at Maricopa, AZ, which provides an exceptional capability for managed stress trials in a hot and arid environment through controlled irrigation.
An automated field scanner system collects high-resolution phenotyping data using a variety of sensors throughout the growing season, from seedling establishment to harvest. Being able to assess the genotype-to-phenotype link in response to drought over the life cycle of the plant will facilitate the discovery of genes and their functions. Identifying the genes underlying drought tolerance will ultimately reveal the genetic basis for the remarkable phenotypic plasticity of sorghum.
In SSA, such growth is a tool for reducing poverty. Many triggers and drivers for irrigation development exist, including climate change, decreasing farm sizes requiring intensification for farming to remain viable, more accessible and affordable technologies and services, and a proliferation of irrigation service markets. This presentation will be on creating enabling environments to harness the potential for expanding irrigation that exists. Focusing on Africa and with examples from Africa and Asia, we will discuss a existing barriers to innovation in water management for agriculture including environment, financing, issues of scale, capacity, and institutions, b priority enabling conditions to introduce and scale-up smallholder irrigation, c innovative financing mechanisms, d technologies, and e efforts required to address capacity challenges in reference to the need for extension services and technical assistance for smallholder farmers, especially when transitioning from rainfed to irrigated production and when the technological changes involves the change of crops.
We will close with a brief discussion of the World Bank approach for scaling up farmer-led irrigation to enhance irrigation impacts. We are in the beginning stages of a biological science and information revolution that will have unprecedented impacts on agriculture including the ways in which crops use water and farmers respond to increasing variation in its availability. The revolution has so far been typified by 1 dramatic rates of technologic change and diffusion, 2 reductions in the costs of technology development, 3 change in the nature of the science, scientists and implementers involved, 4 transformation in the source of investment towards the private sector, and 5 rapid growth in the volume of investment targeting agriculture.
The revolution holds tremendous potential for poor farmers, particularly those in regions bypassed by the original Green Revolution and traditional agricultural water investments. However, the nature of the new revolution is rapidly shifting agricultural priority setting away from national and international public sector and NGO actors as well as traditional agricultural researchers and research centers.
These actors have a major role to play in informing and shaping the new revolution so that it benefits rather than harms the poor. Whether the role can be realized will depend on how quickly they can recognize and adapt to the new agricultural research environment. She published more than journal articles in the areas of global water and food security, gender-water and gender-climate change linkages and the synergies of climate change adaptation and mitigation. Morven A. McLean, Ph. McLean has served as a technical expert on biotechnology risk assessment, regulation, and policy for many organizations, including the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development, the United National Environmental Program, and the Secretariat to the Convention on Biological Diversity, as well as many national governments.
McLean received her B. Agriculture from McGill University, M.
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Mark W. With a Ph. He currently directs research on climate change, water resources, sustainable land management, genetic resources and biotechnology, and agriculture and energy. He is the author or editor of 12 books and over refereed papers in agricultural economics, water resources, and food policy analysis. Biniam Iyob joined the U. Previously, he taught geography courses at the University of New Hampshire, helped assess irrigation and harvesting methods at a sugar cane farm in Mauritius, and served as a research assistant regarding tourism and business for a consulting firm.
His areas of interest are the value of information, and agricultural research and productivity. His work on information economics relates to precision agriculture, market structure, and crop pest early-warning systems. He has investigated productivity growth and efficiency in South Africa, India, and the United Kingdom, in addition to the U. He is an associate editor of Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. He has helped lead several international consortia that have sequenced plant genomes, including the Brachypodium distachyon, Oropetium thomaeum, strawberry, and black raspberry genomes and the sorghum pan-genome project.
His research has also included the development of genomic and bioinformatic tools, with the end goal of improving crop performance and yield. Areas of study include gene regulatory networks, plant abiotic stress responses, genome sequencing and analysis, and high-throughput phenotyping. His published work provides critical tools and approaches for using large-scale multi-omics datasets to understand complex biological systems.
In , Dr. Mockler co-founded Benson Hill Biosystems, a crop improvement company unlocking the natural diversity of plants. Prior to joining the World Bank Mutsa spent more than 16 years working on various aspects of water resources and agricultural water management. Mutsa has experience working in at least 21 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, including her native Zimbabwe. She has a Ph. His research and teaching focuses primarily on the international political dimensions of water and agriculture and the geography of geopolitics.
Prior to joining Georgetown in , Mark held multiple roles at the Sri Lanka-based International Water Management Institute and earlier served as a trade economist with the U. Department of Agriculture. He has spent a substantial part of his professional life in Asia and Africa and is from Washington State. She most recently served as Associate Vice President of the Environmental Defense Fund, where she focused on ecosystems and sustainable agriculture. Prior to joining Arcadia, Dr. Lewis spent 16 years with the U. The federal government recognizes that it must ensure that it will have the necessary scientific and regulatory capacity to adequately regulate products of biotechnology as the science continues to advance and new products are proposed for commercialization.
Health Canada keeps pace by using the best technology available and by continually reviewing the effectiveness of its approach. In , at the request of the government, the Royal Society of Canada established an independent expert panel to examine future scientific development in food biotechnology. The independent expert panel's mandate was also to advise Health Canada, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Environment Canada on the science capacity that the federal government will require to ensure the safety of new food products being developed through biotechnology into the 21 st century.
The government response was published in the form of an action plan in November The action plan recognizes the need to continually enhance our regulatory processes and protocols, and the scientific knowledge that supports them. The government has published several progress reports on the implementation of the action plan. The mandate of CBAC, which was created by the federal government in , is to provide expert advice to the federal government on ethical, social, regulatory, economic, scientific, environmental and health aspects of biotechnology.
In addition to its general activities, CBAC focuses on a number of special projects, one of which relates to the regulation of foods derived from biotechnology: the science base underpinning assessments; governance, organization and efficacy; and, social, ethical and legal dimensions. It is a comprehensive and balanced report which identifies opportunities for improvement of the government regulatory approach for products derived through biotechnology.
Health Canada led the interdepartmental review of CBAC's recommendations, many of which have been implemented. In , the Codex Alimentarius Commission created the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods derived from Biotechnology to elaborate general principles for risk analysis of foods derived from biotechnology and specific guidance on the safety assessment of such foods.
The Task Force was given a mandate of four years to complete its task. Health Canada participated actively in the work of the Task Force, which led to the following documents being adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July Given the success of the former Task Force, the Commission agreed to establish a new Ad Hoc Task Force with the understanding that its final report should be submitted in The program of work of the OECD Task Force is intended to promote international harmonisation in the safety assessment and regulation of novel foods and feeds, including the products of modern biotechnology.
The OECD Task Force focuses its work on the development of consensus documents containing key nutritional and compositional information, such as nutrients, anti-nutrients and toxicants associated with specific crop species and other information on the particular use of these species as food or animal feed, for use during safety assessments of novel food and feed products.
In the area of food and feed safety, more than 10 species specific consensus documents have been developed, including for corn, soybean, wheat, rice, canola and sugar beet. Genetic modification does not introduce unique risks. Since the risks for these novel foods are the same as for conventional foods, the issues of interaction are the same as for conventional foods e.
As is the case with any food or health product, it is Health Canada's mandate to monitor potential long-term health trends associated with exposure to a breadth of product areas - including but not limited to - biotechnology products. Many of the issues raised by foods resulting from the application of biotechnology are equally applicable to foods produced by conventional means. Potential food safety issues are those associated with toxic or allergenic compounds which are present already in the food supply.
Given that the application of genetic modification does not introduce unique risks, the potential for long term effects of these foods are no different than that for conventional foods which have been safely part of the Canadian diet for a long time. Therefore, there is no current evidence to indicate that long term studies are needed to ensure the safety of foods produced using this technology.
Beneficial Microorganisms in Agriculture, Food and the Environment: Safety - Google книги
Health Canada has established a comprehensive safety assessment approach that addresses those potential risks in foods derived from biotechnology. Should developments in the technology result in modifications that provide significantly different nutrient combinations or other novel food characteristics not previously encountered in the food supply, such foods may require additional considerations to address long term health effects. In such cases long term studies may be a valid approach to include in the assessment of the overall safety of such products. At this time no products representing such true novelty to the food supply have been proposed for commercialization.
As noted above, should products which represent true novelty to the food supply be proposed for commercialization, long-term studies may be an appropriate part of their safety assessment. To date, over 81 genetically modified foods have been approved for sale in Canada. No applications have been turned down.
Health Canada has issued strict guidelines outlining requirements for data and protocol which are well known by industry. Therefore products are usually not submitted it they don't meet the criteria. In some instances, those products submitted that do not meet Health Canada's strict criteria are withdrawn voluntarily by the petitioner before a decision is taken. Health Canada's requirements are extremely rigorous.
Benefical Microbes in Agriculture
Companies spend millions of dollars testing their products according to these requirements, which include detailed documentation of testing. Thorough analysis is conducted of the data and of the protocol used to ensure the validity of results. If the evaluator determines that the data is not sufficient, additional information and additional testing may be required. Evaluators may also supplement the information provided by the petitioner with any published data in Canada or internationally that is relevant to the product in question.
Paper reviews are a standard scientific method of evaluation used by regulators around the world, to evaluate the health and safety of a variety of products including food and drugs. Health Canada is responsible for developing policy and setting standards related to the health and safety aspects of labelling under the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations, whereas the CFIA applies these policies and enforces the regulations.
The CFIA also has the mandate to develop general food labelling policies and regulations not related to health and safety. In particular, the CFIA is responsible for protecting consumers from misrepresentation and fraud with respect to food labelling, packaging and advertising, and for prescribing basic food labelling and advertising requirements. With respect to genetically modified foods, as with all foods, Health Canada's role is to identify the information required on the label of that food to ensure its safe use.
Special labelling is required if changes occurred in the food that the consumer needs to be informed of for health and safety reasons, such as major compositional or nutritional changes. Health Canada would determine what type of information is needed on the label to inform Canadians about these changes in the food. In principle, food products derived from genetic modification that are demonstrated to be safe and nutritious, are treated the same as non-genetically modified foods with regard to labelling requirements. In cases where a product has been intentionally modified, special labelling is required to inform consumers of the change to the product.
For example, oil derived from high oleic soybean lines must be listed in food ingredient lists by the common name "high oleic soybean oil", to distinguish it from regular soybean oil. The current federal position on labelling foods derived from genetic modification was developed based upon the outcomes of three public consultations which started in The public consultation process considered the views of a wide range of stakeholders including industry and industry associations, consumer groups and the federal and provincial governments. In Canada it is not mandatory to identify the method of production, including genetic modification, that was used to develop a food product.
Nevertheless, voluntary method of production labelling is permitted, provided it is truthful and not misleading. To facilitate the use of such voluntary labelling, the Canadian government supported the development of a national standard for the voluntary labelling of foods derived through biotechnology.
This initiative was launched in November with participation from consumer groups, food companies, producers, environmental groups, general interest groups and government. The voluntary labelling standard is not intended to address health and safety concerns as these are already addressed by the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations. Health Canada's involvement in the development of the standard was to provide technical information and guidance regarding the Department's role in the regulation of genetically modified foods in Canada and to minimize potential inconsistency between the standard and the Food and Drugs Act.
The standard was published as a National Standard of Canada in April The federal policy on labelling foods derived from biotechnology remains under discussion with Canadians and international standards organizations such as Codex Alimentarius. As with all foods, including foods derived through genetic modification, Health Canada requires special labelling to address health and safety issues which might be mitigated through labelling such as identifying the presence of an allergen.
Labelling is also required to identify compositional or nutritional changes. In these situations, labelling is required to alert consumers or susceptible groups in the population at large. At the request of the Minister of Health, along with the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Industry and International Trade, the Standing Committee on Health initiated a study on the best options for meeting consumer information needs with respect to genetically modified foods in January The study resumed in March with participation from Health Canada.
In May , the Committee agreed not to pursue the subject further after hearing an update from the chair of the Canadian General Standards Board Committee on the development of a voluntary standard for the labelling of genetically modified foods. This voluntary standard was adopted as a National Standard of Canada in April The Committee held four public hearings between January and April , and heard close to twenty groups representing the various components of the agriculture and agri-food industry.
Its study entitled " Labelling of genetically modified foods and its impact on farmers " was completed in June The government response to this report was tabled in the House of Commons on October 31, In its report, CBAC recommended the development of a voluntary standard for the labelling of genetically modified foods for reasons other than health and safety. It also recommended that the standard be widely publicized and reviewed five years after its implementation for adequacy and effectiveness, at which time other options may be considered.
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